Army Pamphlet 27-1: Treaties Governing Land Warfare

Army Pamphlet: FM 27-10 THE LAW OF LAND WARFARE, December 1956 version.

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DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY PAMPHLET.27-1

TREATIES GOVERNING
LAND WARFARE

DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY .DECEMBER 1956
DODD0A-012042
FOREWORD
This pamphlet is intended to serve as a supplement to FM 27-10, The Law of Land Warfare, 18 July 1956. The principal international conventions referred to therein are here given in the full English text. It should be noted, however, that the only official text of the Hague Conventions of 18 October 1907 is the French text which must be consulted and accepted as controlling in the event of a dispute as to the meaning of any provision of these particular conventions. *
The Geneva Conventions for the Protection of War Victims of 12 August 1949 have been ratified by the United States and came into force for this country on 2 February 1956. The effect of these four conventions upon previous treaties to which. the United States is a party is discussed in detail in paragraph 5, FM 27-10. Each of the earlier Geneva Conventions of 1864, 1906, and 1929 and each of the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 will, of course, continue in force as between the United States and such of the ether parties to the respective conventions as have not ratified or adhered to the respec­tive superseding convention(s) governing the same subject matter. Moreover, the United States has adopted the policy of observing and enforcing the terms of the 1929 Geneva Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War and the 1907 Hague Conventions, both of which have been held declaratory of the customary law of war to which all States are subject, in so far as such Conventions are not superseded by the 1949 Geneva Conventions which necessarily govern the relations between the parties to the latter. (See pars. 6 and 7,
FM 27-10.)
As the essential provisions of the earlier Geneva Conventions and Hague Conventions mentioned above have been substantially incor­porated into the more recent and more comprehensive conventions on the same subject matter, observance of the later conventions will usually include observance of the former. For this reason, only the more recent 1949 Geneva Conventions and those Hague Conventions relating to land warfare which have not been entirely superseded have been reproduced in this pamphlet.
Pertinent information concerning the current status of ratifications, adherences, reservations, and denunciations (withdrawals) will be transmitted by higher authority to commanders in the field as oc­casions arise, thus rendering unnecessary the inclusion of such data in this pamphlet and avoiding the frequent changes that such inclusion would entail.
'See United States Treaties Series Nos. 538-543.
DODDOA-012043

• Pam 27-1
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
PAMPHLET} WASHINGTON 25, D. C., 7 December 1956
No. 27-1

TREATIES GOVERNING LAND WARFARE
PAP CHAPTER 1. Hague Convention No. III Relative to the Opening of Hostilities, 18 October 1907 .2
2.
Hague Convention No. IV Respecting the Laws and Cus­toms of War on Land and Annex Thereto Embodying Regulations Respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land, 18 October 1907 .

3.
Hague Convention No. V Respecting the Rights and Duties of Neutral Powers and Persons in Case of War on Land, 18 October 1907 .18

4.
Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field, 12 August 1949 . 24

5.
Geneva Convention for Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea, 12 August 1949 .48

6.
Geneva Convention Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War, 12 August 1949 .67

7.
Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection of Civilian

Persons in Time of War, 12 August 1949 .135 APPENDIX A. Forms of Passport, Safe Conduct, and Safeguard.195
B. Agreement between the Commander-in-Chief, United Nations Command, on the One Hand, and the Supreme Commander of the Korean People's Army and the Com­mander of the Chines People's Volunteers, on the Other Hand, Concerning a Military Armistice in Korea, 27 July 1953 .197
C. Armistice Agreement between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States of America on the One Hand and Hungary on the Other, 20 January 1945 224
D. Unconditional Surrender of German Forces at Rheims, 8 May 1945 . 232
E. Instrument of Local Surrender of German and Other Forces Under the Command or Control of the German Com­mander-in-Chief Southwest, 29 April 1945 .233
INDEX 247
• This pamphlet supersedes TM 27-251, 7 January 1944, including C 1, 17 April 1944, and C 2, 15 January 1945; and DA Pamphlet 20-150, 11 October 1950.
1
DOEM0A-012044
Chapter 1 Hague Convention No. III Relative to the Opening of Hostilities 18 October 1907
(36 Stat. 2259; Treaty Series No. 538; Malloy, Treaties, Vol. II,
p. 2259)
[Here follows the list of Sovereigns and Heads of State who sent Plenipotentiaries to the Conference.]
Considering that it is important, in order to ensure the maintenance of pacific relations, that hostilities should not commence without previous warning;
That it is equally important that the existence of a state of war should be notified without delay to neutral Powers; Being desirous of concluding a Convention to this effect, have appointed the following as their Plenipotentiaries:
[Here follow the names of the Plenipotentiaries.]
Who, after depositing their full powers, found in good and due form, have agreed upon the following provisions:
ARTICLE 1. The Contracting Powers recognize that hostilities between them­selves must not commence without previous and explicit warning, in the form either of a reasoned declaration of war or of an ultimatum with conditional declaration of war.
ARTICLE 2.
The existence of a state of war must be notified to the neutral Powers without delay, and shall not take effect in regard to them until after the receipt of a notification, which may, however, be given by telegraph. Neutral Powers, nevertheless, cannot rely on the absence
of notification if it is clearly established that they were in fact aware of the existence of a state of war.
ARTICLE 3. Article 1 of the present Convention shall take effect in case of war between two or more of the Contracting Powers. Article 2 is binding as between a belligerent Power which is a party to the Convention and neutral Powers which are also parties to the Convention. 2
DODDOA-012045

ARTICLE 4.
The present Convention shall be ratified as soon as -possible.
The ratifications shall be deposited at The Hague.
The first deposit of ratifications shall be recorded in a prods-verbal signed by the Representatives of the Powers which take part therein and by the Netherland Minister for Foreign Affairs.
The subsequent deposits of ratifications shall be made by means of a written notification addressed to the Netherland Government and accompanied by the instrument of ratification.
A duly certified copy of the proas-verbal relative to the first deposit of ratifications, of the notifications mentioned in the preceding para­graph, as well as of the instruments of ratification, shall be et once sent by the Netherland Government through the diplomatic channel to the Powers invited to the Second Peace Conference, as well as to the other Powers which have adhered to the Convention. In the cases contemplated in the preceding paragraph, the said Government shall at the same time inform them of the date on which it received the notification.
ARTICLE 5.
Non-Signatory Powers may adhere to the present Convention.
The Power which wishes to adhere notifies in writing its intention to the Netherland Government, forwarding to it the act of adhesion, which shall be deposited in the archives of the said Government.
The said Government shall at once forward to all the other Powers a duly certified copy of the notification as well as of the act of adhesion, stating the date on which it received the notification.
ARTICLE 6.
The present Convention shall come into force, in the case of the Powers which were a party to the first deposit of ratifications, sixty days after the date of the prods-verbal of that deposit, and, in the case of the Powers which ratify subsequently or which adhere, sixty days after the notification of their ratification or of their adhesion has been received by the Netherland Government.
ARTICLE 7.
In the event of one of the High Contracting Parties wishing to denounce the present Convention, the denunciation shall be notified in writing to the Netherland Government, which shall at once com­municate a duly certified copy of the notification to all the other Powers, informing them of the date on which it was received.
The denunciation shall only have effect in regard to the notifying Power, and one year after the notification has reached the Netherland Government.
3.
DODDOA-012046
ARTICLE 8.
.A register kept by the Netherland Ministry for Foreign Affairs shall give the date of the deposit of ratifications made in virtue of Article 4, paragraphs 3 and 4, as well as the date on which the notifications of adhesion (Article 5, paragraph 2) or of denunciation (Article 7, paragraph 1) have been received.
Each Contracting Power is entitled to have access to this register and to be supplied with duly certified extracts from it. In faith of which the Plenipotentiaries have appended their signa­tures to the present Convention.
Done at The Hague, the 18th October, 1907, in a single original, which shall remain deposited in the archives of the Netherland Gov­ernment, and duly certified copies of which shall be sent, through the diplomatic channel to the Powers which have been invited to the Second Peace Conference.
[Here follow signatures.]
DODDOA-012047

Chapter 2
Hague Convention No. IV
Respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land

18 October 1907
(36 Stat. 2277; Treaty Series No. 539; Malloy Treaties, Vol. II,
p. 2269)
[Here follows the list of Sovereigns and Heads of State who sent Plenipotentiaries to the Conference.]
Considering that, while seeking means to preserve peace and prevent armed conflicts between nations, it is likewise necessary to bear in mind the case where an appeal to arms may be brought about by events which their solicitude could not avert;
Animated by the desire to serve, even in this extreme case, the interests of humanity and the ever progressive needs of civilization;
Thinking it important,. with this: object, to revise the general laws and customs of war, either with a view to defining them with greater precision or to confining them within such limits as would mitigate their severity as far as possible;
Have deemed it necessary to complete and render more precise in certain particulars the work of the First Peace Conference, which, following on the Brussels Conference of 1874, and inspired by the ideas dictated by a wise and generous forethought, adopted provisions intended to define and govern the usages of war on land.
According to the views of the High Contracting Parties, these provisions, the wording of which has been inspired by the desire to diminish the evils of war, so far as military requirements permit, are intended to serve as a general rule of conduct for the belligerents in their mutual relations and in their relations with the inhabitants.
It has not, however, been found possible at present to concert Regulations covering all the circumstances which arise in practice;
On the other hand, the High Contracting Parties clearly do not intend that unforeseen cases should, in the absence of a written undertaking, be left to the arbitrary judgment of military com­manders.
Until a more complete code of the laws of war has been issued, the High Contracting Parties deem it expedient to declare that, in cases not included in the Regulations adopted by them, the inhabitants and the belligerents remain under the protection and the rule of the prin-Ciples of the law of nations, as they result from the usages established
5
DODDOA-012048
among civilized peoples, from the laws of humanity, and from the dictates of the public conscience. They declare that it is in this sense especially that Articles 1 and 2 of the Regulations adopted must be understood.
The High Contracting Parties, wishing to conclude a fresh Conven­tion to this effect,. have appointed the following as their Plenipoten­tiaries:
[Here follow the names of the Plenipotentiaries] Who, after having deposited their full powers, found in good and due form, have agreed upon the following:.,
ARTICLE 1.
The Contracting Powers shall issue instructions to their armed land forces which shall be in conformity with the Regulations respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land, annexed to the present Convention.
ARTICLE 2.
The provisions contained in the Regulations referred to in Article 1, as well as in the present Convention, do not apply except between Contracting Powers, and then only if all the belligerents are parties to the Convention.
ARTICLE 3.
A belligerent party which violates the provisions of the said Regulai tions shall, if the case demands, be liable to pay compensation. It shall be responsible for all acts committed by persons forming part of its armed forces.
ARTICLE 4.
The present Convention, duly ratified, shall replace as between the Contracting Powers, the Convention of the 29th July, 1899, respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land.
The Convention of 1899 remains in force as between the Powers which signed it, and which do not also ratify the present Convention.
ARTICLE 5.
The present Convention shall be ratified.as soon as possible.
The ratifications shall be deposited at The Hague.
The first deposit of ratifications shall be recorded in a procas-verbalsigned by the Representatives of the Powers which take part therein and by the Netherland Minister for Foreign Affairs.
The subsequent deposits of ratifications shall be made by means of a written notification, addressed to the Netherland Government and accompanied by the instrument of ratification.
A duly certified copy of the proces-verbal relative to the first deposit
6
DODDOA-012049
of ratifications, of the notifications mentioned in the preceding para­graph, as well as of the instruments of ratification, shall be immediately sent by the Netherland Government, through the diplomatic channel, to the Powers invited to the Second Peace Conference, as well as to the other Powers which have adhered to the Convention. In the cases contemplated in the preceding paragraph the said Government shall at the same time inform them of the date on which it received the notification.
ARTICLE 6.
Non-Signatory Powers may adhere to the present Convention.
The Power which desires to adhere notifies in writing its intention to the Netherland Government, forwarding to it the act of adhesion, which shall be deposited in the archives of the said Government.
This Government shall at once transmit to all the other Powers a
duly certified copy of the notification as well as of the act of adhesion,
mentioning the date on which it received the notification.
ARTICLE 7.
The present Convention shall come into force, in the case of the Powers which were parties to the first' deposit of ratifications, sixty days after the date of the proces-verbal of this deposit, and, in the case of the Powers which ratify subsequently or which adhere, 'sixty days after the notification of their ratification or of their adhesion has been received by the Netherland Government.
ARTICLE 8.
In the event of one of the Contracting Powers wishing to denounce the present Convention, the denunciation shall be notified in irritikig to the Netherland Government, which shall at once communicate a duly certified copy of the notification to all the other Powers, inform­ing them of the date on which it was received.
The denunciation shall only have effect in regard to the notifying power, and one year after the notification has reached the Netherland Government.
ARTICLE 9.
A register kept by the Netherland Ministry for Foreign Affairs shall give the date of the deposit of ratifications made in virtue of Article 5, paragraphs 3 and 4, as well as the date on which the notifications of adhesion (Article 6, paragraph 2) or of denunciation (Article 8, para­graph 1) were received.
Each Contracting Power is entitled to have access to this register and to be supplied with duly certified extracts.
In faith of which the Plenipotentiaries have appended their signa­tures to the present Convention.
7.
DODD0A-012050
Done at The Hague, the 18th October, 1907, in a single original, which shall remain deposited in the archives of the Netherland Gov­ernment, and duly certified copies of which shall be sent, through the diplomatic channel, to the Powers which have been invited to the Second Peace Conference.
[Here follow signatures.]
ANNEX TO THE CONVENTION.
REGULATIONS RESPECTING THE LAWS AND CUSTOMS OF WAR ON LAND
SECTION I. ON BELLIGERENTS.
CHAPTER I. The Qualifications of Belligerents.*
ARTICLE 1.
The laws, rights, and duties of war apply not only to armies, but also to militia and volunteer corps fulfilling the following conditions:
1.
To be commanded by a person responsible for his subordinates;

2.
To have a fixed distinctive emblem recognizable at a distance;

3.
To carry arms openly; and

4.
To conduct their operations in accordance with the laws and customs of war.

In countries where militia or volunteer corps constitute the army, or form part of it, they are included under the denomination "army."
ARTICLE 2.
The inhabitants of a territory which has not been occupied, who, on the approach of the enemy, spontaneously take up arms to resist the invading troops without having had time to organize themselves in accordance with Article 1, shall be regarded as belligerents if they carry arms openly and if they respect the laws and customs of war.
ARTICLE 3.
The armed forces of the belligerent parties may consist of combat­ants and noncombatants. In the case of capture by the enemy, both have a right to be treated as prisoners of war.
CHAPTER II. Prisoners of War.*
ARTICLE 4.
Prisoners of war are in the power of the hostile Government, but not of the individuals or corps who capture them. They must be humanely treated.
•Por the most recent provisions relating to prisoners of war, 86e Geneva Convention Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War of 12 August 1946 (ch. 6, isirs.)
8.
DODDOA-012051
All their personal belongings, except arms, horses, and military papers, remain their property.
ARTICLE 5.
Prisoners of war may be interned in a town, fortress, camp, or other place, under obligation not to go beyond certain fixed limits; but they can only be placed in confinement as an indispensable measure of safety and only while the circumstances which necessitate the measure continue to exist.
ARTICLE 6.
The State may utilize the labour of prisoners of war according to their rank and aptitude, officers excepted. The tasks shall not be excessive and shall have no connection with the operations of the war.
Prisoners may be authorized to work for the public service, for private persons, or on their own account.
Work done for the State is paid at the rates in force for work of a similar kind done by soldiers of the national army, or, if there are none in force, at a rate according to the work executed.
When the work is for other branches of the public service or for private persons the conditions are settled in agreement with the mili­tary authorities.
The wages of the prisoners shall go towards improving their posi­tion, and the balance shall be paid them at the time of their release, after deducting the cost of their maintenance.
ARTICLE 7.
The Government into whose hands prisoners of war have fallen ischarged with their maintenance.
In the absence of a special agreement between the belligerents, prisoners of war shall be treated as regards food, quarters, and clothing on the same footing as the troops of the Government who captured them.
ARTICLE 8.
Prisoners of war shall be subject to the laws, regulations, and orders in force in the army of the State in whose power they are. Any act of insubordination justifies the adoption towards them. of such measures of severity as may be considered necessary.
Escaped prisoners who are retaken before being able to rejoin their own army or before leaving the territory occupied by the army Which captured them are liable to disciplinary punishment.
Prisoners who, after succeeding in escaping, are again taken-ifris­oners, are not liable to any punishment on account of the previous
flight. .
9 DODDOA-012052
ARTICLE 9.
Every prisoner of war is bound to give, if he is questioned on the subject, his true name and rank, and if he infringes this rule, he is liable to have a curtailment of the advantages accorded to prisoners of his class.
ARTICLE 10.
Prisoners of war may be set at liberty on parole-if the laws of their country allow, and, in such cases, they are bound, on their personal honour, scrupulously to fulfil, both towards their own Government and the Government by whom they were made prisoners, the engage­ments they have contracted.
In such cases their own Government is bound neither to require of nor accept from them any service incompatible with the parole given.
ARTICLE 11.
A prisoner of war can not be compelled to accept his liberty on parole; similarly the hostile Government is not obliged to accede to • the request of the prisoner to be set at liberty on parole.
ARTICLE 12.
Prisoners of war liberated on parole and recaptured bearing arms against the Government to whom they had pledged their honour, or against the allies of that Government, forfeit their right to be treated as prisoners of war, and can be brought before the Courts.
ARTICLE 13.
Individuals who follow an army without directly belonging to it, such as newspaper correspondents and reporters, sutlers and contrac­tors, who fall into the enemy's hands and whom the latter thinks fit to detain, are entitled to be treated as prisoners of war, provided they are in possession of a certificate from the military authorities of the army which they were accompanying.
ARTICLE 14
An information bureau for prisoners of war is instituted on the commencement of hostilities in each of the belligerent States, and, when necessary, in neutral countries which have received belligerents in their territory. The function of this bureau is to reply to all in­quiries about the prisoners, to receive from the various services concerned all the information respecting internments and transfers, releases on parole, exchanges, escapes, admissions into hospital, deaths, as well as other information necessary to enable it to make out and keep up to date an individual return for each prisoner of war. The bureau must state in this return the regimental number, name

10 DODDOA-012053
and surname, age, place of origin, rank, unit, wounds, date and place of capture, internment, wounding, and death, as well as any observa­tions of a special character. The individual return shall be sent to the Government of the other belligerent after the conclusion of peace.
It is likewise the function of the information bureau to receive and collect all objects of personal use, valuables, letters, etc., found on the field of battle or left by prisoners who have been released on parole, or exchanged, or who have escaped, or died in hospitals or ambulances, and to forward them to those concerned.
ARTICLE 15.
Relief societies for prisoners of war, which are properly constituted in accordance with the laws of their country and with the object of serving as the channel for charitable effort shall receive from the belligerents, for themselves and their duly accredited agents every facility for the efficient performance of their humane task within the bounds imposed by military necessities and administrative regula­tions. Agents of these societies may be admitted to the places of internment for the purpose of distributing relief, as also to the halting places of repatriated prisoners, if furnished with a personal permit by the military authorities, and on giving an undertaking in writing to comply with all measures of order and police which the latter may issue.
ARTICLE 16.
Information bureaus enjoy the privilege of free postage. Letters, money orders, and valuables, as well as parcels by post, intended for prisoners of war, or dispatched by them, shall be exempt from all postal duties in the countries of origin and destination, as well as in the countries they pass through.
Presents and relief in kind for prisoners of war shall be admitted free of all import or other duties, as well as of payments for carriage by the State railways.
ARTICLE 17.
Officers taken prisoners shall receive the same rate of pay as officers of corresponding rank in the country where they are detained, the amount to be ultimately refunded by their own Government.
ARTICLE 18.
Prisoners of war shall enjoy complete liberty in the exercise of their religion, including attendance at the services of whatever Churchthey may belong to, on the sole condition that they comply with the measures of order and police issued by the military authorities.
11
DODDOA-012054
ARTICLE -19.
The wills of prisoners of war are received or drawn up in the same way as for soldiers of the national army.
The same rules shall be observed regarding death certificates as well as for the burial of prisoners of war, due regard being paid to their grade and rank.
ARTICLE 20.
After the conclusion of peace, the repatriation of prisoners of war shall be carried out as quickly as possible.
CHAPTER III. The Sick and Wounded.
ARTICLE 21.
The obligations of belligerents with regard to the sick and wounded are governed by the Geneva Convention.*
SECTION II. HOSTILITIES.
CHAPTER I. Means of Injuring the Enemy, Sieges, and
Bombardments.

ARTICLE 22.
The right Of belligerents to adopt means of injuring the enemy is net unlimited.
ARTICLE 23.
In addition to the prohibitions provided by special Conventions, it is especially forbidden—
a.
To employ poison or poisoned weapons;

b.
To kill or wound treacherously individuals belonging to the hostile nation or army.

c.
To kill or wound an enemy who, having laid down his arms, or having no longer means of defence, has surrendered at discretion;

d.
To declare that no quarter will be given;

e.
To employ arms, projectiles, or material calculated to cause unnecessary suffering;

f.
To make improper use of a flag of truce, of the national flag, or of the military insignia and uniform of the enemy, as well as the dis­tinctive badges of the Geneva Convention;

g.
To destroy or seize the enemy's property, unless such destruction or seizure be imperatively demanded by the necessities of war;

h.
To declare abolished, suspended, or inadmissible in a Court of law the rights and actions of the nationals of the hostile party.

•Por the most recent provisions relating to the treatment of sick and wounded, see the Geneva Con­vention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wocmded and Sick in Armed Foroes in the Field and the Geneva Convention for Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded, Sick and ShipwreckedMembers of Armed Forces at Sea, 12 August 1W9 (ch. 4 and 5, infra).
12 DODDOA-012055
A belligerent is likewise forbidden to compel the nationals of the hostile party to take part in the operations of war directed against their own country, even if they were in the belligerent's service before the commencement of the war.
ARTICLE 24.
Ruses of war and the employment of measures necessary for obtaining information about the enemy and the country are considered permissible.
ARTICLE 25.
The attack or bombardment, by whatever means, of towns, villages, dwellings, or buildings which are undefended is prohibited.
ARTICLE 26.
The officer in command of an attacking force must, before com­mencing a bombardment, except in cases of assault, do all in his power to warn the authorities.
ARTICLE 27.
In sieges and bombardments all necessary measures must be taken to spare, as far as possible, buildings dedicated to religion, art, science, or charitable purposes, historic monuments, hospitals, and places where the sick and wounded are collected, provided they are not being used at the time for military purposes.
It is the duty of the besieged to indicate the presence of such build­ings or places by distinctive and visible signs, which shall be notified to the enemy beforehand.
ARTICLE 28.
The pillage of a town or place, even when taken by assault, is prohibited. CHAPTER II. Spies.
ARTICLE 29.
A person can only be considered a spy when, acting clandestinely or on false pretences, he obtains or endeavours to obtain information in the zone of operations of a belligerent, with the intention of com­municating it to the hostile party.
Thus, soldiers not wearing a disguise who have penetrated into the zone of operations of the hostile army, for the purpose of obtaining information, are not considered spies. Similarly, the following are not considered spies: Soldiers and civilians, carrying out their mission openly, intrusted with the delivery of despatches intended either for their own army or for the enemy's army. To this class belong like-
.
13
DODDOA-012056
wise persons sent in balloons for the purpose of carrying despatches and, generally, of maintaining communications between the different parts of an army or a territory.
ARTICLE 30.
A spy taken in the act shall not be punished without previous trial.
ARTICLE 31.
A spy who, after rejoining the army to which he belongs, is subse­quently captured by the enemy, is treated as a prisoner of war, and
incurs no responsibility for his previous acts of espionage.

CHAPTER III. Parlementaires.
ARTICLE 32.
A person is regarded as a parlementaire who has been authorized by one of the belligerents to enter into communication with the other, and who advances bearing a white flag. He has a right to inviol­ability, as well as the trumpeter, bugler or drummer, the flag-bearer and interpreter who may accompany him.
ARTICLE 33.
The commander to whom a parlementaire is sent is not in all cases obliged to receive him. He may take all the necessary steps to prevent the parlementaire taking advantage of his mission to obtain information. In case of abuse, he has the right to detain the parlementaire temporarily.
ARTICLE 34.
The parlementaire loses his rights of inviolability if it is proved in a clear and incontestable manner that he has taken advantage of his privileged position to provoke or commit an act of treachery.
CHAPTER IV. Capitulations.
ARTICLE 35.
Capitulations agreed upon between the contracting parties must take into account the rules of military honour. Once settled, they must be scrupulously observed by both parties.
CHAPTER V. Armistices.
ARTICLE 36.
An armistiee—suspends military operations by mutual agreement between the belligerent parties. If its duration is not defined, the
14
DODDOA-012057
belligerent parties may resume operations at any time, provided
always that the enemy is warned within the time agreed upon, in
accordance with the terms of the armistice.

ARTICLE 37.
An armistice may be general or local. The first suspends the
military operations of the belligerent States everywhere; the second
only between certain fractions of the belligerent armies and within a
fixed radius

.
ARTICLE 38.
An armistice must be notified officially and in good time to the com­petent authorities and to the troops. Hostilities are suspended
immediately after the notification, or on the date fixed.

ARTICLE 39.
It rests with the contracting parties to settle, in the terms of the
armistice, what communications may be held in the theatre of war
with the inhabitants and between the inhabitants of one belligerent
State and those of the other.

ARTICLE 40.
Any serious violation of the armistice by one of the parties gives the other party the right of denouncing it, and even, in cases of urgency, of recommencing hostilities immediately.
ARTICLE 41.
A violation of the terms of the armistice by private persons acting on their own initiative only entitles the injured party to demand the punishment of the offenders or, if necessary; compensation for the losses sustained.
SECTION III. MILITARY AUTHORITY OVER THE TERRITORY OF THE
HOSTILE STATE.
ARTICLE 42.
Territory is considered occupied when it is actually placed under the authority of the hostile army. The occupation extends only to the territory where such authority has been established and can be exercised.
ARTICLE 43.
The authority of the legitimate power having in fact passed into the hands of the occupant, the latter shall take all the measures in
15 DODD0A-012058
his power to restore, and ensure, as far as possible, public order and safety, while respecting, unless absolutely prevented, the laws in force in the country.
ARTICLE 44.
A belligerent is forbidden to force the inhabitants of occupied .territory to furnish information about the army of the other bellig­erent, or about its means of defence.
ARTICLE 45.
It is forbidden to compel the inhabitants of occupied territory to swear allegiance to the hostile Power.
ARTICLE 46.
Family honour and rights, the lives of persons, and private prop­erty, as well as religious convictions and practice, must be respected. Private property cannot be confiscated.
ARTICLE 47.
Pillage is formally forbidden.
ARTICLE 48.
If, in the territory occupied, the occupant collects the taxes, dues, and tolls imposed for the benefit of the State, he shall do so, as far as is possible in accordance with the rules of assessment and incidence in force, and shall in consequence be bound to defray the expenses of the administration of the occupied territory to the same extent as the legitimate Government was so bound.
ARTICLE 49.
If, in addition to the taxes mentioned in the above Article, the occupant levies other money contributions in the occupied territory, this shale only be for the needs of the army or of the administration of the territory in question.
ARTICLE 50.
No general penalty, pecuniary or otherwise, shall be inflicted upon the population on account of the acts of individuals for which they cannot be regarded as jointly and severally responsible.
ARTICLE 51.
No contribution shall be collected except under a written order, and on the responsibility of a Commander-in-chief.
The collection of the said contribution shall only be effected as far as possible in accordance with the rules of assessment and incidence of the taxes in force.
16 DODDOA-012059
For every contribution a receipt shall be given to the contributors.
ARTICLE 52.
Requisitions in kind and services shall not be demanded from muni­cipalities or inhabitants except for the needs of the army of occupation. They shall be in proportion to the resources of the country, and of such a nature as not to involve the population in the obligation of taking part in operations of the war against their country.
Such requisitions and services shall only be demanded on the author­ity of the commander in the locality occupied.
Contributions in kind shall as far as possible be paid for in cash; if not, a receipt shall be given and the payment of the amount due shall be made as soon as possible.
ARTICLE 53.
An army of occupation can only take possession of cash, funds, and realizable securities which are strictly the property of the State, depots of arms, means of transport, stores and supplies, and, generally, all movable property belonging to the State which may be used for opera­tions of the war.
All appliances, whether on land, at sea, or in the air, adapted for the transmission of news, or for the transport of persons or things, ex­clusive of cases governed by naval law, dep6ts of arms, and, generally, all kinds of ammunition of war, may be seized, even if they belong to private individuals, but must be restored and compensation fixed when peace is made.
ARTICLE 54.
Submarine cables connecting an occupied territory with a neutral territory shall not be seized or destroyed except in the case of absolute necessity. They must likewise be restored and compensation fixed when peace is made.
ARTICLE 55.
The occupying State shall be regarded only as administrator and usufructuary of public buildings, real estate, forests, and agricultural estates belonging to the hostile State, and situated in the occupied country. It must safeguard the capital of these properties, and ad­minister them in accordance with the rules of usufruct.
ARTICLE 56.
The property of municipalities, that of institutions dedicated to religion, charity and education, the arts and sciences, even when State property, shall be treated as private property.
All seizure or destruction of, or wilful damage to, institutions of this character, historic monuments, works of art and science, is forbidden, and should be made the subject of legal proceedings.
17. DODD0A-012060
Chapter 3
Hague Convention No. V

Respecting the Rights and Duties of Neutral Powers and Persons in Case of War on Land
18 October 1907
(36 Stat. 2310; Treaty Series No. 540; Malloy, Treaties,Vol. II,
p. 2290) [Here follows the list of Sovereigns and Heads of State who sent Plenipotentiaries to the Conference.] With a view to laying down more clearly the rights and duties of neutral Powers in case of war on land and regulating the position of the belligerents who have taken refuge in neutral territory; Being likewise desirous of defining the meaning of the term "neu­tral", pending the possibility of settling, in its entirety, the position of neutral individuals in their relations with the belligerents; Have resolved to conclude a Convention to this effect, and have, in consequence, appointed the following as their Plenipotentiaries: [Here follow the names of Plenipotentiaries.]
Who, after having deposited their full powers, found in good and due form, have agreed upon the following provisions:
CHAPTER I. The Rights and Duties of Neutral Powers.
ARTICLE 1.
The territory of neutral Powers is inviolable.
ARTICLE 2.
Belligerents are forbidden to move troops or convoys of either munitions of war or supplies across the territory of a neutral Power.
ARTICLE 3.
Belligerents are likewise forbidden:
a.
To erect on the territory of a neutral Power a wireless telegraphy station or any apparatus for the purpose of communicating with belligerent forces on land or sea;

b.
To use any installation of this kind established by them before the war on the territory of a neutral Power for purely military pur­poses, and which has not been opened for the service of public messages.

18
DODDOA-012061

ARTICLE 4.
Corps of combatants cannot be formed nor recruiting agencies opened on the territory of a neutral Power to assist the belligerents.
ARTICLE 5.
A neutral Power must not allow any of the acts referred to in Articles 2 to 4 to occur on its territory. It is not called upon to punish acts in violation of its neutrality unless the said acts have been committed on its own territory.
ARTICLE 6.
The responsibility of a neutral Power is not engaged by the fact of persons crossing the frontier separately to offer their services to one of the belligerents.
ARTICLE 7.
A neutral Power is not called upon to prevent the export or trans­port, on behalf of one or other of the belligerents, of arms, munitions of war, or, in general, of anything which can be of use to an army or a fleet.
ARTICLE 8.
A neutral Power is not called upon to forbid or restrict the use on behalf of the belligerents of telegraph or telephone cables or of wireless telegraphy apparatus belonging to it or to Companies or private individuals.
ARTICLE 9.
Every measure of restriction or prohibition taken by a neutral Power in regard to the matters referred to in Articles 7 and 8 must be impartially applied by it to both belligerents.
A neutral Power must see to the same obligation being observed by Companies or private individuals owning telegraph or telephone cables or wireless telegraphy apparatus.
ARTICLE 10.
The fact of a neutral Power resisting, even by force, attempts to violate its neutrality cannot be regarded as a hostile act.
CHAPTER II. Belligerents Interned and Wounded Tended in Neutral Territory.
ARTICLE 11.
A neutral Power which receives on its territory troops belonging to the belligerent armies shall intern them, as far as possible, at a'distance from the theatre of war.
19. DODDOA-012062
It may keep them in camps and even confine them in fortresses or in places set apart for this purpose. It shall decide whether officers can be left at liberty on giving their parole not to leave the neutral territory without permission.
ARTICLE 12.
In the absence of a special Convention, the neutral Power shall supply the interned with the food, clothing, and relief required by humanity.
At the conclusion of peace the expenses caused by the internment shall be made good.
ARTICLE 13.
A neutral Power which receives escaped prisoners of war shall leave them at liberty. If it allows them to remain in its territory it .may assign them a place of residence.
The same rule applies to prisoners of war brought by troops taking refuge in the territory of a neutral Power.
ARTICLE 14.
A neutral Power may authorize the passage over its territory of wounded or sick belonging to the belligerent armies, on condition that the trains bringing them shall carry neither personnel nor material of war. In such a case, the neutral Power is bound to take whatever measures of safety and control are necessary for the purpose.
The wounded or sick brought under these conditions into neutral
territory by one of the belligerents, and belonging to the hostile party,
must be guarded by the neutral Power so as to ensure their not taking
part again in the operations of the war. The same duty shall devolve
on the neutral State with regard to wounded or sick of the other
army who may be committed to its care.
ARTICLE 15.
The Geneva Convention applies to sick and wounded interned in
neutral territory.

CHAPTER III. Neutral Persons.
ARTICLE 16.
The nationals of a State which is not taking part in the war are con­sidered as neutrals.

ARTICLE 17.
A neutral cannot avail himself of his neutrality:

a. If he commits hostile acts against a belligerent.

b.
If he commits acts in favour of a belligerent, particularly if he voluntarily enlists in the ranks of the armed force of one of the parties.

20
DODD0A-012063
In such a case, the neutral shall not be more severely treated by the belligerent as against whom he has abandoned his neutrality than a national of the other belligerent State could be for the same act.
ARTICLE 18.
The following acts shall not be considered as committed in favour of one belligerent in the sense of Article 17, letter b:
a.
Supplies furnished or loans made to one of the belligerents, pro­vided that the person who furnishes the supplies or who makes the loans lives neither in the territory of the other party nor in the terri­tory occupied by him, and that the supplies do not come from these territories;

b.
Services rendered in matters of police or civil administration.

CHAPTER IV. Railway Material.
ARTICLE 19.
Railway material coming from the territory of neutral Powers, whether it be the property of the said Powers or of Companies or private persons, and recognizable as such, shall not be requisitioned or utilized by a belligerent except where and to the extent that it is abso­lutely necessary. It shall be sent back as soon as possible to the country of origin.
A neutral Power may likewise, in case of necessity, retain and utilize to an equal extent material coming from the territory of the belligerent Power.
Compensation shall be paid by one party or the other in proportion to the material used, and to the period of usage.
CHAPTER V. Final Provisions.
ARTICLE 20.
The provisions of the present Convention do not apply except between Contracting Powers, and then only if all the belligerents are parties to the Convention.
ARTICLE 21.
The present Convention shall be ratified as soon as possible.
Thi. ratifications shall be deposited at The Hague.
The first deposit of ratifications shall be recorded in a prods verbal

-
signed by the Representatives of the Powers which take part therein and by the Netherland Minister for Foreign Affairs.
The subsequent deposits of ratifications shall be made by means of a written notification, addressed to the Netherland Government and accompanied by the instrument of ratification.
21. DODDOA-012064
A duly certified copy of the protea-verbal relative to the first deposit of ratifications, of the notifications mentioned in the preceding para­graph, and of the instruments of ratification shall be immediately sent by the Netherland Government, through the diplomatic channel, to the Powers invited to the Second Peace Conference as well as to the other Powers which have adhered to the Convention. In the cases contemplated in the preceding paragraph, the said Government shall at the same time inform them of the date on which it received the notification.
ARTICLE 22.
Non-Signatory Powers may adhere to the present Convention.
The Power which desires to adhere notifies its intention in writing to the Netherland Government, forwarding to it the act of adhesion, which shall be deposited in the archives of the said Government.
This Government shall immediately forward to all the other Powers a duly certified copy of the notification as well as of the act of adhesion mentioning the date on which it received the notification.
ARTICLE 23.
The present Convention shall come into force, in the case of the Powers which were a party to the first deposit of ratifications, sixty days after the date of the procesverbal of this deposit, and, in the case
-
of the Powers which ratify subsequently or which adhere, sixty days
after the notification of their ratification or of their adhesion has been received by the Netherland Government.
ARTICLE 24.
In the event of one of the Contracting Powers wishing to denounce the present Convention, the denunciation shall be notified in writing to the Netherland Government, which shall immediately communicate a duly certified copy of the notification to all the other Powers, in­forming them at the same time of the date on which it was received.
The denunciation shall only have effect in regard to the notifying Power, and one year after the notification has reached the Netherland Government.
ARTICLE 25.
A register kept by the Netherland Ministry of Foreign Affairs shall give the date of the deposit of ratifications made in virtue of Article 21, paragraphs 3 and 4, as well as the date on which the notifica­tions of adhesion (Article 22, paragraph 2) or of denunciation (Arti­cle 24, paragraph 1) have been received.
Each Contracting Power is entitled to have access to this register and to be supplied with duly certified extracts from it.
22.
DODDOA-012065
In faith of which the Plenipotentiaries have appended their signa­tures to the present Convention.
Done at The Hague, the 18th October, 1907, in a single copy, which shall remain deposited in the archives of the Netherland Government, and duly certified copies of which shall be sent, through the diplomatic channel, to the Powers which have been invited to the Second Peace conference. ,
[Here follow signatures.]
DODDOA-012066

Chapter 4

Geneva Convention
for the Amelioration of the Condition
of the Wounded and Sick
in Armed Forces in the Field

12 August 1949
(Treaties and Other International Acts Series 3362)
The undersigned Plenipotentiaries of the Governments represented at the Diplomatic Conference held at Geneva from April 21 to August 12, 1949, for the purpose of revising the Geneva Convention for the Relief of the Wounded and Sick in Armies in the Field of July 27. 1929, have agreed as follows:
CHAPTER I. General Provisions.
ARTICLE 1.
The High Contracting Parties undertake to respect and to ensure respect for the present Convention in all circumstances.
ARTICLE 2.
In addition to the provisions which shall be implemented in peace­time, the present Convention shall apply to all cases of declared war or of any other armed conflict which may arise between two or more of the High Contracting Parties, even if the state of war is not recog­nized by one of them.
The Oonvention shall also apply to all cases of partial or total occupation of the territory of a High Contracting Party, even if the said occupation meets with no armed resistance.
Although one of the Powers in conflict may not be a party to the present Convention, the Powers who are parties thereto shall remain bound by it in their mutual relations. They shall furthermore be bound by the Convention in relation to the said Power, if the latter accepts and applies the provisions thereof.
ARTICLE 3.
In the case of armed conflict not of an international character occurring in the territory of one of the High Contracting Parties,
24
DODDOA-012067

each Party to the conflict shall be bound to apply, as a minimum, the following provisions:
(1) Persons taking no active part in the hostilities, including
members of armed forces who have laid down their arms
and those placed hors de combat by sickness, wounds; de­tention, or any other cause, shall in all circumstances be
treated humanely, without any adverse distinction founded
on race, colour, religion or faith, sex, birth or wealth, or
any other similar criteria.

To this end, the following acts are and shall remain pro­hibited at any time and in any place whatsoever with re­spect to the above-mentioned persons:
(a)
violence to life and person, in particular murder of all
kinds, mutilation, cruel treatment and torture;

(b)
taking of hostages;

(c)
outrages upon personal dignity, in particular humiliating
and degrading treatment;

(d)
the passing of sentences and the carrying out of executions
without previous judgment pronounced by a regularly
constituted court, affording all the judicial guarantees
which are recognized as indispensable by civilized peoples.

(2)
The wounded and sick shall be collected and cared for.

An impartial humanitarian body, such as the International Com­mittee of the Red Cross, may offer its services to the Parties to the conflict.
The Parties to the conflict should further endeavour to bring into force, by means of special agreements, all or part of the other pro­visions of the present Convention.
The application of the preceding provisions shall not affect the legal status of the Parties to the conflict.
ARTICLE 4.
Neutral Powers shall apply by analogy the provisions of the present Convention to the wounded and sick, and to members of the medical personnel and to chaplains of the armed forces of the Parties to the conflict, received or interned in their territory, as well as to dead persons found.
ARTICLE 5.
For the protected persons who have fallen into the hands of the enemy, the present Convention shall apply until their final repatria­tion.
ARTICLE 6.
In addition to the agreements expressly provided for in Articles 10, 15, 23, 28, 31, 36, 37 and 52, the High Contracting Parties may conclude other special agreement's for all matters concerning which
25.
DODD0A-012068
they may deem it suitable to make separate provision. No special agreement shall adversely affect the situation of the wounded and sick, of members of the medical personnel or of chaplains, as defined by the present Convention, nor restrict the rights which it confers upon them.
Wounded and sick, as well as medical personnel and chaplains, shall continue to have the benefit of such agreements as long as the Convention is applicable to them, except where express provisions to the contrary are contained in the aforesaid or in subsequent agree­ments, or where more favourable measures have been taken with regard to them by one or other of the Parties to the conflict.
ARTICLE 7.
Wounded and sick, as well members of the medical personnel and chaplains, may in no circumstances renounce in part or in entirety the rights secured to them by the present Convention, and by the special agreements referred to in the foregoing Article, if such there be.
ARTICLE 8.
The present Convention shall be applied with the cooperation and under the scrutiny of the Protecting Powers whose duty it is to safe­guard the interests of the Parties to the conflict. For this purpose, the Protecting Powers may appoint, apart from their diplomatic or con. sular staff, delegates from amongst their own nationals or the nationals of other neutral Powers. The said delegates shall be subject to the approval of the Power with which they are to carry out their duties.
The Parties to the conflict shall facilitate to the greatest extent possible, the task of the representatives or delegates of the Protecting Powers.
The representatives or delegates of the Protecting Powers shall not in any case exceed their mission under the present Convention. They shall, in particular, take account of the imperative necessities of security of the State wherein they carry out their duties. Their activities shall only be restricted as an exceptional and temporary measure when this is rendered necessary by imperative military necessities.
ARTICLE 9.
The provisions of the present Convention constitute no obstacle to the humanitarian activities which the International Committee of the Red Cross or any other impartial humanitarian organization may, subject to the consent of the Parties to the conflict concerned, under­take for the protection of wounded and sick, medical personnel andchaplains, and for their relief.
26
DODDOA-012069
ARTICLE 10. *
The High Contracting Parties may at any time agree to entrust to an organization which offers all guarantees of impartiality and efficacy the duties incumbent on the Protecting Powers by virtue of the present Convention.
When wounded and sick, or medical personnel and chaplains do not benefit or cease to benefit, no matter for what reason, by the activities of a Protecting Power or of an organization provided for in the first paragraph above, the Detaining Power shall request a neutral State, or such an organization, to undertake the functions performed under the present Convention by a Protecting Power designated by the Parties to a conflict.
If protection cannot be arranged accordingly, the Detaining Power shall request or shall accept, subject to the provisions of this Article, the offer of the services of a humanitarian organization, such as the International Comxnittee of the Red Cross, to assume the humanitarian functions performed by Protecting Powers under the present Con­vention.
Any neutral Power, or any organization invited by the Power con­cerned or offering itself for these purposes, shall be required to act with a sense of responsibility towards the Party to the conflict on which persons protected by the present Convention depend, and shall be required to furnish sufficient assurances that it is in a position to under­take the appropriate functions and to discharge them impartially.
No derogation from the preceding provisions shall be made by special agreements between Powers one of which is restricted, even temporarily, in its freedom to negotiate with the other Power or its allies by reason of military events, more particularly where the whole, or a substantial part, of the territory of the said Power is occupied.
Whenever, in the present Convention, mention is made of a Pro­tecting Power, such mention also applies to substitute organizations in the sense of the present Article.
ARTICLE 11.
In cases where they deem it advisable in the interest of protected persons, particularly in cases of disagreement between the Parties to the conflict as to the application or interpretation of the provisions of the present Convention, the Protecting Powers shall lend their goodoffices with a view to settling the disagreement.
For this purpose, each of the Protecting Powers may, either at the invitation of one Party or on its own initiative, propose to the Parties to the conflict a meeting of their representatives, in particular of the authorities responsible for the wounded and sick, members of medical personnel and chaplains, possibly on neutral territory suitably chosen. The Parties to the conflict shall be bound to give effect to the proposals
•In ratifying the present Convention, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and certain other govern­ments made specific reservations with respect to this Article.
27.
DODDOA-012070
madzto them for this purpose. The Protecting Powers may, if neces­sary, propose for approval by the Parties to the conflict, a person belonging to a neutral Power or delegated by the International Com­mittee of the Red Cross, who shall be invited to take part in such a meeting.
CHAPTER II. Wounded and Sick.
ARTICLE 12.
Members of the armed forces and other persons mentioned in the following Article, who are wounded or sick, shall be respected and protected in all circumstances.
They shall be treated humanely and cared for by the Party to the conflict in whose power they may be, without any adverse distinction founded on sex, race, nationality, religion, political opinions, or any other similar criteria. Any attempts upon their lives, or violence to their persons, shall be strictly prohibited; in particular, they shall not be murdered or exterminated, subjected to torture or to biological experiments; they shall not wilfully be left without medical assistance and care, nor shall conditions exposing them to contagion or infection be created.
Only urgent medical reasons will authorize priority in the order of treatment to be administered.
Women shall be treated with all consideration due to their sex.
The Party to the conflict which is compelled to abandon wounded or sick to the enemy shall, as far as military considerations permit, leave with them a part of its medical personnel and material to assist in their care.
ARTICLE 13.
The present Convention shall apply to the wounded and sick be­longing to the following categories:
(1)
Members of the armed forces of a Party to the conflict, as
well as members of militias or volunteer corps forming part
of such armed forces.

(2)
Members of other militias and members of other volunteer
corps, including those of organized resistance movements,
belonging to a Party to the conflict and operating in or
outside their own territory, even if this territory is occupied,
provided that such militias or volunteer corps, including
such organized resistance movements, fulfil the following
conditions:

(a)
that of being commanded by a person responsible for his subordinates;

(b)
that of having a fixed distinctive sign recognizable at a
distance;

(c)
that of carrying arms openly;

28
DODD0A-012071
(d)
that of conducting their operations in accordance with
the laws and customs of war.

(3)
Members of regular armed forces who profess allegiance to a
Government or an authority not recognized by the Detain­ing Power.

(4)
Persons who accompany the armed forces without actually
being members thereof, such as civil members of military
aircraft crews, war correspondents, supply contractors,
members of labour units or of services responsible for the
welfare of the armed forces, provided that they have received
authorization from the armed forces which they accompany.

(5)
Members of crews, including masters, pilots and apprentices,
of the merchant marine and the crews of civil aircraft of
the Parties to the conflict, who do not benefit by more
favourable treatment under any other provisions in inter­national law.

.
(6) Inhabitants of a non-occupied territory who, on the approach
of the enemy, spontaneously take up arms to resist the
invading forces, without having had time to form themselves
into regular armed units, provided they carry arms openly
and respect the laws and customs -of war.

ARTICLE 14.
Subject to the provisions of Article 12, the wounded and sick of a belligerent who fall into enemy hands shall be prisoners of war, and the provisions of international law concerning prisoners of war shall apply to them.
ARTICLE 15.
At all times, and particularly after an engagement, Parties to the conflict shall, without delay, take all possible measures to search for and collect the wounded and sick, to protect them against pillage and ill-treatment, to ensure their .adequate care, and to search for the dead and prevent their being despoiled.
Whenever circumstances permit, an armistice or a suspension of fire shall be arranged, or local arrangements made, to permit the removal, exchange and transport of the wounded left on the battlefield.
Likewise, local arrangements may be concluded between Parties to the conflict for the removal or exchange of wounded and sick from a besieged or encircled area, and for the passage of medical and religious personnel and equipment on their way to that area.
ARTICLE 16.
Parties to the conflict shall record as soon as possible, in respect of each wounded, sick or dead person of the adverse Party falling into their hands, any particulars which may assist in his identification.
29.
DODDOA-012072
These records should if possible include:
(a)
designation of the Power on which he depends;

(b)
army, regimental, personal or serial number;

(c)
surname;

(d)
first name or names;

• (e) date of birth;
(f)
any other particulars shown on his identity card or disc;

(g)
date and place of capture or death;

(h)
particulars concerning wounds or illness, or cause of death.

As soon as possible the above mentioned information shall be for­warded to the Information Bureau described in Article 122 of the Geneva Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War of August 12, 1949, which shall transmit this information to the Power on which these persons depend through the intermediary of the Protecting Power and of the Central Prisoners of War Agency.
Parties to the conflict shall prepare and forward to each other through the same bureau, certificates of death or duly authenticated lists of the dead. They shall likewise collect and forward through the same bureau one half a double identity disc, last wills or other documents of importance to the next of kin, money and in general all articles of an intrinsic or sentimental value, which are found on the dead. These articles, together with unidentified articles, shall be sent in sealed packets, accompanied by statements giving all particulars necessary for the identification of the deceased owners, as well as by a complete list of the contents of the parcel.
ARTICLE 17.
Parties to the conflict shall ensure that burial or cremation of the dead, carried out individually as far as circumstances permit, is preceded by a careful examination, if possible by a medical examina­tion, of the bodies, with a view to confirming death, establishing identity and enabling a report to be made. One half of the double identity disc, or the identity disc itself if it is a single disc, should remain on the body.
Bodies shall not be cremated except for imperative reasons of hy­giene or for motives based on the religion of the deceased. In case of cremation, the circumstances and reasons for cremation shall be stated in detail in the death certificate or on the authenticated list of the dead.
They shall further ensure that the dead are honourably interred, if possible according to the rites of the religion to which they belonged, that their graves are respected, grouped if possible according to the nationality of the deceased, properly maintained and marked so that they may always be found. For this purpose, they shall organize at the commencement of hostilities an Official Graves Registration Service, to allow subsequent exhumations and to ensure the identi-
30. DODDOA-012073
fication .of bodies, whatever the site of the graves, and the possible transportation to the home country. These provisions shall like­wise apply to the ashes, which shall be kept by the Graves Regis­tration Service until proper disposal thereof in accordance with the wishes of the home country.
As soon as circumstances permit, and at latest at the end of hos­tilities, these Services shall exchange, through the Information Bureau mentioned in the second paragraph of Article 16, lists showing the exact location and markings of the graves, together with particu­lars of the dead interred therein.
ARTICLE 18.
The military authorities may appeal to the charity of the inhabi­tants voluntarily to collect and care for, under their direction, the wounded and sick, granting persons who have responded to this appeal the necessary protection and facilities. Should the adverse Party take or retake control of the area, he shall likewise grant these persons the same protection and the same facilities.
The military authorities shall permit the inhabitants and relief societies, even in invaded or occupied areas, spontaneously to collect and care for wounded or sick of whatever nationality. The civilian population shall respect these wounded and sick, and in particular abstain from offering them violence.
No one may ever be molested or convicted for having nursed the wounded or sick.
The provisions of the present Article do not relieve the occupying
Power of its obligation to give both physical and moral care to the
wounded and sick.
CHAPTER III. Medical Units and Establishments.
ARTICLE 19.
Fixed establishments and mobile medical units of the Medical
Service may in no circumstances be attacked, but shall at all times
be respected and protected by the Parties to the conflict Should
they fall into the hands of the adverse Party, their personnel shall
be free to pursue their duties, as long as the capturing Power has not
itself ensured the necessary care of the wounded and sick found in
such establishments and units.
The responsible authorities shall ensure that the said medical
establishments and units are, as far as possible, situated in such a
manner that attacks against military objectives cannot imperil
their safety.
ARTICLE 20.
Hospital ships entitled to the protection of the Geneva Convention
for the Amelioration of the Condition of Wounded, Sick and Ship-

31
162-168 0 - 94 - 2 I
DODD0A-012074
wrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea of August 12, 1949, shall not be attacked from the land.
ARTICLE 21.
The protection to which fixed establishments and mobile medical units of the Medical Service are entitled shall not cease unless they are used to commit, outside their humanitarian duties, acts harmful to the enemy. Protection may, however, cease only after a due warning has been given, naming, in all appropriate cases, a reasonable time limit, and after such warning has remained unheeded.
ARTICLE 22.
The following conditions shall not be considered as depriving a medical unit or establishment of the protection guaranteed by Article 19:
(1)
That the personnel of the unit or establishment are armed, and that they use the arms in their own defence, or in that of the wounded and sick in their charge.

(2)
That in the absence of armed orderlies, the unit or establishment is protected by a picket or by sentries or by an escort.

(3)
That small arms and ammunition taken frem the wounded and sick and not yet handed to the proper service, are found in the unit or establishment.

(4)
That personnel and material of the veterinary service are found in the unit or establishment, without forming an integral part thereof.

(5)
That the humanitarian activities of medical units and establish­ments or of their personhel extend to the care of civilian wounded or sick.

ARTICLE 23.
In time of peace, the High Contracting Parties and, after the outbreak of hostilities, the Parties thereto, may establish in their own territory and, if the need arises, in occupied areas, hospital zones and localities so organized as to protect the wounded and sick from the effects of war, as well as the personnel entrusted with the organ­ization and administration of these zones and localities and with the care of the persons therein assembled.
Upon the outbreak and during the course of hostilities, the Parties concerned may conclude agreements on mutual recognition of the hospital zones and localities they have created. They may for this purpose implement the provisions of the Draft Agreement annexed to the present Convention, with such amendments as they may consider necessary.
The Protecting Powers and the International Committee of the Red Cross are invited to lend their good offices in order to facilitate the institution and recognition of these hospital zones and localities.
32
DODDOA-012075
CHAPTER IV. Personnel.
ARTICLE 24.
Medical personnel exclusively engaged in the search for, or the
collection, transport or treatment of the wounded or sick, or in the
prevention of disease, staff exclusively engaged in the administration
of medical units and establishments, as well as chaplains attached to
the armed forces, shall be respected and protected in all circumstances.

ARTICLE 25.
Members of the armed forces specially trained for employment, should the need arise, as hospital orderlies, nurses or auxiliary stretcher-bearers, in the search for or the collection, transport or treatment of the wounded and sick shall likewise be respected and protected if they are carrying out these duties at the time when they come into contact with the enemy or fall into his hands.
ARTICLE 26.
The staff of National Red Cross Societies and that of other Volun­
tary Aid Societies, duly recognized and authorized by their Govern­
ments, who may be employed on the same duties as the personnel
named in Article 24, are placed on the same footing as the personnel
named in the said Article, provided that the staff of such societies are
subject to military laws and regulations.
Each High Contracting Party shall notify to the other, either in time of peace, or at the commencement of or during hostilities, but in any case before actually employing them, the names of the societies which it has authorized, under its responsibility, to render assistance to the regular medical service of its armed forces.
ARTICLE 27.
A recognized Society of a neutral country can only lend the assist­ance of its medical personnel and units to a Party to the conflict with the previous consent of its own Government and the authorization of the Party to the conflict concerned. That personnel and those units shall be placed under the control of that Party to the conflict
The neutral Government shall notify this consent to the adversaryof the State which accepts such assistance. The Party to the con­flict who accepts such assistance is bound to•notify the adverse Partythereof before making any use of it.
In no circumstances shall this assistance be considered as interfer­ence in the conflict.
The members of the personnel named in the first paragraph shall beduly furnished with the identity cards provided for in Article 40 before leaving the neutral country to which they . belong.
33
DODD0A-012076
ARTICLE 28.
Personnel designated in Articles 24 and 26 who fall into the hands of the adverse Party, shall be retained only in so far as the state of health, the spiritual needs and the number of prisoners of war require.
Personnel thus retained shall not be deemed prisoners of war. Nevertheless they shall at least benefit by all the provisions of the Geneya Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War of August 12, 1949. Within the framework of the military laws and regulations of the Detaining Power, and under the authority of its competent service, they shall continue to carry out, in accordance with their professional ethics, their medical and spiritual duties on behalf of prisoners of war, preferably those of the armed forces to which they themselves belong. They shall further enjoy the follow­ing facilities for carrying out their medical or spiritual duties:
(a)
They shall be authorized to visit periodically the prisoners
of war in labour units or hospitals outside the camp. The
Detaining Power shall put at their disposal the means of
transport required.

(b)
In each camp the senior medical officer of the highest rank
shall be responsible to the military authorities of the camp
for the professional activity of the retained medical per­sonnel. For this purpose, from the outbreak of hostilities,
the Parties to the conflict shall. agree regarding the corre­sponding seniority of the ranks of their medical personnel,
including those of the societies designated in Article 26.
In all questions arising out of their duties, this medical
officer, and he chaplains, shall have direct access to the
military ana medical authorities of the camp who shall
grant them the facilities they may require for correspond­ence relating to these questions.

(c)
Although retained personnel in a camp shall be subject to its
internal discipline, they shall not, however, be required to
perform any work outside their medical or religious duties.

During hostilities the Parties to the conflict shall make arrange­ments for relieving where .possible retained personnel, and shall settle the procedure of such relief.
None of the preceding provisions shall relieve the Detaining Power of the obligations imposed upon it with regard to the medical and spiritual welfare of the prisoners of war.
ARTICLE 29.
Members of the personnel designated in Article 25 who have fallen into the hands of the enemy, shall be prisoners of war, but shall be employed on their medical duties in so far as the need arises.
34
DODD0A-012077
ARTICLE 30.
Personnel whose retention is not indispensable by virtue of the provisions of Article 28 shall be returned to the Party to the conflict to whom they belong, as soon as a road is open for their return and military requirements permit.
Pending their return, they shall not be deemed prisoners of war.
Nevertheless they shall at least benefit by all the provisions of the
Geneva Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War of
August 12, 1949. They shall continue to fulfil their duties under the
orders of the adverse Party and shall preferably be engaged in the
care of the wounded and sick of the Party to the conflict to which they
themselves belong.
On their departure, they shall take with them the effects, personal belongings, valuables and instruments belonging to them.
ARTICLE 31.
The selection of personnel for return under Article 30 shall be made irrespective of any consideration 'of race, religion or political opinion, but preferably according to the chronological order of their capture and their state of health.
As from the outbreak of hostilities, Parties to the conflict may deter­mine by special agreement the percentage of personnel to be retained, in proportion to the number of prisoners and the distribution of the said personnel in the camps.
ARTICLE 32.
Persons designated in Article 27 who have fallen into the hands of the adverse Party may not be detained.
Unless otherwise agreed, they shall have permission to return to their country, or if this is not possible, to the territory of the Party to the conflict in whose service they were, as soon as a route for their return is open and military considerations permit.
Pending their release, they shall continue their work under the direction of the adverse Party; they shall preferably be engaged in the care of the wounded and sick of the Party to the conflict in whose service they were.
On their departure, they shall take with them their effects ; personal articles and valuables and the instruments, arms and if possible the means of transport belonging to them.
The Parties to the conflict shall secure to this personnel, while in their power, the same food, lodging, allowances and pay as are granted to the corresponding personnel of their armed forces. The food shall in any case be sufficient as regards quantity, quality and variety to keep the said personnel in a normal state of health.
35
DODD0A-012078
CHAPTER V. Buildings and Material.
ARTICLE 33.
The material of mobile medical units of the armed forces which fall into the hands of the enemy, shall be reserved for the care of wounded and sick.
The buildings, material and stores of fixed medical establishments of the armed forces shall remain subject to the laws of war, but may not be diverted from their purpose as long as they are required for the care of wounded and sick. Nevertheless, the commanders of forces in the field may make use of them, in case of urgent military necessity, provided that they make previous arrangements for the welfare of the wounded and sick who are nursed in them.
The material and stores defined in the present Article shall not be
intentionally destroyed.
ARTICLE 34.
The real and personal property of aid societies which are admitted to the privileges of the Convention shall be regarded as private property.
The right of requisition recognized for belligerents by the laws and customs of war shall not be exercised except in case of urgent necessity, and only after the welfare of the wounded and sick has been ensured.
CHAPTER VI. Medical Transports.
ARTICLE 35.
Transports of wounded and sick or of medical equipment shall be respected and protected in the same way as mobile medical units.
Should such transports or vehicles fall into the hands of the adverse Party, they shall be subject to the laws of war, on condition that the Party to the conflict who captures them shall in all cases ensure the care of the wounded and sick they contain.
The civilian personnel and all means of transport obtained by requi­sition shall be subject to the general rules of international law.
ARTICLE 36.
Medical aircraft, that is to say, aircraft exclusively employed for the removal of wounded and sick and for the transport of medical personnel and equipment, shall not be attacked, but shall be respected by the belligerents, while flying at heights, times and on routes specifi­cally agreed upon between the belligerents concerned.
They shall bear, clearly marked, the distinctive emblem prescribed in Article 38, together with their national colours, on their lower, upper and lateral surfaces. They shall be provided with any other markings or means of identification that may be agreed upon between the belligerents upon the outbreak or during the course of hostilities.
36.
DODD0A-012079
Unless agreed otherwise, flights over enemy or enemy-occupied
territory are prohibited.
Medical aircraft shall obey every summons to land. In the event
of a landing thus imposed, the aircraft with its occupants may continue
its flight after examination, if any.
In the event of an involuntary landing in enemy or enemy-occupied
territory, the wounded and sick, as well as the crew of the aircraft
shall be prisoners of war. The medical personnel shall be treated
according to Article 24 and the Articles following.
ARTICLE 37.
Subject to the provisions of the second paragraph, medical aircraft
of Parties to the conflict may fly over the territory of neutral Powers,
land on it in case of necessity, or use it as a port of call. They shall
give the neutral Powers previous notice of their passage over the said
territory and obey all summons to alight, on land or water. They will
be immune from attack only when flying on routes, at heights and at
times specifically agreed upon between the Parties to the conflict and
the neutral Power concerned.
The neutral Powers may, however, place conditions or restrictions on the passage or landing of medical aircraft on their territory. Such possible conditions or restrictions shall be applied equally to all Parties to the conflict.
Unless agreed otherwise between the neutral Power and the Parties to the conflict, the wounded and sick who are disembarked, with the consent of the local authorities, on neutral territory by medical air­craft, shall be detained by the neutral Power, where so required by international law, in such a manner that they cannot again take part -in operations of war. The cost of their accommodation and intern­ment shall be borne by the Power on which they depend.
CHAPTER VII. The Distinctive Emblem.
ARTICLE 38.
As a compliment to Switzerland, the heraldic emblem of the red cross on a white ground, formed by reversing the Federal colours, is retained as the emblem and distinctive sign of the Medical Service of armed forces.
Nevertheless, in the case of countries which already use as emblem, in place of the red cross, the red crescent or the red lion and sun on a white ground, those emblems are also recognized by the terms of the present Convention.
ARTICLE 39.
Under the direction of the competent military authority, the em­blem shall be displayed on the flags, armlets and on all equipmentemployed in the Medical Service.
37
DODDOA-012080
ARTICLE 40.
The personnel designated in Article 24 and in Articles 26 and 27 shall wear, affixed to the left arm, a water-resistant armlet bearing the distinctive emblem, issued and stamped by the military authority.
Such personnel, in addition to wearing the identity disc mentioned in Article 16, shall also carry a special identity card bearing the dis­tinctive emblem. This card shall be water-resistant and of such size that it can be carried in the pocket. It shall be worded in the national language, shall mention at least the surname and first names, the date of birth, the rank and the service number of the bearer, and shall state in what capacity he is entitled to the protection of the present Con­vention. The card shall bear the photograph of the owner and also either his signature or his finger-prints or both. It shall be embossed with the stamp of the military authority.
The identity card shall be uniform throughout the same armed forces and, as far as possible, of a similar type in the armed forces of the High Contracting Parties. The Parties to the conflict may be guided by the model which is annexed, by way of example, to the present Convention. They shall inform each other, at the outbreak of hostilities, of the model they are using. Identity cards should be made out, if possible, at least in duplicate, one copy being kept by the home country.
In no circumstances may the said personnel be deprived of their insignia or identity cards nor of the right to wear the armlet. In case of loss, they shall be entitled to receive duplicates of the cards and to have the insignia replaced.
ARTICLE 41.
The personnel designated in Article 25 shall wear, but only while carrying out medical duties, a white armlet bearing in its centre the distinctive sign in miniature; the armlet shall be issued and stamped by the military authority.
Military identity documents to be carried by this type of personnel shall specify what special training they have received, the temporary character of the duties they are engaged upon, and their authority for wearing the armlet.
ARTICLE 42.
The distinctive flag of the Convention shall be hoisted only over such medical units and establishments as are entitled to be respected under the Convention, and only with the consent of the military authorities.
In mobile units, as in fixed establishments, it may be accompanied by the national flag of the Party to the conflict to which the unit or establishment belongs.
38
DODD0A-012081
Nevertheless, medical units which have fallen into the hands of the enemy shall not fly any flag other than that of the Convention.
Parties to the conflict shall take the necessary steps, in so far as military considerations permit, to make the distinctive emblems indicating medical units and establishments clearly visible to the enemy land, air or naval forces, in order to obviate the possibility of any hostile action.
ARTICLE 43.
The medical units belonging to neutral countries, which may have been authorized to lend their services to a belligerent under the con­ditions laid down in Article 27, shall fly, along with the flag of the Convention, the national flag of that belligerent, wherever the latter makes use of the faculty conferred on him by Article 42.
Subject to orders to the contrary by the responsible military authori­ties, they may, on all occasions, fly their national flag, even if they fall into the hands of the adverse Party.
ARTICLE 44.
With the exception of the cases mentioned in the following para­graphs of the present Article, the emblem of the Red Cross on a white ground and the words "Red Cross", or "Geneva Cross" may not be employed, either in time of peace or in time of war, except to indicate or to protect the medical units and establishments, the personnel and material protected by the present Convention and other Conventions dealing with similar matters. The same shall apply to the emblems mentioned in Article 38, second paragraph, in respect of the countries which use them. The National Red Cross Societies and other Societies designated in Article 26 shall have the right to use the dis-.
tinctive emblem conferring the protection of the Convention only within the framework of the present paragraph.
Furthermore, National Red Cross (Red Crescent, Red Lion and Sun) Societies may, in time of peace, in accordance with their national legislation, make use of the name and emblem of the Red Cross for their other activities which are in conformity with the principles laid down by the International Red Cross Conferences. When those activities are carried out in time of war, the conditions for the use of the emblem shall be such that it cannot be considered as conferringthe protection of the Convention; the emblem shall be comparatively small in size and may not be placed on armlets or on the roofs of buildings.
The international Red Cross organizations and their duly authorized personnel shall be permitted to make use, at all times, of the emblem of the Red Cross on a white ground.
As an exceptional measure, in conformity with national legislation and with the express permission of one of the National Red Cross
39.
DODDOA-012082
(Red Crescent, Red Lion and Sun) Societies, the emblem of the Convention may be employed in time of peace to identify vehicles used as ambulances and to mark the position of aid stations exclusively assigned to the purpose of giving free treatment to the wounded or sick.
CHAPTER VIII. Execution of the Convention.
ARTICLE 45.
Each Party to the conflict, acting through its commanders-in-chief, shall ensure the detailed execution of the preceding Articles and pro­vide for unforeseen cases, in conformity with the general principles of the present Convention.
ARTICLE 46.
Reprisals against the wounded, sick, personnel, buildings or equip­ment protected by the Convention are prohibited.
ARTICLE 47.
The High Contracting Parties undertake, in time of peace as in time of war, to disseminate the text of the present Convention as widely as possible in their respective countries, and, in particular, to include the study thereof in their programmes of military and, if possible, civil instruction, so that the principles thereof may become known to the entire population, in particular to the armed fighting forces, the medical personnel and the chaplains.
ARTICLE 48.
The High Contracting Parties shall communicate to one another through the Swiss Federal Council and, during hostilities, through the Protecting Powers, the official translations of the present Con­vention, as well as the laws and regulations which they may adopt to ensure the application thereof.
CHAPTER IX. Repression of Abuses and Infractions.
ARTICLE 49.
The High Contracting Parties undertake to enact any legislation necessary to provide effective penal sanctions for persons committing, or ordering to be committed, any of the grave breaches of the present Convention defined in the following Article.
Each High Contracting Party shall be under the obligation to search for persons alleged to have committed, or to have ordered to be committed, such grave breaches, and shall bring such persons, regardless of their nationality, before its own courts. It may also, if it prefers, and in accordance with the provisions of its own legislation,
40
DODDOA012083
-
hand such persons over for trial to another High Contracting Party concerned, provided such High Contracting Party has made out a prima facie case.
Each High Contracting Party shall take measures necessary for the suppression of all acts contrary to the provisions of the present Convention other than the grave breaches defined in the following Article.
In all circumstances, the accused persons shall benefit by safeguards of proper trial and-Mei-ice, which shall not be less favourable than those provided by Article 105 and those following of the Geneva Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War of August 12, 1949.
ARTICLE 50.
Grave breaches to which the preceding Article relates shall be those involving any of the following acts, if committed against persons or property protected by the Convention: wilful killing, torture or inhuman treatment, including biological experiments, wilfully causing great suffering or serious injury to body or health, and extensive destruction and appropriation of property, not justified by military necessity and carried out unlawfully and wantonly.
ARTICLE 51.
No High Contracting Party shall be allowed to absolve itself or any other High Contracting Party of any liability incurred by itself or by another High Contracting Party in respect of breaches referred to in the preceding Article.
ARTICLE 52.
At the request of a Party to the conflict, an enquiry shall be insti­tuted, in a manner to be decided between the interested Parties, concerning any alleged violation of the Convention.
If agreement has not been reached concerning the procedure for the enquiry, the Parties should agree on the choice of an umpire who will decide upon the procedure to be followed.
Once the violation has been established, the Parties to the conflict shall put an end to it and shall repress it with the least possible delay.
ARTICLE 53.
The use by individuals, societies, firms or companies either public or private, other than those entitled thereto under the present Con­vention, of the emblem or the designation "Red Cross" or "Geneva Cross," or any sign or designation constituting an imitation thereof, whatever the object of such use, and irrespective of the date of its adoption, shall be prohibited at all times.
By reason of the tribute paid to Switzerland by the adoptiol of the
41.
DODD0A-012084
reserved Federal colours, and of the confusion which may arise between the arms of Switzerland and the distinctive emblem of the Convention, the use by private individuals, societies or firms, of the arms of the Swiss Confederation, or of marks constituting an imitation thereof, whether as trade-marks or commercial marks, or as parts of such marks, or for a purpose contrary to commercial honesty, or in cir­cumstances capable of wounding Swiss national sentiment, shall be prohibited at all times.
Nevertheless, such High Contracting Parties as were not party to the Geneva Convention of July 27, 1929, may grant to prior users of the emblems, designations, signs or marks designated in the first paragraph, a time limit not to exceed three years from the coming into force of the present Convention to discontinue such use, provided that the said use shall not be such as would appear, in time of war, to confer the protection of the Convention.
The prohibition laid down in the first paragraph of the present Article shall also apply, without effect on any rights acquired through prior use, to the emblems and marks mentioned in the second para­graph of Article 38.
ARTICLE 54.
The High Contracting Parties shall, if their legislation is not already adequate, take measures necessary for the prevention and repression, at all times, of the abuses referred to under Article 53.
42
DODDOA-012085
FINAL PROVISIONS
ARTICLE 55.
The present Convention is established in English and in French. Both texts are equally authentic. The Swiss Federal Council shall arrange for official translations of the Convention to be made in the Russian and Spanish languages.
ARTICLE 56. The present Convention, which bears the date of this day, is open to signature until February 12, 1950, in the name of the Powers represented at the Conference which opened at Geneva on April 21, 1949; furthermore, by Powers not represented at that Conference, but which are parties to the Geneva Conventions of 1864, 1906 or 1929 for the Relief of the Wounded and Sick in Armies in the Field.
ARTICLE 57.
The present Convention shall be ratified as soon as possible and the ratifications shall be deposited at Berne.
A record shall be drawn up of the deposit of each instrument of ratification and certified copies of this record shall be transmitted by the Swiss Federal Council to all the Powers in whose name the Con­vention has been signed, or whose accession has been notified.
ARTICLE 58.
The present Convention shall come into force six months after not less than two instruments of ratification have been deposited. Thereafter, it shall come into force for each High Contracting Party six months after the deposit of the instrument of ratification.
ARTICLE 59.
The present Convention replaces the Conventions of August 22, 1864, July 6, 1906, and July 27, 1929, in relations between the High Contracting Parties.
ARTICLE 60.
From the date of its coming into force, it shall be open to any Power in whose name the present Convention has not been signed, to accede to this Convention.
ARTICLE 61.
Accessions shall be notified in writing to the Swiss Federal Council, and shall take effect six months after the date on which they are received.
43
DODDOA-012086
The Swiss Federal Council shall communicate the accessions to all
the Powers in whose name the Convention has been signed, or whose
accession has been notified.

ARTICLE 62.
The situations provided for in Articles 2 and 3 shall give immediate
effect to ratifications deposited and accessions notified by the Parties
to the conflict before or after the beginning of hostilities or occupation.
The Swiss Federal Council shall communicate by the quickest method
any ratifications or accessions received from Parties to the conflict.

.
ARTICLE 63.
Each of the High Contracting Parties shall be at liberty to denounce
the present Convention.
The denunciation shall be notified in writing to the Swiss Federal Council, which shall transmit it to the Governments of all the High Contracting Parties.
The denunciation shall take effect one year after the notification thereof has been made to the Swiss Federal Council. However, a denunciation of which notification has been made at a time when the denouncing Power is involved in a conflict shall not take effect until peace has been concluded, and until after operations connected with the release and repatriation of the persons protected by the present Convention have been terminated.
The denunciation shall have effect only in respect of the denouncing Power. It shall in no way impair the obligations which the Parties to the conflict shall remain bound to fulfil by virtue of the principles of the law of nations, as they result from the usages established among civilized peoples, from the laws of humanity and the dictates of the public conscience.
ARTICLE 64.
The Swiss Federal Council shall register the present Convention with the Secretariat of the United Nations. The Swiss Federal Council shall also inform the Secretariat of the United Nations of all ratifications, accessions and denunciations received by it with respect to the present Convention.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned, having deposited their respective full powers, have signed the present Convention.
DONE at Geneva this twelfth day of August, 1949, in the English and French languages. The original shall be deposited in the Archives of the Swiss Confederation. The Swiss Federal Council shall transmit certified copies thereof to each of the signatory and acceding States.
[Here follow signatures.]
44
DODD0A-012087
ANNEX I

DRAFT AGREEMENT RELATING TO HOSPITAL ZONES

AND LOCALITIES
ARTICLE 1.
Hospital zones shall be strictly reserved for the persons named in Article 23 of the Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Con­dition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field of August 12, 1949, and for the personnel entrusted with the organization and administration of these zones and localities and with the care of the persons therein assembled.
Nevertheless, persons whose permanent residence is within such zones shall have the right to stay there.
ARTICLE 2.
No persons residing, in whatever capacity, in a hospital zone shall perform any work, either within or without the zone, directly con­nected with military operations or the production of war material.
ARTICLE 3.
The Power establishing a hospital zone shall take all necessary meas­ures to prohibit access to all persons who have no right of residence or entry therein.
ARTICLE 4.
Hospital zones shall fulfil the following conditions:
(a)
They shall comprise only a small part of the territory gov­erned by the Power which has established them.

(b)
They shall be "thinlypopulated in relation to the possibilities of accommodation.

(c)
They shall be far removed and free from all military object­ives, or large industrial or administrative establishments.

(d)
They shall not be situated in areas which, according to every probability, may become important for the conduct of the

war.
ARTICLE 5.

Hospital zones shall be subject to the following obligations:
(a)
The lines of communication and means of transport which they possess shall not be used for the transport of military personnel or material, even in transit.

(b)
They shall in no case be defended by military means.

3
45
DODD0A-012088

ARTICLE 6.
Hospital zones shall be marked by means of red crosses (red cres­cents, red lions and suns) on a white background placed on the outer
precincts and on the buildings. They may be similarly marked at
night by means of appropriate illumination.

ARTICLE 7.
The Powers shall communicate to all the High Contracting Parties
in peacetime or on the outbreak of hostilities, a list of the hospital
zones in the territories governed by them. They shall also give
notice of any new zones set up during hostilities.
As soon as the adverse Party has received the above-mentioned
notification, the zone shall be regularly constituted.
If, however, the adverse Party considers that the conditions of the
present agreement have not been fulfilled, it may refuse to recognize
the zone by giving immediate notice thereof to the Party responsible

• for the said zone, or may make its recognition of such zone dependent upon the institution of the control provided for in Article 8.
ARTICLE 8.
Any Power having recognized one or several hospital zones instituted
by the adverse Party shall be entitled to demand control by one
or more Special Commissions, for the purpose of ascertaining if the
zones fulfil the conditions and obligations stipulated in the present
agreement.
For this purpose, the members of the Special Commissions shall at
all times have free access to the various zones and may even reside
there permanently. They shall be given all facilities for their duties
of inspection.
ARTICLE 9.
Should the Special Commissions note any facts which they con­
sider contrary to the stipulations of the present agreement, they shall
at once draw the attention of the Power governing the said zone to
these facts, and shall fix a time limit of five days within which the
matter should be rectified. They shall duly notify the Power who has
recognized the zone.
If, when the time limit has expired, the Power governing the zone
has not complied with the warning, the adverse Party may declare
that it is no longer bound by the present agreement in respect of the
said zone.

ARTICLE 10. Any Power setting up one or more hospital zones and localities, and the adverse Parties to whom their existence has been notified, shall
nominate or have nominated by neutral Powers, the persons who shall be members of the Special Commissions mentioned in Articles 8 and 9.
46
DODDOA-012089
ARTICLE 11.

In no circumstances may hospital zones be the object of attack. They shall be protected and respected at all times by the Parties to the conflict.
ARTICLE 12.
In the case of occupation of a territory, the hospital zones therein shall continue to be respected and utilized as such.
Their purpose may, however, be modified by the Occupying Power, on condition that all measures are taken to ensure the safety of the persons accommodated.
ARTICLE 13.
The present agreement shall also apply to localities which the Powers may utilize for the same purposes as hospital zones.
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47. DODDOA-012090

Chapter 5
Geneva Convention
for the Amelioration of the Condition
of Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members

of Armed Forces at Sea
12 August 1949
(Treaties' and Other International Acts Series 3363)
The undersigned Plenipotentiaries of the Governments represented at the Diplomatic Conference held at Geneva from April 21 to August 12, 1949, for the purpose of revising the Xth Hague Convention of October 18, 1907, for the Adaptation to Maritime Warfare of the Principles of the Geneva Convention of 1906, have agreed as follows:
CHAPTER I. General Provisions.
ARTICLE 1.
The High Contracting Parties undertake to respect and to ensure respect for the present Convention in all circumstances.
ARTICLE 2.
In addition to the provisions which shall be implemented in peace­time, the present" Covention shall apply to all cases of declared war or of any other armed conflict which may arise between two or more of the High Contracting Parties, even if the state of war is not recog­nized by one of them.
The Convention shall also apply to all cases of partial or total occu­pation of the territory of a High Contracting Party, even if the said occupation meets with no armed resistance.
Although one of the Powers in conflict may not be a party to the present Convention, the Powers who are parties thereto shall remain bound by it in their mutual relations. They shall furthermore be bound by the Convention in relation to the said Power, if the latter accepts and applies the provisions thereof.
ARTICLE 3.
In the case of armed conflict not of an international character oc­curring in the territory of one of the High Contracting Parties, each
48
DODD0A-012091
Party to the conflict shall be bound to apply, as a minimum, the following provisions:
(1) Persons taking no active part in the hostilities, including
members of armed forces who have laid down their arms and
those placed hors de combat by sickness, wounds, detention,
or any other cause, shall in all circumstances be treated
humanely, without any adverse distinction founded on race,
colour, religion or faith, sex, birth or wealth, or any other
similar criteria.

To this end, the following acts are and shall remain pro­hibited at any time and in any place whatsoever with respect to the above-mentioned persons:
(a)
violence to life and person, in particular murder of all kinds, mutilation, cruel treatment and torture;

(b)
taking of hostages;

(c)
outrages upon personal dignity, in particular, humiliating and degrading treatment;

(d)
the passing of sentences and the carrying out of executions without previous judgment pronounced by a regularly constituted court, affording all the judicial guarantees which are recognized as indispensable by civilized peoples.

(2)
The wounded, sick and shipwrecked shall be collected and
cared for.

An impartial humanitarian body, such as the International Commit­tee of the Red Cross, may offer its services to the Parties to the conflict.
Thi Parties to the conflict should further endeavour to bring into force, by means of special agreements, all or part of the other provi­sions of the present Convention.
The application of the preceding provisions shall not affect the legal status of the Parties to the conflict.
ARTICLE 4.
In case of hostilities between land and naval forces of Parties to the conflict, the provisions of the present Convention shall apply only to forces on board ship.
Forces put ashore shall immediately become subject to the provi­sions of the Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field of August 12, 1949.
ARTICLE 5.
Neutral Powers shall apply by analogy the provisions of the present Convention to the wounded, sick and shipwrecked, and to members of the medical personnel and to chaplains of the armed forces of the
49
DODDOA-012092
Parties to the conflict received or interned in their territory, as well
as to dead persons found.
ARTICLE 6.

In addition to the agreements expressly provided for in Articles 10,
18, 31, 38, 39, 40, 43 and 53, the High Contracting Parties may con­
clude other special agreements for all matters concerning which they
may deem it suitable to make separate provision. No special agree­
ment shall adversely affect the situation of wounded, sick and ship­
wrecked persons, of members of the medical personnel or of chaplains,
as defined by the present Convention, nor restrict the rights which it
confers upon them.
Wounded, sick and shipwrecked persons, as well as medical person­nel andchaplains, shall continue to have the benefit of such agreements as long as the Convention is applicable to them, except where express provisions to the contrary are contained in the aforesaid or in subse­quent agreements, or where more favourable measures have been taken with regard to them by one or other of the Parties to the conflict.
ARTICLE 7.
Wounded, sick and shipwrecked persons, as well as members of the medical personnel and chaplains, may in no circumstances renounce in part or in entirety the rights secured to them by the present Con­vention, and by the special agreements referred to in the foregoing Article, if such there be.
ARTICLE 8.
The present Convention shall be applied with the cooperation and under the scrutiny of the Protecting Powers whose duty it is to safe­guard the interests of the Parties to the conflict For this purpose, the Protecting Powers may appoint, apart from their diplomatic or consular staff, delegates from amongst their own nationals or the nationals of other neutral Powers. The said delegates shall be sub­ject to the approval of the Power with which they are to carry out their duties.
The Parties to the conflict shall .facilitate to the greatest extent possible the task of the representatives or delegates of the Protecting Powers.
The representatives or delegates of the Protecting Powers shall notin any case exceed their mission under the present Convention. They shall, in particular, take account of the imperative necessities of security of the State wherein they carry out their duties. Their activities shall only be restricted as an exceptional and temporary measure when this is rendered necessary by imperative militarynecessities.
50.
DODD0A-012093
ARTICLE 9. The provisions of the present Convention constitute no obstacle to the humanitarian activities which the -International Committee of the Red Cross or any other impartial humanitarian organization may, subject to the consent of the Parties to the conflict concerned, under­take for the protection of wounded, sick, and shipwrecked persons,
medical personnel and chaplains, and for their relief.
ARTICLE 10:* The High Contracting Parties may at any time agree to entrust to an organization which offers all guarantees of impartiality and efficacy the duties. incumbent on the Protecting Powers by virtue of the present Convention.
When wounded, sick and shipwrecked, er medical personnel and chaplains do not benefit or cease to benefit, no matter for whaereason, by the activities of a Protecting Power or of an organization provided
for in the first paragraph above, the Detaining Power shall request a neutral State, or such an organization, to undertake the functions performed under the present Convention by a Protecting Power designated by the Parties to a conflict.
If protection cannot be arranged accordingly, the Detaining Power shall request or shall accept, subject to the provisions of this Article, the offer of the services of a humanitarian organization, such as the International Committee of the Red Cross, to assume the humanitarian functions performed by Protecting Powers under the present Convention.
Any neutral Power, or any organization invited by the Power con­cerned or offering itself for these purposes, shall be required to act with a sense of responsibility towards the Party to the conflict on which persons protected by the present Convention depend, and shall be required to furnish sufficient assurances that it is in a position to undertake the appropriate functions and to discharge them impar­tially.
No derogation from the preceding provisions shall be made by special agreements between Powers one of which is restricted, even temporarily, in its freedom tv negotiate with the other Power or its allies by reason of military events, more particularly where the whole, or a substantial part, of the territory of the said Power is occupied.
Whenever, in the present Convention, mention is made of a Pro­tecting Power, such mention also applies to substitute organizations in the sense of the present Article.
ARTICLE 11. In cases where they deem it advisable in the interest of protected persons, particularly in cases of disagreement between the Parties to
nn ratifying the present Convention, the Union of soviet Socialist Republics and certain other govern ments made specific reservations with respect to this Article.
51
r

DODDOA-012094
the conflict as to the application or interpretation of the provisions of the present Convention, the Protecting Powers shall lend their good offices with a view to settling the disagreement.
For this purpose, each of the Protecting Powers may, either at the invitation of one Party or on its own initiative, propose to the Parties to the conflict a meeting of their representatives, in.particular of the authorities responsible for the wounded, sick and shipwrecked, medical personnel and chaplains, possibly on neutral territory suit­ably chosen. The Parties to the conflict shall be bound to give effect to the proposals made to them for this purpose. The Protecting Powers may, if necessary, propose for approval by the Parties to the conflict, a person belonging to a neutral Power or delegated by the International CO-mmittee of the Red Cross, who shall be invited to take part in such a meeting.
CHAPTER II. Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked.
ARTICLE 12.
Members of the armed forces and other persons mentioned in the following Article, who are at sea and who are wounded, sick or ship­wrecked, shall be respected and protected in all circumstances, it being understood that the term "shipwreck" means shipwreck from any cause and includes forced landings at sea by or from aircraft.
Such persons shall be treated humanely and cared for by the Parties to the conflict in whose power they may be, without any adverse distinction founded on sex, race, nationality, religion, political opinions, or any other similar criteria. Any attempts upon their lives, or violence to their persons, shall be strictly prohibited; in particular, they shall not be murdered or exterminated, subjected to torture or to biological experiments; they shall not wilfully be left without medical assistance and care, nor shall conditions exposing them to contagion or infection be created.
Only urgent medical reasons will authorize priority in the order of treatment to be administered. Women shall be treated with all consideration due to their sex.
ARTICLE 13. The present Convention shall apply to the wounded, sick and shipwrecked at sea belonging to the following categories:
(1)
Members of the armed forces of a Party to the conflict, as
well as members of militias or volunteer corps forming part
of such armed forces.

(2)
Members of other militias and members of other volunteer
corps, including those of organized resistance movements,
belonging to a Party to the conflict and operating in or
outside their own territory, even if this territory is occupied,
provided that such militias or volunteer corps, including such

52.
DODDOA-012095
organized resistance movements, fulfil the following condi-tions:
(a)
that of being commanded by a person responsible for his subordinates;

(b)
that of having a fixed distinctive sign recognizable at a distance;

(c)
that of carrying arms openly;

(d)
that of conducting their operations in accordance with the laws and customs of war.

(3)
Members of regular armed forces who profess allegiance to a
Government or an authority not recognized by the Detaining
Power.

(4)
Persons who accompany the armed forces without actually
being members thereof, such as civilian members of military
aircraft crews, war correspondents, supply contractors,
members of labour units or of services responsible for the
welfare of the armed forces, provided that they have received
authorization from the armed forces which they accompany.

(5)
Members of crews, including masters, pilots and apprentices,
of the merchant marine and the crews of civil aircraft of the
Parties to the conflict, who do not benefit by more favourable
treatment under any other provisions of international law.

(6)
Inhabitants of a non-occupied territory who, on the approach
of the enemy, spontaneously take up arms to resist the
invading forces, without having had time to form themselves
into regular armed units, provided they carry arms openly
and respect the laws and customs of war.

ARTICLE 14.
All warships of a belligerent Party shall have the right to demand that the wounded, sick or shipwrecked on board military hospital ships, and hospital ships belonging to relief societies or to private individuals, as well as merchant vessels, yachts and other craft shall be surrendered, whatever their nationality, provided that the wounded and sick are in a fit state to be moved and that the warship can provide adequate facilities for necessary medical treatment.
ARTICLE 15.
If wounded, sick or shipwrecked persons are taken on board a neutral warship or a neutral military aircraft, it shall be ensured, where so required by international law, that they can take no further part in operations of war.
ARTICLE 16.
Subject to the provisions of Article 12, the wounded, sick and shipwrecked of a belligerent who fall into enemy hands shall be
53
DODD0A-012096
prisoners of war, and the provisions of international law concerning
prisoners of war shall apply to them. The captor may decide, accord­ing to circumstances, whether it is expedient to hold them, or to convey
them to a port in the captor's own country, to a neutral port or even
to a port in enemy territory. In the last case, prisoners of war thus
returned to their home country may not serve for the duration of
the war.

ARTICLE 17.
Wounded, sick or shipwrecked persons who are landed in neutral
ports with the consent of the local authorities, shall, failing arrange­
ments to the contrary between the neutral and the belligerent Powers,
be so guarded by the neutral Power, where so required by international
law, that the said persons cannot again take part in operations of war.
The costs of hospital accommodation and internment shall be borne
by the Power on whom the wounded, sick or shipwrecked persons
depend.
ARTICLE 18.
After each engagement, Parties to the conflict shall, without delay, take all possible measures to search for and collect the shipwrecked, wounded and sick, to protect them against pillage and ill-treatment,
to ensure their adequate care, and to search for the dead and prevent
their being despoiled.
Whenever circumstances permit, the Parties to the conflict shall conclude local arrangements for the removal of the wounded and sick by' sea from a besieged or encircled area and for the passage of•rnedical and religious personnel and equipment on their way to that area.
ARTICLE 19.
The Parties to the conflict shall record as soon as possible, in respect of each shipwrecked, wounded, sick or dead person of the adverse Party falling into their hands, any particulars which may assist in his identification. These records should if possible include:
(a) designation of the Power on which he depends;
(b)
army, regimental, personal or serial number;

(c)
surname;

(d)
first name or names;

(e)
date of birth;

( f) any other particulars shown on his identity card or disc;
(g)
date and place of capture or death;

(h)
particulars concerning wounds or illness, or cause of death.
As soon as possible the above-mentioned information shall be

forwarded to the information bureau described in Article 122 of the Geneva Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War of August 12, 1949, which shall transmit this information to the Power
54.
DODDOA-012097
_.
_
on which these persons depend through the intermediary of the Protecting Power and of the Central Prisoners of War Agency.
Parties to the conflict shall prepare and forward to each other through the same bureau, certificates of death or duly authenticated lists of the dead. They shall likewise collect and forward through the same bureau one half of the double identity disc, or the identity disc itself if it is a single disc, last wills or other documents of impor­tance to the next of kin, money and in general all articles of an intrinsic or sentimental value, which are found on the dead. These articles, together with unidentified articles, shall be sent in sealed packets, accompanied by statements giving all particulars necessary for the identification of the deceased owners, as well as by a complete list of the contents of the parcel.
ARTICLE 20.
Parties to the conflict shall ensure that burial at sea of the dead, carried out individually as far as circumstances permit, is preceded by a careful examination, if possible by a medical examination, of the bodies, with a view to confirming death, establishing identity and enabling a report to he made. Where a double identity disc is used, one half of the disc should remain on the body.
If dead persons are landed, the provisions of the Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field of August 12, 1949, shall be applicable.
ARTICLE 21.
The Parties to the conflict may appeal to the charity of commanders of neutral merchant vessels, yachts or other craft, to take on board and care for wounded, sick or shipwrecked persons, and to collect the dead.
Vessels of any kind responding to this appeal, and those having of their own accord collected wounded, sick or shipwrecked persons, shall enjoy special protection and facilities to carry out such assistance.
They may, in no case, be captured on account of any such transport; but, in the absence of any promise to the contrary, they shall remain liable to capture for any violations of neutrality they may have committed.
CHAPTER III. Hospital Ships.
ARTICLE 22.
Military hospital ships, that is to say, ships built or equipped by the Powers specially and solely with a view to assisting the wounded, sick and shipwrecked, to treating them and to transporting them, may in no circumstances be attacked or captured, but shall at all times be respected and protected, on condition that their names and descriptions have been notified to the Parties to the conflict ten days before those ships are employed.
55.
DODD0A-012098
The characteristics which must appear in the notification shall
include registered gross tonnage, the length from stem to stern and
the number of masts and funnels.

ARTICLE 23.
Establishments ashore entitled to the protection of the Geneva
Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and
Sick in Armed Forces in the Field of August 12, 1949, shall be protected
from bombardment or attack from the sea.

ARTICLE 24.
Hospital ships utilized by National Red Cross Societies, by officially
recognized relief societies or by private persons shall have the same
protection as military hospital ships and shall be exempt from capture,
if the Party to the conflict on which they depend has given them an
official commission and in so far as the provisions of Article 22 con=
cerning notification have been complied with.
These ships must be provided with certificates from the responsible
authorities, stating that the vessels have been under their control
while fitting out and on departure.
ARTICLE 25.
Hospital ships utilized by National Red Cross Societies, officially recognized relief societies, or private persons of neutral countries shall have the same protection as military hospital ships and shall be exempt from capture, on condition that they have placed themselves under the control of one of the Parties to the conflict, with the previous consent of their own governments and with the authOrization of the Party to the conflict concerned, in so far as the provisions of Article 22 concerning notification have been complied with.
ARTICLE 26.
The protection mentioned in Articles 22, 24 and 25 shall apply to hospital ships of any tonnage and to their lifeboats, wherever they are operating. Nevertheless, to ensure the maximum comfort and security, the Parties to the conflict shall endeavour to utilize, for the transport of wounded, sick and shipwrecked over long distances and on the high seas, only hospital ships of over 2,000 tons gross.
ARTICLE 27.
Under the same conditions as those provided for in Articles 22 and 24, small craft employed by the State or by the officially recognized 'lifeboat institutions for coastal rescue operations, shall also be
respected and protected, so far as operational requirements permit.
The same shall apply so far as possible to fixed coastal installations used exclusively by these craft for their humanitarian missions.
56
DODDOA-012099
ARTICLE 28.
Should fighting occur on board a warship, the sick-bays shall be respected and spared as far as possible. Sick-bays and their equip­ment shall remain subject to the laws of warfare, but may not be diverted from their purpose so long as they are required for the wounded and sick. Nevertheless, the commander into whose power they have fallen may, after ensuring the proper care of the wounded and sick who are accommodated therein, apply-them to other purposes in case of urgent military necessity.
ARTICLE 29.
Any hospital ship in a port which falls into the hands of the enemy shall be authorized to leave the said port.
ARTICLE 30.
The vessels described in Articles 22, 24, 25 and 27 shall afford relief and assistance to the wounded, sick and shipwrecked without distinc­tion of nationality.
The High Contracting Parties undertake not to use these vessels for any military purpose. Such vessels shall in no wise hamper the movements of the com­batants. During and after an engagement, they will act at their own risk.
ARTICLE 31.
The Parties to the conflict shall have the right to control and search the vessels mentioned in Articles 22, 24, 25 and 27. They can refuse assistance from these vessels, order them off, make them take a certain course, control the use of their wireless and other means of communi­cation, and even detain them for a period not exceeding seven days from the time of interception, if the gravity of the circumstances so requires.
They may put a commissioner temporarily on board whose sole task shall be to see that orders given in virtue of the provisions of the preceding paragraph are carried out.
As far as possible, the Parties to the conflict shall enter in the log of the hospital ship, in a language he can understand, the orders they have given the captain of the vessel.
Parties to the conflict may, either unilaterally or by particular agreements, put on board their ships neutral observers who shall verify the strict observation of the provisions contained in the present Convention.
ARTICLE 32.

Vessels described in Articles 22, 24, 25 and 27 are not classed as warships as regards their stay in a neutral port.
57.
DODDOA-012100
ARTICLE 33.
Merchant vessels which have been transformed into hospital ships cannot be put to any other use throughout the duration of hostilities.
ARTICLE 34.
The protection to which hospital ships and sick-bays are entitled shall not cease unless they are used to commit, outside their humani­tarian duties, acts harmful to the enemy. Protection may, however, cease only after due warning has been given, naming in all appropriate cases a reasonable time limit, and after such warning has remained unheeded.
In particular, hospital ships may not possess or use a secret code for their wireless or other means of communication.
ARTICLE 35.
The following conditions shall not be considered as depriving hos­pital ships or sick-bays of vessels of the protection due to them:
(1)
The fact that the crews of ships or sick 7bays are armed for
the maintenance of order, for their own defence or that of
the sick and wounded.

(2)
The presence on board of apparatus exclusively intended to
facilitate navigation or communication.

(3)
The discovery on board hospital ships or in sick-bays of
portable arms and ammunition taken from the wounded,
sick and shipwrecked and not yet handed to the proper
service.

(4)
The fact that the humanitarian activities of hospital ships
and sick-bays of vessels or of the crews extend to the care
of wounded, sick or shipwrecked civilians.

(5)
The transport of equipment and of personnel intended
exclusively for medical duties, over and above the normal
requirements.

CHAPTER IV. Personnel.
ARTICLE 36.
The religious, medical and hospital personnel of hospital ships and their crews shall be respected and protected; they may not be captured during the time they are in the service of the hospital ship, whether or not there are wounded and sick on board.
ARTICLE 37.
The religious, medical and hospital personnel assigned to the medical or spiritual care of the persons designated in Articles 12 and 13 shall, if they fall into the hands of the enemy, be respected and
58.
DODDOA-012101
protected; they may continue to carry out their duties as long as
this is necessary for the care of the wounded and sick. They shall
afterwards be sent back as soon as the Commander-in-Chief, under
whose authority they are, considers it practicable. They may take
with them, on leaving the ship, their personal property.
If, however, it prove necessary to retain some of this personnel
owing to the medical or spiritual needs of prisoners of war, every­
thing possible shall be done for their earliest possible landing.
Retained personnel shall be subject, on landing, to the provisions
of the Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition
of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field of August
12, 1949.
CHAPTER V. Medical Transports.
ARTICLE 38.
Ships chartered for that purpose shall be authorized to transport equipment exclusively intended for the treatment of wounded and sick members of armed forces or for the preverttion of disease, pro­vided that the particulars regarding their voyage have been notified to the adverse Power and approved by the latter. The adverse Power shall preserve the right to board the carrier ships, but not to capture them or seize the equipment carried.
By agreement amongst the Parties to the conflict, neutral observers may be placed on board such ships to verify the equipment carried. For this purpose, free access to the equipment shall be given.
ARTICLE 39.
Medical aircraft, that is to say, aircraft exclusively employed for the removal of the wounded, sick, and shipwrecked, and for the transport of medical personnel and equipment, may not be the object of attack, but shall be respected by the Parties to the conflict, while flying at heights, at times and on routes specifically agreed upon between the Parties to the conflict concerned.
They shall be clearly marked with the distinctive emblem prescribed in Article 41, together with their national colours, on their lower, upper and lateral surfaces. They shall be provided with any other markings or means of identification which may be agreed upon between the Parties to the conflict upon the outbreak or during thecourse of hostilities.
Unless agreed otherwise, flights over enemy or enemy-occupied territory are prohibited.
Medical aircraft shall obey every summons to alight on land or water. In the event of having thus to alight, the aircraft with its occupants may continue its flight after examination, if any.
In the event of alighting involuntarily on land or water in enemy or enemy-occupied territory, the wounded, sick and shipwrecked, as
59.
DODDOA-012102
well as the crew of the aircraft, shall be prisoners of war. The medical personnel shall be treated according to Articles 36 and 37.
ARTICLE 40.
Subject to the provisions of the second paragraph, medical aircraft of Parties to the conflict may fly over the territory of neutral Powers, land thereon in case of necessity, or use it as a port of call. They shall give neutral Powers prior notice of their passage over the said territory, and obey every summons to alight, on land or water. They will be immune from attack only when flying on routes, at heights and at times specifically agreed upon between the Parties to the conflict and the neutral Power concerned.
The neutral Powers may, however, place conditions or restrictions on the passage or landing of medical aircraft on their territory. Such possible conditions or restrictions shall be applied equally to all Parties to the conflict.
Unless otherwise agreed between the neutral Powers and the Parties to the conflict, the wounded, sick or shipwrecked who are disembarked with the consent of the local authorities on neutral territory by medical aircraft shall be detained by the neutral Power, where so required by international law, in such a manner that they cannot again take part in operations of war.. The cost of their accommodation and internment shall be borne by the Power on which they depend.
CHAPTER VI.. The Distinctive Emblem.
ARTICLE 41. Under the direction of the competent military authority, the em­blem of the red cross on a white ground shall be displayed on the flags, armlets and on all equipment employed in the Medical Service. Nevertheless, in the case of countries which already use as emblem, in place of the red cross, the red crescent or the red lion and sun on a white ground, these emblems are also recognized by the terms of the present Convention. ARTICLE 42.
The personnel designated in Articles 36 and 37 shall wear, affixed to the left arm, a water-resistant armlet bearing the distinctive emblem, issued and stamped by the military authority.
Such personnel, in addition to wearing the identity disc mentioned in Article 19, shall also carry a special identity card bearing the distinctive emblem. This card shall be water-resistant and of such size that it can be carried in the pocket. It shall be worded in the national language, shall mention at least the surname and first names, the date of birth, the rank and the service number of the bearer, and shall state in what capacity he is entitled to the protection of the present Convention. The card shall bear the photograph of the owner and
60
DODD0A-0121 03
also either his signature or his fingerprints or both. It shall be embossed with the stamp of the military authority.
The identity card shall be uniform throughout the same armed forces and, as far as possible, of a similar type in the armed forces of the High Contracting Parties. The Parties to the conflict may be guided by the model which is annexed, by way of example, to the present Convention. They shall inform each other, at the outbreak of hostilities, of the model they are using. Identity cards should be made out, if possible, at least in duplicate, one copy being kept by the home country.
In no circumstances may the said personnel be deprived of their insignia or identity cards nor of the right to wear the armlet. In case of loss they shall be entitled to receive duplicates of the cards and to have the insignia replaced.
ARTICLE 43.
The ships designated in Articles 22, 24, 25 and 27 shall be distinc­tively marked as follows:
(a)
All exterior surfaces shall be white.

(b)
One or more dark red crosses, as large as possible, shall be
painted and displayed on each side of the hull and on the
horizontal surfaces, so placed as to afford the greatest
possible visibility from the sea and from the air.

All hospital ships shall make themselves known by hoisting their national flag and further, if they belong to a neutral state, the flag of the Party to the conflict whose direction they have accepted. A white flag with a red cross shall be flown at the mainmast Is high as possible.
Lifeboats of hospital ships, coastal lifeboats and all small craft used by the Medical Service shall be painted white with dark red crosses prominently displayed and shall, in general, comply with the identification system prescribed above for hospital ships.
The above-mentioned ships and craft, which may wish to ensure by night and in times of reduced visibility the protection to which they are entitled, must, subject to the assent of the Party to the conflict under whose power they are, take the necessary measures to render their painting and distinctive emblems sufficiently apparent.
Hospital ships which, in accordance with Article 31, are provisionally detained by the enemy, must haul down the flag of the Party to the conflict in whose service they are or whose direction they have accepted.
Coastal lifeboats, if they continue to operate with the consent of the Occupying Power from a base which is occupied, may be allowed, when away from their base, to continue to fly their own national colours along with a flag carrying a red cross• on a white ground, subject to prior notification to all the Parties to the conflict concerned.
61.
DODD0A-01 21 04
All the provisions in this Article relating to the red cross shall apply equally to the other emblems mentioned in Article 41.
Parties to the conflict shall at all times endeavour to conclude mutual agreements in order to use the most modern methods available to facilitate the identification of hospital ships.
ARTICLE 44.
The distinguishing signs referred to in Article 43 can only be used, whether in time of peace or war, for indicating or protecting the ships therein mentioned, except as may be provided in any other inter­national Convention or by agreement between all the Parties to the conflict concerned.
ARTICLE 45.
The High Contracting Parties shall, if their legislation is not already adequate, take the measures necessary for the prevention and repres­sion, at all times, of any abuse of the distinctive signs provided for under Article 43.
CHAPTER VII. Execution of the Convention.
ARTICLE 46.
Each Party to the conflict, acting through its Commanders-in-Chief, shall ensure the detailed execution of the preceding Articles and provide for unforeseen cases, in conformity with the general principles of the present Convention.
ARTICLE 47.
Reprisals against the wounded, sick and shipwrecked persons, the personnel, the vessels or the equipment protected by the Convention are prohibited.
ARTICLE 48.
The High Contracting Parties undertake, in time of peace as in time of war, to disseminate the text of the present Convention as widely as possible in their respective countries, and, in particular, to include the study thereof in their programmes of military and, if possible, civil instruction, so that the principles thereof niay become known to the entire population, in particular to the armed fighting forces, the medi­cal personnel and the chaplains.
ARTICLE 49.
The High Contracting Parties shall communicate to one another through the Swiss Federal Council .and, during hostilities, through the Protecting Powers, the official translations of the present Conven­tion, as well as the laws and regulations which they may adopt to ensure the application thereof.
DODDOA-012105
62.
CHAPTER VIII. Repression of Abuses and Infractions.
ARTICLE 50.
The High Contracting Parties undertake to enact any legislation
necessary to provide effective penal sanctions for persons committing,
or ordering to be committed, any of the grave breaches of the present
Convention defined in the following Article.
Each High Contracting Party shall be under the obligation to search
for persons alleged to have committed, or to have ordered to be com­
mitted, such grave breaches, and shall bring such persons, regardless of
their nationality, before its own courts. It may also, if it prefers, and
in accordance with the provisions of its own legislation, hand such
persons over for trial to another High Contracting Party concerned,
provided such High Contracting Party has made out a prima facie case.
Each High Contracting Party shall take measures necessary for the
suppression of all acts contrary to the provisions of the present Con­
vention other than the grave breaches defined in the following Article.
In all circumstances, the accused persons shall benefit by safeguards
of proper trial and defence, which shall not be less favourable than those
provided by Article 105 and those following of the Geneva. Convention
relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War of August 12, 1949.
ARTICLE 51.
Grave breaches to which the preceding Article relates shall be those involving any of the following acts, if committed against persons or property protected by the Convention: wilful killing, torture or in­human treatment, including biological experiments, wilfully causing great suffering or serious injury to body or health, and extensive des­truction and appr,opriation of property, not justified by military necessity and carried out unlawfully and wantonly.
ARTICLE 52.
No High Contracting Party shall be allowed to absolve itself or any other High Contracting Party of any liability incurred by itself or by another High Contracting Party in respect of breaches referred to in the preceding Article.
ARTICLE 53.
At the request of a Party to the conflict, an enquiry shall be insti­tuted, in a manner to be decided between the interested Parties, con­cerning any alleged violation of the Convention.
If agreement has not been reached concerning the procedure for the enquiry, the Parties should agree on the choice of an umpire, who will decide upon the procedure to be followed.
Once the violation has been established, the Parties to the conflict shall put an' end to it and shall repress it with the least possible delay.
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DODD0A-012106
FINAL PROVISIONS
ARTICLE 54.
The present Convention is established in English and in French. Both texts are equally authentic. The Swiss Federal Council shall arrange for official translations of the Convention to be made in the Russian and Spanish languages.
ARTICLE 55.
The present Convention, which bears the date of this day, is open to signature until February 12, 1950, in the name of the Powers repre­sented at the Conference which opened at Geneva on April 21, 1949; furthermore, by Powers not represented at that Conference, but which are parties to the Xth Hague Convention of October 18, 1907, for the adaptation to Maritime Warfare of the principles of the Geneva Convention of 1906, or to the Geneva Conventions of 1864, 1906 or 1929 for the Relief of the Wounded and Sick in Armies in the Field.
ARTICLE 56.
The present Convention shall be ratified as soork as possible and the ratifications shall be deposited at Berne.
A record shall be drawn up of the deposit of each instrument of rati­fication and certified copies of this record shall be transmitted by the Swiss Federal Council to all the Powers in whose name the Convention has been signed, or whose accession has been notified.
ARTICLE 57.
The present Convention shall come into force six months after not less than two instruments of ratification have been deposited. Thereafter, it shall come into force for each High Contracting Party six months after the deposit of the instrument of ratification.
ARTICLE 58.
The present Convention replaces the Xth Hague Convention of October 18, 1907, for the adaptation to Maritime Warfare of the principles of the Geneva Convention of 1906, in relations between the High Contracting Parties.
ARTICLE 59.
From the date of its coming into force, it shall be open to any Power in whose name the present Convention has not been signed, to accede to this Convention.
ARTICLE 60.
Accessions shall be notified in writing to the Swiss Federal Council, and shall take effect six months after the date on which they are received.
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DODDOA-012107
The Swiss Federal Council shall communicate the accessions to all the Powers in whose name the Convention has been signed, or whose accession has been notified.
ARTICLE 61.
The situations provided for in Articles 2 and 3 shall give immediate effect to ratifications deposited and accessions notified by the Parties to the conflict before or after the beginning of hostilities or occupation. The Swiss Federal Council shall communicate by the quickest method any ratifications or accessions received from Parties to the conflict.
ARTICLE 62.
Each of the High Contracting Parties shall be at liberty to denounce the preient Convention.
The denunciation shall be notified in writing to the Swiss Federal Council, which 'shall transmit it to the Governments of all the. High Contracting Parties.
The denunciation shall take effect one year after the notification thereof has been made to the Swiss Federal Council. However, a denunciation of which notification has been made at a time when the denouncing Power is involved in a conflict shall not take effect until peace has been concluded, and until after operations connected with the release and repatriation of the persons protected by the present Convention have been terminated.
The denunciation shall have effect only in respect of the denouncing Power. It shall in no way impair the obligations which the Parties to the conflict shall remain bound to fulfil by virtue of the principles of the law of nations, as they result from the usages established among civilized peoples, from the laws of humanity and the dictates of the public conscience.
ARTICLE 63.
The Swiss Federal Council shall register the present Convention with the Secretariat of the United Nations. The Swiss Federal Council shall also inform the Secretariat of the United Nations of all ratifica­tions, accessions and denunciations received by it with respect to the present Convention.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned, • having deposited their respective full powers, have signed the present Convention.
DONE at Geneva this twelfth day of August 1949, in the English and French languages. The original shall be depOsited in the Archives of the Swiss Confederation. The Swiss Federal Council shall transmit certified copies thereof to each of the signatory and acceding States.
[Here follow signatures.]
DODDOA-012108
Front
Reverse Side
ANNEX
0 (Swot roservid fat tit moo of the oosotry sod Inaltary sullocity Waist this out)
IDENTITY CARD

for members of medical and religious person-nel attached to the armed forces at sea
Surname .
First names
Date of Birth
Rank .
Army Number .
The bearer of this card is protected by the Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea of August is, zoo, in his capacity as
Date of Issue.Number of Citd
Signature of bearer or
Photo of buret
fingerprints or both
Height .Hair. Other distinguishing marks
66

Chapter 6

Geneva Convention
Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War

12 August 1949
(Treaties and Other International Acts Series 3364)
The undersigned Plenipotentiaries of the Governments represented at the Diplomatic Conference held at Geneva from April 21 to August 12, 1949, for the purpose of revising the Convention concluded at Geneva on July 27, 1929, relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War, have agreed as follows:
PART I. GENERAL PROVISIONS
ARTICLE 1.
The High Contracting Parties undertake to respect and to ensure respect for the present Convention in all circumstances.
ARTICLE 2.
In addition to the provisions which shall be implemented in peace time, the present Convention shall apply to all cases of declared war or of any other armed conflict which may arise between two or more of the High Contracting Parties, even if the state of war is not recog­nized by one of them.
The Convention shall also apply to all cases of partial or total occupation of the territory of a High Contracting Party, even if the said occupation meets with no armed resistance.
Although one of the Powers in conflict may not be a party to the present Convention, the Powers who are parties thereto shall remain bound by it in their mutual relations. They shall furthermore be bound by the Convention in relation to the said Power, if the latter accepts and applies the provisions thereof.
ARTICLE 3.
In the case of armed conflict not of an international character occurring in the territory of one of the High Contracting Parties, each Party to the conflict shall be bound to apply, as a minimum, the following provisions:
67
DODD0A-012110

(1) Persons taking no active part in the hostilities, including
members of armed forces who have laid down their arms
and those placed hors de combat by sickness, wounds, deten­tion, or any other cause, shall in all circumstances be treated
humanely, without any adverse distinction founded on
race, colour, religion or faith, sex, birth or wealth, or any
other similar criteria.

To this end the following acts are and' shall remain pro­hibited at any time and in any place whatsoever with respect to the above-mentioned persons:
(a)
violence to life and person, in particular murder of all kinds, mutilation, cruel treatment and torture;

(b)
taking of hostages;

(c)
outrages upon personal dignity; in particular, humiliating and degrading treatment;

(d)
the passing of sentences and the carrying out of executions without previous judgment pronounced by a regularly constituted court affording all the judicial guarantees which are recognized as indispensable by civilized peoples.

(2)
The wounded and sick shall be collected and cared for. An impartial humanitarian body, such as the International Com­mittee of the Red Cross, may offer its services to the Parties to the conflict. The Parties to the conflict should further endeavour to bring into force, by means of special agreements, all or part of the other pro­visions of the present Convention.

The application of the preceding provisions shall not affect the legal status of the Parties to the conflict.
ARTICLE 4.
A. Prisoners of war, in the sense of the present Convention, are persons belonging to one of the following categories, who have fallen into the power of the enemy:
(1)
Members of the armed forces of a Party to the conflict, as
well as members of militias or volunteer corps forming part
of such armed forces.

(2)
Members of other militias and members of other volunteer
corps, including those of organized resistance movements,
belonging to a Party to the conflict and operating in or
outside their own territory, even if this territory is occupied,
provided that such militias or volunteer corps, including
such organized resistance movements, fulfil the following
conditions:

(a) that of being commanded by a person responsible for his subordinates;
68.
DODD0A-012111
(b)
that of having a fixed distinctive sign recognizable at a distance;

(c)
that of carrying arms openly;

(d)
that of conducting their operations in accordance with the laws and customs of war.

(3)
Members of regular armed forces who profess allegiance to
a government or an authority not recognized by the Detain­ing Power.

(4)
Persons who accompany the armed forces without actually
being members thereof, such as civilian members of military
aircraft crews, war correspondents, supply contractors,
members of labour units or of services responsible for the
welfare of the armed forces, provided that they have re­ceived authorization from the armed forces which they
accompany, who shall provide them for that purpose with
an identity card similar to the annexed model.

(5)
Members of crews, including masters, pilots and apprentices,
of the merchant marine and the crews of civil aircraft of
the Parties to the conflict, who do not benefit by more
favourable treatment under any other provisions of inter­national law.

(6)
Inhabitants of a non-occupied territory, who on the approach
of the enemy spontaneously take up arms to resist the in­vading forces, without having had time to form themselves
into regular armed units provided they carry arms openly
and respect the laws and customs of war.

B.
The following shall likewise be treated as prisoners of war under the present Convention:

(1)
Persons belonging, or having belonged, to the armed forces
of the occupied country, if the occupying Power considers
it necessary by reason of such allegiance to intern them,
even though it has originally liberated them while hostilities
were going on outside the territory it occupies, in particular
where such persons have made an unsuccessful attempt to
rejoin the armed forces to which they belong and which are
engaged in combat, or where they fail to comply with a
summons made to them with a view to internment.

(2)
The persons belonging to one of the categories enumerated
in the present Article, who have been received by neutral or
non-belligerent Powers on their territory and whom these
Powers are required to intern under international law,
without prejudice to any more favourable treatment which
these Powers may choose to give and with the exception of
Articles 8, 10, 15, 30, fifth paragraph 58-67, 92, 126 and,
where diplomatic relations exist between the Parties to the
conflict and the neutral or non-belligerent Power concerned,

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DODDOA-012112
those Articles concerning the Protecting Power. Where such diplomatic relations exist, the Parties to a conflict on whom these persons depend shall be allowed to perform towards them the functions of a Protecting Power as pro­vided in the present Convention, without prejudice to the functions which these Parties normally exercise in conformity with diplomatic and consular usage and treaties.
C. This Article shall in no way affect the status of medical personnel and chaplains as provided for in Article 33 of the present Convention.
ARTICLE 5.
The present Convention shall apply to the persons referred to in Article 4 from the time they fall into the power of the enemy and until their final release and repatriation.
Should any doubt arise as to whether persons, having committed a belligerent act and having fallen into the hands of the enemy, belong to any of the categories enumerated in Article 4, such persons shall enjoy the protection of the present Convention until such time as their status has been determined by a competent tribunal.
ARTICLE •6.
In addition to the agreements expressly provided for in Articles 10, 23, 28, 33, 60, 65, 66, 67, 72, 73, 75, 109, 110, 118, 119, 122 and 132, the High Contracting Parties may conclude other special_ agreements for all matters concerning which they may deem it suitable to make separate provision. No special agreement shall adversely affect the situation of prisoners of war, as defined by the present Convention, nor restrict the rights which it confers upon them.
Prisoners of war shall continue to have the benefit of such agree­ments as long as the Convention is applicable to them, except where express provisions to the contrary are contained in the aforesaid or in subsequent agreements, or where more favourable measures have been taken with regard to them by one or other of the Parties to the conflict.
ARTICLE 7.
Prisoners of war may in no circumstances renounce in part or in entirety the rights secured to them by the present Convention, and by the special agreements referred to in the foregoing Article, if such there be.
ARTICLE 8.
The present Convention shall be applied with the cooperation and under the scrutiny of the Protecting Powers whose duty it is to safe­guard the interests of the Parties to the conflict. For this purpose, the Protecting Powers may appoint, apart from their diplomatic or consular staff, delegates from amongst their own nationals or the
70 DODD0A-01 2113
nationals of other neutral Powers. The said delegates shall be subject
to the approval of the Power with which they are to carry out their
duties.

The Parties to the conflict shall facilitate to the greatest extent
possible the task of the representatives or delegates of the Protecting
Powers.

The representatives or delegates of the Protecting Powers shall not
in any case exceed their mission under the present Convention. They
shall, in particular, take account of the imperative necessities of
security of the State wherein they carry out their duties.
ARTICLE 9.
The provisions of the present Convention constitute no obstacle
to the humanitarian activities which the International Committee of
the Red Cross or any other impartial humanitarian organization may,
subject to the consent of the Parties to the conflict concerned, under­
take for the protection of prisoners of war and for their relief.
ARTICLE 10. *
The High Contracting Parties may at any time agree to entrust
to an organization which offers all guarantees of impartiality and
efficacy the duties incumbent on the Protecting Powers by virtue
of the present Convention.
When prisoners of war do not benefit or cease to benefit, no matter for what reason, by the activities of a Protecting Power or of an organization provided for in the first paragraph above, the Detaining Power shall request a neutral State, or such an organization, to undertake the functions performed under the present Convention by a Protecting Power designated by the Parties to a conflict.
If protection cannot be arranged accordingly, the -Detaining Power shall request or shall accept, subject to the provisions of this Article, the offer of the services of a humanitarian organization, such as the International Committee of the Red Cross, to assume the humani­tarian functions performed by Protecting Powers under the present Convention.
Any neutral Power or any organization invited by the Power con­cerned or offering itself for these purposes, shall be required to act with a sense of responsibility towards the-Party to the conflict on which persons protected by the present Convention depend, and shall be required to furnish sufficient assurances that it is in a position to undertake the appropriate functions and to discharge them impartially.
No derogation from the preceding provisions shall be made by special agreements between Powers one of which is restricted, even tempo­rarily, in its freedom to negotiate with the other Power or its allies by reason of military events, more particularly where the whole, or a substantial part, of the territory of the said Power is occupied.
'In ratifying the present Conve—ion, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and certain other govern­ments made specific reservations with respect to this Article,
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DODD0A-012114
Whenever in the present Convention mention is made of a Pro­tecting Power, such mention applies to substitute organizations in the sense of the present Article.
ARTICLE 11.
In cases where they deem it advisable in the interest of protected persons particularly in cases of disagreement between the Parties to the conflict as to the application or interpretation of the provisions of the present Convention, the Protecting Powers shall lend their good offices with a view to settling the disagreement.
For this purpose, each of the Protecting Powers may, either at the invitation of one Party or on its own initiative, propose to the Parties to the conflict a meeting of their representatives, and in particular of the authorities responsible for prisoners of war, possibly on neutral territory suitably chosen. The Parties to the conflict shall be bound to give effect to the proposals made to them for this purpose. The Protecting Powers may, if necessary; propose for approval by the Parties to the conflict a person belonging to a neutral Power, or dele­gated by the International Committee of the Red Cross, who shall be invited to take part in such a meeting.
PART II. GENERAL PROTECTION OF PRISONERS OF WAR
ARTICLE 12. *
Prisoners of war are in the hands of the enemy Power, but not of the individuals or military units who have captured them. Irrespec­tive of the individual responsibilities that may exist, the Detaining Power is responsible for the treatment given them.
Prisoners of war may only be transferred by the Detaining Power to a Power which is a party to the Convention and after the De­taining Power has satisfied itself of the willingness and ability of such transferee Power to apply the Convention. When prisoners of war are transferred under such circumstances, responsibility for the application of the Convention rests on the Power accepting them while they are in its custody.
Nevertheless, if that Power fails to carry out the provisions of the Convention in any important respect, the Power by whom the pris­oners of war were transferred shall, upon being notified by the Pro­tecting Power, take effective measures to correct the situation or shall request the return of the prisoners of war. Such requests must be complied with.
ARTICLE 13.
Prisoners of war must at all times be humanely treated. Any unlawful act or omission by the Detaining Power causing death or seriously endangering the health of a prisoner of war in its custody is
'In ratifying the present Convention, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and certain other govern­ments made specific reservations with respect to this Article.
72
DODDOA-012115
prohibited, and will be regarded as a serious breach of the present
Convention. In particular, no prisoner of war may be subjected to
physical mutilation or to medical or scientific experiments of any kind
which are not justified by the medical, dental or hospital treatment
of the prisoner concerned and carried out in his interest.
Likewise, prisoners of war must at all times be protected, particu­
larly against acts of violence or intimidation and against insults and
public curiosity.
Measures of reprisal against prisoners of war are prohibited.
ARTICLE 14.
Prisoners of war are entitled in all circumstances to respect for their
persons and their honour.
Women shall be treated with all the regard due to their sex and shall
in all cases benefit by treatment as favourable as that granted to men.
Prisoners of war shall retain the full civil capacity which they en­
joyed at the time of their capture. The Detaining Power may not
restrict the exercise, either within or without its own territory, of the
rights such capacity confers except in so far as the captivity requires.
ARTICLE 15.
The Power detaining prisoners of war shall be bound to provide free
of charge for their maintenance and for the medical attention required
by their state of health.
ARTICLE 16.
Taking into consideration the provisions of the present Convention relating to rank and sex, and subject to any privileged treatment which may be accorded to them by reason of their state of health, age or professional qualifications, all prisoners of war shall be treated alike by the Detaining Power, without any adverse distinction based on race, nationality, religious belief or political opinions, or any other distinction founded on similar criteria.
PART III. CAPTIVITY
SECTION I. BEGINNING OF CAPTIVITY.
ARTICLE 17.
Every prisoner of war, when questioned on the subject, is bound to give only his surname, first names and rank, date of birth, and army, regimental, personal or serial number, or failing this, equivalent information.
If he wilfully infringes this rule, he may render himself liable to a restriction of the privileges accorded to his rank or status. Each Party to a conflict is required to furnish the persons under its jurisdiction who are liable to become prisoners of war, with an iden-
73.
DODD0A-012116
tity card showing the owner's surname, first names, rank, army,
regimental, personal or serial number or equivalent information, and
date of birth. The identity card may, furthermore, bear the signature
or the fingerprints, or both, of the owner, and may bear, as well, any
other information the Party to the conflict may wish to add con­
cerning persons belonging to its armed forces. As far as possible the
card shall measure 6.5 x 10 cm. and shall be issued in duplicate. The
identity card shall be shown by the prisoner of war upon demand, but
may in no case be taken away from him.
No physical or mental torture, nor any other form of coercion, may
be inflicted on prisoners of war to secure from them information of
any kind whatever. Prisoners of war who refuse to answer may not
be threatened, insulted, or exposed to unpleasant or disadvantageous
treatment of any kind.
Prisoners of war who, owing to their physical or mental condition,
are unable to state their identity, shall be handed over to the medical
service. The identity of such prisoners shall be established by all
possible means, subject to the provisions of the preceding paragraph.
The questioning of prisoners of war shall be carried out in a language
which they understand.
ARTICLE 18.
All effects and articles of personal use, except arms, horses, military
equipment and military documents, shall remain in the possession of
prisoners of war, likewise their metal helmets and gas masks and like
articles issued for personal protection. Effects and articles used for
their clothing or feeding shall likewise remain in their possession, even
if such effects and articles belong to their regulation military equip­
ment.
At no time should prisoners of war be without identity documents.
The Detaining Power shall supply such documents to prisoners of war
who possess none.
Badges of rank and nationality, decorations and articles having
above all a personal or sentimental value may not be taken from
prisoners of war.
Sums of money carried by prisoners of war may not be taken away
from them except by order of an officer, and after the amount and
particulars of the owner have been recorded in a special register and an
itemized receipt has been given, legibly inscribed with the name, rank
and unit of the person issuing the said receipt. Sums in the currency
of the Detaining Power, or which are changed into such currency at
the prisoner's request, shall be placed to the credit of the prisoner's
• account as provided in Article 64.
The Detaining Power may withdraw articles of value from prisoners
of war only for reasons of security; when such articles are withdrawn,
the procedure laid down for sums of money impounded shall apply.

74. DODDOA-01 2117
Such objects, likewise sums taken away in any currency other than
that of the Detaining Power and the conversion of which has not been
asked for by the owners, shall be kept in the custody of the Detaining
Power and shall be returned in their initial shape to prisoners of war
at the end of their captivity.

ARTICLE 19.
Prisoners of war shall be evacuated, as soon as possible after their
capture, to camps situated in an area far enough from the combat zone
for them to be out of danger.
Only those prisoners of war, who, owing to wounds or sickness,
would run greater risks by being evacuated than by remaining where
they are, may be temporarily kept back in a danger zone.
Prisoners of war shall not be unnecessarily exposed to danger while
awaiting evacuation from a fighting zone.
ARTICLE 20.
The evacuation of prisoners of war shall always be effected humanely
and in conditions similar to those for the forces of the Detaining Power
in their changes of station.
The Detaining Power shall supply prisoners of war who are being
evacuated with sufficient food and potable water, and with the neces­
sary clothing and medical attention. The Detaining Power shall
take all suitable precautions to ensure their safety during evacuation,
and shall establish as soon as possible a list of the prisoners of war who
are evacuated.
Ii prisoners of war must, during evacuation, pass through transit
camps, their stay in such camps shall be as brief as possible.
.
SECTION II. INTERNMENT OF PRISONERS OF WAR.
CHAPTER I. General Observations.
ARTICLE 21.
The Detaining Power may subject prisoners of war to internment.
It may impose on them the obligation of not leaving, beyond certain
limits, the camp where they are interned, or if the said camp is fenced
in, of not going outside its perimeter. Subject to the provisions of
the present Convention relative to penal and disciplinary sanctions,
prisoners of war may not be held in close confinement except where
necessary to safeguard their health and then only during the continua­
tion of the circumstances which make such confinement necessary.
Prisoners of war may be partially or wholly released on parole or ,promise, insofar as is allowed by the laws of the Power on which they depend. Such measures shall be taken particularly in cases where this may contribute to the improvement of their state of health.
75
DODDOA-012118
- -.
-
No prisoner of war shall be compelled to accept liberty on parole or promise.
Upon the outbreak of hostilities, each Party to the conflict shall notify the adverse Party of the laws and regulations allowing or for­bidding its own nationals to accept liberty on parole or promise. Prisoners of war who are paroled or who have given their promise in conformity with the laws and regulations so notified, are bound on their personal honour scrupulously to fulfill, both towards the Power on which they depend and towards the Power which has captured them, the engagements of their paroles or promises. In such cases, the Power on which they depend is bound neither to require nor to accept from them any service incompatible with the parole or promise given.
ARTICLE 22.
Prisoners of war may be interned only in premises located on land and affording every guarantee of hygiene and healthfulness. Except in particular cases which are justified by the interest of the prisoners themselves, they shall not be interned in penitentiaries.
Prisoners of war interned in unhealthy areas, or where the climate is injurious for them, shall be removed as soon as possible to a more avourable climate.
The Detaining Power shall assemble prisoners of war in camps or camp compounds according to their nationality, language and cus­toms, provided that such prisoners shall not be separated from prisoners of war belonging to the armed forces with which they were serving at the time of their capture, except with their consent.
-ARTICLE 23.
No prisoner of war may at any time be sent to, or detained in areas where he may be exposed to the fire of the combat zone, nor may his presence be used to render certain points or areas immune from military operations.
Prisoners of war shall have shelters against air bombardment and other hazards of war, to the same extent as the local civilian popula­tion. With the exception of those engaged in the protection of their quarters against the aforesaid hazards, they may enter such shelters as soon as possible after the giving of the alarm. Any other protec­tive measure taken in favour of the population shall also apply to them.
Detaining Powers shall give the Powers concerned, through the intermediary of the Protecting Powers, all useful information re­garding the geographical location of prisoner of war camps.
Whenever military considerations permit, prisoner of war camps shall be indicated in the day-time by the letters PW or PG, placed so as to be clearly visible from the air. The Powers concerned may, however, agree upon any other system of marking. Only prisoner of war camps shall be marked as such.
76
DODD0A-01211 9
ARTICLE 24.
Transit or screening camps of a permanent kind shall be fitted out under conditions similar to those described in the present Section, and the prisoners therein shall have the same treatment as in other
camps.
CHAPTER II. Quarters, Food and Clothing of Prisoners of War.
ARTICLE 25.
Prisoners of war shall be quartered under conditions as favourable as those for the forces of the Detaining Power who are billeted in the same area. The said conditions shall make allowance for the habits and customs of the prisoners and shall in no case be prejudicial to their health.
The foregoing provisions shall apply in particular to the dormi­tories of prisoners of war as regards both total surface and minimum cubic space, and the general installations, bedding and blankets.
The premises provided for .the.use of prisoners of war individually or collectively, shall be entirely protected from dampness and ade­quately heated and lighted, in particular between dusk and lights out. All precautions must be taken against the danger of fire.
In any camps in which women prisoners of war, as well as men, are accommodated, separate dormitories shall be provided for them.
ARTICLE 26.
The basic daily food rations shall be sufficient in quantity, quality and variety to keep prisoners of war in good health and to prevent loss of weight or the development of nutritional deficiencies. Account shall also be taken of the habitual diet of the prisoners.
The Detaining Power shall supply prisoners of war who work with such additional rations as are necessary for the labour on which they are employed.
Sufficient drinking water shall be supplied to prisoners of war. The use of tobacco shall be permitted.
Prisoners of war shall, as far as possible, be associated with the preparation of their meals; they may be employed for that purpose in the kitchens. Furthermore, they shall be given the means of pre­paring, themselves, the additional food in their possession.
Adequate premises shall be provided for messing.
Collective disciplinary measures affecting food are prohibited.
ARTICLE 27.
Clothing, underwear and footwear shall be supplied to prisoners of war in sufficient quantities by the Detaining Power, which shall make allowance for the climate of the region where the prisoners are de­tained. Uniforms of enemy armed forces captured by the Detaining
77.
DODDOA-012120
Power should, if suitable for the climate, be made available to clothe prisoners of war. The regular replacement and repair of the above articles shall be
assured by the Detaining Power. In addition, prisoners of war who work shall receive appropriate clothing, wherever the nature of the
work demands.
ARTICLE 28.
Canteens shall be installed in all camps, where prisoners of war may procure foodstuffs, soap and tobacco and ordinary articles in daily use. The tariff shall never be in excesp of local market prices.
The profits made by camp canteens shall be used for the benefit of the prisoners; a special fund shall be created for this purpose. The prisoners' representative shall have the right to collaborate in the management of the canteen of this fund.
When a camp is closed down, the credit balance of the special fund shall be handed to an international welfare organization, to be em­ployed for the benefit of prisoners of war of the same nationality as
those who have contributed to the fund. In case of a general repa­triation, such profits shall be kept by the Detaining Power, subject to any agreement to the contrary between the Powers concerned.
CHAPTER III. Hygiene and Medical Attention.
ARTICLE 29.
The Detaining Power shall be bound to take all sanitary measures necessary to ensure the cleanliness and healthfulness of camps and to prevent epidemics.
Prisoners of war shall have for their use, day and night, conven­iences which conform to the rules of hygiene and are maintained in a constant state of cleanliness. In any camps in which women prisoners of war are accommodated, separate conveniences shall be provided for them.
Also, apart from the baths and showers with which the camps shall be furnished, prisoners of war shall be provided with sufficient water and soap for their personal toilet and for washing their personal laundry; the necessary installations, facilities and time shall be granted them for that purpose.
ARTICLE 30.
Every camp shall have an adequate infirmary where prisoners of war may have the attention they require, as well as appropriate diet. Isolation wards shall, if necessary, be set aside for cases of contagious or mental disease.
Prisoners of war suffering from serious disease, or whose condition necessitates special treatment, a surgical operatidn or hospital care, must be admitted to any military or civilian medical unit where such
78
DODD0A-012121
treatment can be given, even if their repatriation is contemplated in the near future. Special facilities shall be afforded for the care to be given to the disabled, in particular to the blind, and for their rehabili­
tation, pending repatriation. Prisoners of • war shall have the attention, preferably, of medical personnel of the Power on which they depend and, if possible, of their nationality.
Prisoners of war may not be prevented from presenting themselves to the medical authorities for examination. The detaining authorities shall, upon request, issue to every prisoner who has undergone treat­ment, an official certificate indicating the nature of his illness or injury and the duration and kind of treatment received. A duplicate of this certificate shall be forwarded to the Central Prisoners of War Agency.
The costs of treatment, including those of any apparatus necessary for the maintenance of prisoners of war in good health, particularly dentures and other artificial appliances, and spectacles, shall be borne by the Detaining Power.
ARTICLE 31.
Medical inspections of prisoners of war shall lie held at least once a month. They shall include the checking and the recording of the weight of each prisoner of war. Their purpose shall be, in particular, to supervise the general state of health, nutrition and cleanliness of prisoners and to detect contagious diseases, especially tuberculosis, malaria and venereal disease. For this purpose the most efficient methods available shall be employed, e. g., periodic mass miniature radiography for the early detection of tuberculosis.
ARTICLE 32.
Prisoners of war who, though not attached to the medical servic9 of their armed forces, are physicians, surgeons, dentists, nurses or medical orderlies, may be required by the Detaining Power to exercise their medical functions in the interests of prisoners of war dependent on the same Power. In that case they shall continue to be prisoners of war, but shall receive the same treatment as corresponding medical. personnel retained by the Detaining Power. They shall be exemptedfrom any other work under Article 49.
CHAPTER IV. Medical Personnel and Chaplains Retained to Assist Prisoners of War.
ARTICLE 33.
Members of the medical personnel and chaplains while retained by the Detaining Power with a view to assisting prisoners of war, shall not be considered as prisoners of war. They shall, however, receive
79.
DODD0A-012122
as a minimum the benefits and protection of the present Convention, and shall also be granted all facilities necessary to provide for the medical care of, and religious ministration to prisoners of war.
They shall continue to exercise their medical and spiritual functions for the benefit of prisoners of war, preferably those belonging to the armed forces upon which they depend, within the scope of the military laws and regulations of the Detaining Power and under the control of its competent services, in accordance with their professional etiquette. They shall also benefit by the following facilities in the exercise of their medical or spiritual functions:
(a)
They shall be authorized to visit periodically prisoners of war
situated in working detachments or in hospitals outside the
camp. For this purpose, the Detaining Power shall place at
their disposal the necessary means of transport.

(b)
The senior medical officer in each camp shall be responsible
to the camp military authorities for everything connected
with the activities of retained medical personnel. For this
purpose, Parties to the conflict shall agree at the outbreak
of hostilities on the subject of the corresponding ranks of the
medical personnel, including that of societies mentioned in
Article 26 of the Geneva Convention for.the Amelioration of
the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in
the Field of August 12, 1949. This senior medical officer,
as well as chaplains, shall have the right to deal with the
competent authorities of the camp on all questions relating
to their duties. Such authorities shall afford them all
necessary facilities for correspondence relating to these
questions.

(c)
Although they shall be subject to the internal discipline of
the camp in which they are retained, such personnel may
not be compelled to carry out any work other than that
concerned with their medical or religious duties.

During hostilities, the Parties to the conflict shall agree concerning the possible relief of retained personnel and shall settle the procedure to be followed.
None of the preceding provisions shall relieve the Detaining Power of its obligations with regard to prisoners of war from the medical or spiritual point of view.
CHAPTER V. Religious, Intellectual and Physical Activities.
ARTICLE 34.
Prisoners of war shall enjoy complete latitude in the exercise of their religious duties, including attendance at the service of their faith, on condition that they comply with the disciplinary routine prescribed by the military authorities.
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DOEM0A-012123
Adequate premises shall be provided where religious services may be held. ARTICLE 35.
Chaplains who fall into the hands of the enemy Power and who
remain or are retained with a view to ,assisting prisoners of war, shall
be allowed to minister to them and to exercise freely their ministry
amongst prisoners of war of the same religion, in accordance with
their religious conscience. They shall be allocated among the various
camps and labour detachments containing prisoners of war belonging
to the same forces, speaking the same language or practising the same
religion. They shall enjoy the necessary facilities, including the means
of transport provided for in Article 33, for visiting the prisoners of
war outside their camp. They shall be free to correspond, subject
to censorship, on matters concerning their religious duties with the
ecclesiastical authorities in the country of detention and with inter­
national religious organizations. Letters and cards which they may
send for this purpose shall be in addition to the quota provided for
in Article 71.
ARTICLE 36.
Prisoners of war who are ministers of religion, without having officiated as chaplains to their own forces, shall be at liberty, whatever their denomination, to minister freely to the members of their com­munity. For this purpose, they shall receive the same treatment as the chaplains retained by the Detaining Power. They shall not be obliged to do any other work.
ARTICLE 37.
When prisoners of war have not the assistance of a retained chaplain or of a prisoner of war minister of their faith, a minister belonging to the prisoners' or a similar denomination, or in his absence a qualified layman, if such a course is feasible from a confessional point of view, shall be appointed, at the request of the prisoners concerned, to fill this office. This appointment, subject to the approval of the Detain­ing Power, shall take place with the agreement of the community of prisoners concerned and, wherever necessary, with the approval of the local religious authorities of the same faith. The person thus ap­pointed shall comply with all regulations established by the Detaining Power in the interests of discipline and military security.
ARTICLE 38.
While respecting the individual preferences of every prisoner, the Detaining Power shall encourage the practice of intellectual, educa­tional, and recreational pursuits, sports and games amongst prisoners,and shall take the measures necessary to ensure the exercise thereof by providing them with adequate premises and necessary equipment.
81
DODDOA-012124
Prisoners shall have opportunities for taking physical exercise,
including sports and games, and for being out of doors. SufficienT
open spaces shall be provided for this purpose in all camps.

CHAPTER VI. Discipline.
ARTICLE 39.
Every prisoner of war camp shall be put under the immediate
authority of a responsible commissioned officer belonging to the
regular armed forces of the Detaining Power. Such officer shall have
in his possession a copy of the present Convention; he shall ensure
that its provisions are known to the camp staff and the guard and
shall be responsible, under the direction of his government, for its
application.
Prisoners of war, with the exception of officers, must salute and
show to all officers of the Detaining Power the external marks of
respect provided for by the regulations applying in their own forces.
Officer prisoners of war are bound to salute only officers of a higher
rank of the Detaining Power; they must, however, salute the camp
commander regardless of his rank.
ARTICLE 40.
The wearing of badges of rank and nationality, as well as of decora­tions, shall be permitted.

ARTICLE 41.
In every camp the text of the present Convention and its Annexes and the contents of any special agreement provided -for in Article 6, shall be posted, in the prisoners' own language, in places where all may read them. Copies shall be supplied, on request, to the prisoners who cannot have access to the copy which has been posted.
Regulations, orders, notices and publications of every kind relating to the conduct of prisoners of war shall be issued to them in a language which they understand. Such regulations, orders and publications shall be posted in the manner described above and copies shall be handed to the prisoners' representative. Every order and command addressed to prisoners of war individually must likewise be given in a language which they understand.
ARTICLE 42.
The use of weapons against prisoners of war, especially against those who are escaping or attempting to escape, shall constitute an extreme measure, which shall always be preceded by warnings ap­propriate to the circumstances.
DODD0A-0121 25
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CHAPTER VII. Rank of Prisoners of War.
ARTICLE 43.
Upon the outbreak of hostilities, the Parties to the conflict shall
communicate to one another the titles and ranks of all the persons
mentioned in Article 4 of the present Convention, in order to ensure
equality of treatment between prisoners of equivalent rank. Titles
and ranks which are subsequently created shall form the subject of
similar communications.
The Detaining Power shall recognize promotions in rank which have
been accorded to prisoners of war and which have been duly notified
by the Power on which these prisoners depend.
ARTICLE 44.
Officers and prisoners of equivalent status shall be treated with the
regard due to their rank and age.
In order to ensure service in officers' camps, other ranks of the same
armed forces who, as far as possible, speak the same language, shall
be assigned in sufficient numbers, account being taken of the rank of
officers and prisoners of equivalent status. Such orderlies shall not
be required to perform any other work.
Supervision of the mess by the officers themselves shall be facilitated
in every way.
ARTICLE 45.
Prisoners of war other than officers and prisoners of equivalent status shall be treated with the regard due to their rank and age. Supervision of the mess by the prisoners themselves shall be facili­tated in every way.
CHAPTER VIII. Transfer of Prisoners of War After Their Arrival in
Camp.

ARTICLE 46.
The Detaining Power, when deciding upon the transfer of prisoners of war, shall take into account the interests of the prisoners themselves, more especially so as not to increase the difficulty of their repatriation.
The transfer of prisoners of war shall always be effected humanely and in conditions not less favourable than those under which the forces of the Detaining Power are transferred. Account shall always be taken of the climatic conditions to which the prisoners of war are accustomed and the conditions of transfer shall in no case be prejudicial to their health.
The Detaining Power shall supply prisoners of war during transfer with sufficient food and drinking water to keep them in good health, likewise with the necessary clothing, shelter and medical attention.
83.
DODDOA-012126
The Detaining Power shall take adequate precautions expecially in
case of transport by sea or by air, to ensure their safety during transfer,
and shall draw up a complete list of all transferred prisoners before
their departure.

ARTICLE 47.
Sick or wounded prisoners of war shall not be transferred as long
as their recovery may be endangered by the journey, unless their
safety imperativ ely demands it.
,If the combat zone draws closer to a camp, the prisoners of war in
the said camp shall not be transferred unless their transfer can be
carried out in adequate conditions of safety, or unless they are exposed
to greater risks by remaining on the spot than by being transferred.
ARTICLE 48.
In the event of transfer, prisoners -of war shall be officially advised
of their departure and of their new postal address. Such notifica­
tions shall be given in time for them to pack their luggage and inform
their next of kin.
They shall be allowed to take with them their personal effects, and
the correspondence and parcels which have arrived for them. The
weight of such baggage may be limited, if the conditions of transfer
so require, to what each prisoner can reasonably carry, which shall
in no case be more than twenty-five kilograms per head.
Mail and parcels addressed to their former camp shall be forwarded to them without delay. The, camp commander shall take, in agree­ment with the prisoners' representative, any measures needed to en­sure the transport of the prisoners' community property and of the luggage they are unable to take with them in consequence of restric­tions imposed by virtue of the second paragraph of this Article.
The costs of transfers shall be borne by the Detaining Power.
SECTION III..LABOUR OF PRISONERS OF WAR.
ARTICLE 49.
The Detaining Power may utilize the labour of prisoners of war who are physically fit, taking into account their age, sex, rank and physical aptitude, and with a view particularly to maintaining them in a good state of physical and mental health.
Non-commissioned officers who are prisoners of war shall only be required to do supervisory work. Those not so required may ask for other suitable work which shall, so far as possible, be found for them.
If officers or persons of equivalent status ask for suitable work, it shall be found for them, so far as possible, but they may in no circum­stances be compelled to work.
DODD0A-012127
ARTICLE 50.
Besides work connected with camp administration, installation or maintenance, prisoners of war may be compelled to do only such work as is included in the following classes:
(a)
agriculture;

(b)
industries connected with the production or the extraction of
raw materials, and manufacturing industries, with the ex­ception of metallurgical, machinery and chemical industries;
public works and building operations which have no military
character or purpose;

(c)
transport and handling of stores which are not military in

character or purpose;
-(d) commercial business, and arts and crafts;

(e)
domestic service;

(f)
public utility services having no military character or pur­pose.

Should the above provisions be infringed, prisoners of war shall be allowed to exercise their right of complaint, in conformity with Article 78.
ARTICLE 51.
Prisoners of war must be granted suitable working conditions, es­pecially as regards accommodation, food, clothing, and equipment; such conditions shall not be inferior to those enjoyed by nationals of the Detaining Power employed in similar work; account shall also be taken of climatic conditions.
The Detaining Power, in utilizing the labour of prisoners of war, shall ensure that in areas in which such prisoners are employed, the national legislation concerning the protection of "labour, and, more particularly, the regulations for the safety of workers, are duly applied.
Prisoners of war shall receive training and be provided with the means of protection suitable to the work they will have to do and similar to those accorded to the nationals of the Detaining Power. Subject to the provisions of Article 52, prisoners may be submitted to the normal risks run by these civilian workers.
Conditions of labour shall in no case be rendered more arduous by disciplinary measures.
ARTICLE 52.
Unless he be a volunteer, no prisoner of war may be employed on labour which is of an unhealthy or dangerous nature.
No prisoner of war shall be assigned to labour which would be looked upon as humiliating for a member of the Detaining Power's own forces.
The removal of mines or similar devices shall be considered as dangerous labour. 85. DODDOA-012128
ARTICLE 53.
The duration of the daily labour of prisoners of war, including the
time of the journey to and fro, shall not be excessive, and must in no
case exceed that permitted for civilian workers in the district, who are
nationals of the Detaining Power and employed on the same work.
Prisoners of war must be allowed, in the middle of the day's work, a rest of not less than one hour. This rest will be the same as that to which workers of the Detaining Power are entitled, if the latter is of longer duration. They_shall be allowed in addition a rest of twenty­four consecutive hours every week, preferably on Sunday or the day of rest in their country of origin. Furthermore, every prisoner who has worked for one year shall be granted a rest of eight consecutive days, during which his working pay shall be paid him.
If methods of labour such as piece work are employed, the length of
the working period shall not be rendered excessive thereby.
ARTICLE 54.
The working pay due to prisoners of war shall be fixed in accordance with the provisions of Article 62 of the present Convention.
Prisoners of war who sustain accidents in connection with work, or who contract a disease in the course, or in consequence of their work, shall receive all the care their condition may require. The Detaining Power shall furthermore deliver to such prisoners of war a medical certificate enabling them to submit their claims to the Power on which they depend, and shall send a duplicate to the Central Prisoners of War Agency provided for in Article 123.
ARTICLE 55.
The fitness of prisoners of war for work shall be periodically verfied by medical examinations at least once a month. The examinations shall have particular regard to the nature of the work which prisoners of war are required to do.
If any prisoner of war considers himself incapable of working, he shall be permitted to appear before the medical authorities of his camp. Physicians or surgeons may recommend that the prisoners who are, in their opinion, unfit for work, be exempted therefrom.
ARTICLE 56.
The organization and administration of labour detachments shall be similar to those of prisoner of war camps.
Every labour detachment shall remain under the control of and administratively part of a prisoner of war camp. The military authorities and the commander of the said camp shall be responsible, under the direction of their government, for the observance of the provisions of the present Convention in labour detachments.
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DODD0A-012129
The camp commander shall keep an up-to-date record of the labour detachments dependent on his camp, and shall communicate it to the delegates of the Protecting Power, of the International Committee of the Red Cross, or of other agencies giving relief to prisoners of war, who may visit the camp.
ARTICLE 57.
The treatment of prisoners of war who work for private persons, even if the latter are responsible for guarding and protecting them, shall not be inferior to that which is provided for by the present Convention. The Detaining Power, the military authorities and the commander of the camp to which such prisoners belong shall be entirely responsible for the maintenance, care, treatment, and payment of the working pay of such prisoners of war.
Such prisoners of war shall have the right to remain in communica­tion with the prisoners' representatives in the camps on which they depend.
SECTION IV. FINANCIAL RESOURCES OF PRISONERS OF WAR
ARTICLE 58.
Upon the outbreak of hostilities, and pending an arrangement on this matter with the Protecting Power, the Detaining Power may determine the maximum amount of money in cash or in any similar form, that prisoners may have in their possession. Any amount in excess, which was properly in their possession and which has been taken or withheld from them, shall be placed to their account, to­gether with any monies deposited by them, and shall not be converted into any other currency without their consent. •
If prisoners of war are permitted to purchase services or commodities outside the camp against payment in cash, such payments shall be made by the prisoner himself or by the camp administration who will charge them to the accounts of the prisoners concerned. The De­taining Power will establish the necessary rules in this respect.
ARTICLE 59.
Cash which was taken from prisoners of war, in accordance with Article 18, at the time of their capture, and which is in the currency of the Detaining Power, shall be placed to their separate accounts, in accordance with the provisions of Article 64 of the present Section.
The amounts, in the currency of the Detaining Power, due to the conversion of sums in other currencies that are taken from the prisoners of war at the same time, shall also be credited to their separate accounts.
87 DODDOA-012130
ARTICLE 60.
The Detaining Power shall grant all prisoners of war a monthly
advance of pay, the amount of which shall be fixed by conversion, into
the currency of the said Power, of the following amounts:

Category I: Prisoners ranking below sergeants: eight Swiss
francs.
Category II: Sergeants and other non-commissioned officers, or
prisoners of equivalent rank: twelve Swiss francs.

Category III: Warrant officers and commissioned officers below
the rank of major or prisoners of equivalent rank:
fifty Swiss francs.

Category IV: Majors, lieutenant-colonels, colonels or prisoners
of equivalent rank: sixty Swiss francs.
Category V: General officers or prisoners of war of equivalent
rank: seventy-five Swiss francs.

However, the Parties to the conflict concerned may by special
agreement modify the amount of advances of pay due to prisoners of
the preceding categories.

Furthermore, if the amounts indicated in the first paragraph above would be unduly high compared with the pay of the Detaining Power's armed forces or would, for any reason, seriously embarrass the Detaining Power, then, pending the conclusion of a special agree­ment with the Power on which the prisoners depend to vary the amounts indicated above, the Detaining Power:
(a)
shall continue to credit the accounts of the prisoners with the
amounts indicated in the first paragraph above;

(b)
may temporarily limit the amount made available from these
advances of pay to prisoners of war for .their own use, to
sums which are reasonable, but which, for Category I, shall
never be inferior to the amount that the Detaining Power
gives to the members of its own armed forces.

The reasons for any limitations will be given without delay to the Protecting Power.
ARTICLE 61.
The Detaining Power shall accept for distribution as supplementary pay to prisoners of war sums which the Power on which the prisoners depend may forward to them, on condition that the sums to be paid shall be the same for each prisoner of the same category, shall be payable to all prisoners of that category depending on that Power, and shall be placed in their separate accounts, at the earliest oppor­tunity, in accordance with the provisions of Article 64. Such supple­mentary pay shall not relieve the Detaining Power of any obligation under this Convention.
DODD0A-012131
ARTICLE 62.
Prisoners of war shall be paid a fair working rate of pay by the detaining authorities direct. The rate shall be fixed by the said authorities, but shall at no time be less than one-fourth of one Swiss franc for a full working day. The Detaining Power shall inform prisoners of war, as well as the Power on which they depend, through the intermediary of the Protecting Power, of the rate of daily working pay that it has fixed.
Working pay shall likewise be paid by the detaining authorities to prisoners of war permanently detailed to duties or to a skilled or semi-skilled occupation in connection with the administration, installa­tion or maintenance of camps, and to the prisoners who are required to carry out spiritual or medical duties on behalf of their comrades.
The working pay of the prisoners' representative, of his advisers, if any, and of his assistants, shall be paid out of the fund maintained by canteen profits. The scale of this working pay shall be fixed by the prisoners' representative and approved by the camp commander. If there is no such fund, the" detaining authorities shall pay these prisoners a fair working rate of pay.
ARTICLE 63.
Prisoners of war shall be permitted to receive remittances of money addressed to them individually or collectively.
Every prisoner of war shall have at his disposal the credit balance of his account as provided for in the following Article, within the limits fixed by the Detaining Power, which shall make such payments as are requested. Subject to financial or monetary restrictions which the Detaining Power regards as essential, prisoners of war may also have payments made abroad. In this case payments addressed by prisoners of war to dependents shall be given priority.
In any event, and subject to the consent of the Power on which they depend, prisoners may have payments made in their own country, as follows: the Detaining Power shall send to the aforesaid Power through the Protecting Power, a notification giving all the necessary particulars concerning the prisoners of war, the beneficiaries of the payments, and the amount of the sums to be paid, expressed in the Detaining Power's currency. The said notification shall be signed by the prisoners and countersigned by the camp commander. The Detaining Power shall debit the prisoners' account by a corresponding amount; the sums thus debited shall be placed by it to the credit of the Power on which the prisoners depend.
To apply the foregoing provisions, the Detaining Power may use­fully consult the Model Regulations in Annex V of the present Con­vention.
89. DODDOA-012132
ARTICLE 64.
The Detaining Power shall hold an account for each prisoner of war, showing at least the following:
(1)
The amounts due to the prisoner or received by him as ad­vances of pay, as working pay or derived from any other
source; the sums in the currency of the Detaining Power
which were taken from him; the sums taken- from him and
converted at his request into the currency of the said Power.

(2)
The payments made to the prisoner in cash, or in any other
similar form; the payments made on his behalf and at his
request; the sums transferred under Article 63, third para­graph.

ARTICLE 65.
Every item entered in the account of a prisoner of war shall be countersigned or initialled by him, or by the prisoners' representative acting on his behalf.
Prisoners of war shall at all times be afforded reasonable facilities for consulting and obtaining copies of their accounts, which may likewise be inspected by the representatives of the Protecting Powers at the time of visits to the camp.
When prisoners of war are transferred from one camp to another, their personal accounts will follow them. In case of transfer from one Detaining Power to another, the monies which are their property and are not in the currency of the Detaining Power will follow them. They shall be given certificates for any other monies standing to the credit of their accounts.
The Parties to the conflict concerned may agree to notify to each other at specific intervals through the Protecting Power, the amount of the accounts of the prisoners of war.
ARTICLE 66.
On the termination of captivity, through the release of a prisoner of war or his repatriation, the Detaining Power shall give him a statement, signed by an authorized officer of that Power, showing the credit balance then due to him. The Detaining Power shall also send through the Protecting Power to the government upon which the prisoner of war depends, lists giving all appropriate particulars of all prisoners of war whose captivity has been terminated by repatriation, release, escape, death or any other means, and showing the amount of their credit balances. Such lists shall be certified on each sheet by an authorized representative of the Detaining Power.
Any of the above provisions of this Article may be varied by mutual agreement between any two Parties to the conflict.
The Power on which the prisoner of war depends shall be responsible
90
DODD0A-012133
for settling with him any credit balance due to him from the Detaining Power on the termination of his captivity.
ARTICLE 67.
Advances of pay, issued to prisoners of war in conformity with Article 60, shall be considered as made on behalf of the Power on which they depend. Such advances of pay, as well as all payments made by the said Power under Article 63, third paragraph, and Article 68, shall form the subject of arrangements between the Powers concerned, at the close of hostilities.
ARTICLE 68.
Any claim by a prisoner of war for compensation in respect of any injury or other disability arising out of work shall be referred to the Power on which he depends, through the Protecting Power. In accordance with Article 54, the Detaining Power will, in all cases, provide the prisoner of war concerned with a statement showing the nature of the injury or disability, the circumstances in which it arose and particulars- of medical or hospital treatment given for it. This statement will be signed by a responsible officer of the Detaining Power and the medical particulars certified by a medical officer.
Any claim by a prisoner of war for compensation in respect of personal effects monies or valuables impounded by the Detaining Power under Article 18 and not forthcoming on his repatraition, or in respect of loss alleged to be due to the fault of the Detaining Power or any of its servants, shall likewise be referred to the Power on which he depends. Nevertheless, any such personal effects required for use by the prisoners of war whilst in captivity shall be replaced at the expense of the Detaining Power. The Detaining Power will, in all cases, provide the prisoner of war with a statement, signed by a re­sponsible officer, showing all available information regarding the reasons why such effects, monies or valuables have not been restored to him. A copy of this statement will be forwarded to the Power on which he depends through the Central Prisoners of War Agency provided for in Article 123.
SECTION V. RELATIONS OF PRISONERS OF WAR WITH THE EXTERIOR.
ARTICLE 69.
Immediately upon prisoners of war falling into its power, the Detaining Power shall inform them and the Powers on which they depend, through the Protecting Power, of the measures taken to carry out the provisions of the present Section. They shall likewise inform the parties concerned of any subsequent modifications of such measures.
91. DODD0A-012134
ARTICLE 70.
Immediately upon capture, or not more than one week after arrival at a camp, even if it is a transit camp, likewise in case of sickness or transfer to hospital or to another camp, every prisoner of war shall be enabled to write direct to his family, on the one hand, and to the Central Prisoners of War Agency provided for in Article 123, on the other hand, a card similar, if possible, to the model annexed to the present Convention, informing his relatives of his capture, address and state of health. The said cards shall be forwarded as rapidly as possible and may not be delayed in any manner.
ARTICLE 71.
Prisoners of war shall be allowed to send and receive letters and cards. If the Detaining Power deems it necessary to limit the number of letters and cards sent by each prisoner of war, the said number shall not be less than two letters and four cards monthly, exclusive of the capture cards provided for in Article 7,0, and conforming as closely as possible to the models annexed to th .e present Convention. Further limitatiOns may be imposed only if the Protecting Power is satisfied that it would be in the interests of the, prisoners of war concerned to do so owing to difficulties of translation caused by the Detaining Power's inability to find sufficient 'qualified linguists to carry out the necessary censorship. If limitations must be placed on the correspondence addressed to prisoners of war, they may be ordered only by the Power on which the prisoners depend, possibly at the request of the Detaining Power. Such letters and cards must be conveyed by the most rapid method at the disposal of the Detaining Power; they may not be delayed or retained for disciplinary reasons.
Prisoners of war who have been withott news for a long period, or who are unable to receive news from their next of kin or to give them news by the ordinary postal route, as well as those who are at a great distance from their homes, shall be permitted to send telegrams, the fees being charged against the prisoners' of war accounts with the Detaining Power or paid in the currency at their disposal. They shall likewise benefit by this measure in cases of urgency.
As a general rule, the correspondence of prisoners of war shall be Written-in their native language. The Parties to the conflict may allow correspondence in other languages.
Sacks containing prisoner of war mail must be securely sealed and labelled so as clearly to indicate their contents, and must be addressed to offices of destination.
ARTICLE 72.
Prisoners of war shall be allowed to receive by post or by any other means individual parcels or collective shipments containing, in
92 DODD0A-012135
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particular, foodstuffs, clothing, medical supplies and articles of a religious, educational or recreational character which may meet their needs, including books, devotional articles, scientific equipment, examination papers, musical instruments, sports outfits and materials allowing prisoners of war to pursue their studies or their cultural activi ties.
Such shipments shall in no way free the Detaining Power from the obligations imposed upon it by virtue.of the present Convention.
The only limits which may be placed on these shipments shall be those proposed by the Protecting Power in the interest of the prisoners themselves, or by the International Committee of the Red Cross or any other organization giving assistance to the prisoners, in respect of their own shipments only, on account of exceptional strain on transport or communications.
The conditions for the sending of individual parcels and collective relief shall, if necessary, be the subject of special agreements between the Powers concerned, which may in no case delay the receipt by the prisoners of relief supplies. Books may not be included in parcels of clothing and foodstuffs. Medical supplies shall, as a rule, be sent in collective parcels.
ARTICLE 73.
In the absence of special agreements between the Powers concerned on the conditions for the receipt and distribution of collective relief shipments, the rules and regulations concerning collective shipments, which are annexed to the present Convention, shall be applied.
The special agreements /referred to above shall in no case restrict the right of prisoners' representatives to take possession of collective relief shipments intended for prisoners of war, to proceed to their distribution or to dispose of them in the interest of the prisoners.
Nor shall such agreements restrict the right of representatives of the Protecting Power, the International Committee of the Red Cross or any other organization giving assistance to prisoners of war and responsible for the forwarding of collective shipments, to supervise their distribution to the recipients.
ARTICLE 74.
All relief shipments for prisoners of war shall be exempt from import, customs and other dues.
Correspondence, relief shipments and authorized remittances of money addressed to prisoners of war or despatched by them through the post office, either direct or through the Information Bureaux provided for in Article 122 and the Central Prisoners of War Agency provided for in Article 123, shall be exempt from any postal dues, both in the countries of origin and destination, and in intermediate countries.
93.
DODDOA-012136
When a prisoner of war is awarded a further disciplinary punishment, a period of at least three days shall elapse between the execution of any two of the punishments, if the duration of one of these is ten days or more.
ARTICLE 91.
The escape of a prisoner of war shall be deemed to have succeeded when:
(1)
he has joined the armed forces of the Power on which he de­pends, or those of an allied Power;

(2)
he has left the territory under the control of the Detaining

•.Power, or of an ally of the said Power;
(3) he has joined a ship flying the flag of the Power on which he
depends, or of an allied Power, in the territorial waters of the
Detaining Power, the said ship not being under the control
of the last named Power. .

Prisoners of war who have made good their escape in the sense of this Article and who are recaptured, shall not be liable to any punish­ment in respect of their previous escape.
ARTICLE 92.
A prisoner of war who attempts to escape and is recaptured before having made good his escape in the sense of Article 91 shall be liable only to a disciplinary punishment in respect of this act, even if it is a repeated offence.
A prisoner of war who is recaptured shall be handed over without delay to the competent military authority.
Article 88, fourth paragraph, notwithstanding, prisoners of war pun­ished as a result of an unsuccessful escape may be subjected to special surveillance. Such surveillance must not affect the state of their health, must be undergone in a prisoner of war camp, and must not entail the suppression of any of the safeguards granted them by the present Convention.
ARTICLE 93.
Escape or attempt to escape, even if it is a repeated offence, shall not be deemed an aggravating circumstance if the prisoner of war is sub­jected to trial by judicial proceedings in respect of an offence com­mitted during his escape or attempt to escape.
In conformity with the principle stated in Article 83, offences com­mitted by prisoners of war with the sole intention of facilitating their escape and which do not entail any violence against life or limb, such as offences against public property, theft without intention of self­enrichment, the drawing up or use of false papers, or the wearing of civilian clothing, shall occasion disciplinary punishment only.
Prisoners of war who aid or abet an escape or an attempt to escape shall be liable on this count to disciplinary punishment only.
100
DODDOA-012137
ARTICLE 94.
If an escaped prisoner of war is recaptured, the Power on which he depends shall be notified thereof in the manner defined in Article 122, provided notification of his escape has been made.
ARTICLE 95.
A prisoner of war accused of an offence against discipline shall not be kept in confinement pending the hearing unless a member of the armed forces of the Detaining Power would be so kept if he were ac­cused of a similar offence, or if it is essential in the interests of camp order and discipline.
Any period spent by a prisoner of war in confinement awaiting the disposal of an offence against discipline shall be reduced to an absolute minimum and shall not exceed fourteen days.
The provisions of Articles 97 and 98 of this Chapter shall apply to prisoners of war who are in confinement awaiting the disposal of offences against discipline.
ARTICLE 96.
Acts which constitute offences against discipline shall be investigated immediately.
Without prejudice to the competence of courts and superior military authorities, disciplinary punishment may be ordered only by an officer having disciplinary powers in his capacity as camp commander, or by a responsible officer who replaces him or to whom he has delegated his disciplinary powers.
In no case may such powers be delegated to a . prisoner of war or be exercised by a prisoner of war.
Before any disciplinary award is pronounced, the accused shall be given precise information regarding the offences of which he is accused, and given an opportunity of explaining his conduct and of defending himself. He shall be permitted, in particular, to call witnesses and to have recourse, if necessary, to the services of a qualified interpreter The decision shall be announced to the accused prisoner of war and to the prisoners' representative.
A record of disciplinary punishments shall be maintained by the camp commander and shall be open to inspection by representatives of the Protecting Power.
ARTICLE 97.
Prisoners of war shall not in any case be transferred to penitentiary establishments (prisons, penitentiaries, convict prisons, etc.) to undergo disciplinary punishment therein.
All premises in which disciplinary punishments are undergone shall conform to the sanitary requirements set forth in Article 25. A
101
DODD0A-012138
prisoner of war undergoing punishment shall be enabled to keep him­
self in a state of cleanliness, in conformity with Article 29.
Officers and persons of equivalent status shall not be lodged in the
same quarters as non-commissioned officers or men.
Women prisoners of war undergoing disciplinary punishment shall
be confined in separate quarters from male prisoners of war and shall
be under the immediate supervison of women.
ARTICLE 98.
A prisoner of war undergoing confinement as a disciplinary punish­
ment, shall continue to enjoy the benefits of the provisions of this
Convention except in so far as these are necessarily rendered inap­
plicable by the mere fact that he is confined. In no case may he be
deprived of the benefits of the provisions of Articles 78 and 126.
A prisoner of war awarded disciplinary punishment may not be
deprived of the prerogatives attached to his rank.
Prisoners of war awarded disciplinary punishment shall be allowed
to exercise and to stay in the open air at least two hours daily.
They shall be allowed, on their request, to be present at the daily
medical inspections. They shall receive the attention which their
state of health requires and, if necessary, shall be removed to the
camp infirmary or to a hospital.
They shall have permission to read and write, likewise to send and receive letters. Parcels and remittances of money however, may be withheld from them until the completion of the punishment; they shall meanwhile be entrusted to the prisoners' representative, who will hand over to the infirmary the perishable goods contained it such parcels.
III. Judicial Proteedings
ARTICLE 99.
No prisoner of war may be tried or sentenced for an act which is not forbidden by the law of the Detaining Power or by international law, in force at the time the said act was committed.
No moral or physical coercion may be exerted on a prisoner of war in order to induce him to admit himself guilty of the act of which heis accused.
No prisoner of war may be convicted without having had an op­portunity to present his defence and the assistance of a qualifiedadvocate or counsel.
ARTICLE 100.
Prisoners of war and the Protecting Powers shall be informed as soon
as possible of the offences which are punishable by the death sentence under the laws of the Detaining Power.
102. DODDOA-012139
Other offences shall not thereafter be made punishable by the
death penalty without the concurrence of the Power on which the
prisoners of war depend.
The death sentence cannot be pronounced on a prisoner of war
unless the attention of the court has, in accordance with Article 87,
second paragraph, been particularly called to the fact that since the
accused is not a national of the Detaining Power, he is not bound to
it by any duty of allegiance, and that he is in its power as the result
of circumstances independent of his own will.
ARTICLE 101.
If the death penalty is pronounced on a prisoner of war, the sentence shall not be executed before the expiration of a period of at least six months from the date when the Protecting Power receives, at an indicated address, the detailed communication provided for in Article 107.
ARTICLE 102.
A prisoner of war can be validly sentenced only if the sentence has been pronounced by the same courts according to the same procedure as in the case of members of the armed forces of the Detaining Power, and if, furthermore, the provisions of the present Chapter have been observed.
ARTICLE 103.
Judicial investigations relating to a prisoner of war shall be con­ducted as rapidly as circumstances permit and so that his trial shall take place as soon as possible. A prisoner of war shall not be confined while awaiting trial unless a member of the armed forces of the De­taining Power would be so confined if he were accused of a similar offence, or if it is essential to do so in the interests of national security. In no circumstances shall this confinement exceed three months.
Any period spent by a prisoner of war in confinement awaiting trial shall be deducted from any sentence of imprisonment passed upon him and taken into accout in fixing any penalty.
The provisions of Articles 97 and 98 of this Chapter shall apply to a prisoner of war whilst in confinement awaiting trial.
ARTICLE 104.
In any case in which the Detaining Power has decided to institute judicial proceedings against a prisoner of war, it shall notify the Pro­tecting Power as soon as possible and at least three weeks before the opening of the trial. This period of three weeks shall run as from the day on which such notification reaches the Protecting Power at the address previously indicated by the, latter to the Detaining Power.
The said notification shall contain the following information:
103
DODDOA-012140
(1)
Surname and first names of the prisoner of war, his rank, his army, regimental, personal or serial number, his date of birth, and his profession or trade, if any;

(2)
Place of internment or confinement;

(3)
Specification of the charge or charges on which the prisoner of war is to be arraigned, giving the legal provisions appli­cable;

(4)
Designation of the court which will try the case, likewise the date and place fixed for the opening of the trial.

The same communication shall be made by the Detaining Powe
to the prisoners' representative.
If no evidence is submitted ; at the opening of a trial, that the noti­
fication referred to above was received by the Protecting Power, by
the prisoner of war and by the prisoners' representative concerned,
at least three weeks before the opening of the trial, then the latter
cannot take place and must be adjourned.
ARTICLE 105.
The prisoner of war shall be entitled to assistance by one of his prisoner comrades, to defence by a qualified advocate or counsel of his own choice, to the calling of witnesses and, if he deems necessary, to the services of a competent interpreter. He shall be advised of these rights by the Detaining. Power in due time before the trial.
Failing a choice by the prisoner of war, the Protecting Power shall find him an advocate or counsel, and shall have at least one week at its disposal for the purpose. The Detaining Power shall deliver to the said Power, on request, a list of persons qualified to present the defence. Failing a choice of an advocate or counsel by the prisoner of war or the Protecting Power, the Detaining Power shall appoint a competent advocate or counsel to conduct the defence.
The advocate or counsel conducting the defence on behalf of the prisoner of war shall have at his disposal a period of two weeks at least before the opening of the trial, as well as the necessary facilities to prepare the defence of the accused. He may, in particular, freely visit the accused and interview him in private. He may also confer with any witnesses for the defence, including prisoners of war. He shall have the benefit of these facilities until the term of appeal or petition has expired.
Particulars of the charge or charges on which the prisoner of war is to be arraigned, as well as the documents which are generally com­municated to the accused by virtue of the laws in force in the armed forces of the Detaining Power, shall be communicated to the accused prisoner of war in a language which he understands, and in good time before the opening of the trial. The same communication in the same circumstances shall be made to the advocate or counsel conducting the defence on behalf of the prisoner of war.
104. DODDOA-012141
The representatives of the Protecting Power shall be entitled to attend the trial of the case, unless, exceptionally, this is held in camera­in the interest of State security. In such a case the Detaining Power shall advise the Protecting Power accordingly.
ARTICLE 106.
Every prisoner of war shall have, in the same manner as the mem­bers of the armed forces of the Detaining Power, the right of appeal or petition from any sentence pronounced upon him, with a view to the quashing or revising of the sentence or the reopening of the trial. He shall be fully informed of his right to appeal or petition and of the time limit within which he may do so.
ARTICLE 1 07 .
Any judgment and sentence pronounced upon a prisoner of war shall be immediately reported to the Protecting Power in the form of a summary communication, which shall also indicate whether he has the right of appeal with a view to the quashing of the sentence or the reopening of the trial. This communication shall likewise be sent to the prisoners' representative concerned. It shall also be sent to the accused prisoner of war in a language he understands, if the sentence was not pronounced in his presence. The Detaining Power shall also immediately communicate to the Protecting Power the decision of the prisoner of war to use or to waive his right of appeal.
Furthermore, if a prisoner of war is finally convicted or if a sentence pronounced on a prisoner of war in the first instance is a death sen­tence, the Detaining Power shall as soon as possible address to the Protecting Power a detailed communication containing: ,
(1)
the precise wording of the finding and sentence;

(2)
a summarized report of any preliminary investigation and
of the trial, emphasizing in particular the elements of the
prosecution and the defence;

(3)
notification, where applicable, of the establishment where
the sentence will be served.

The communications provided for in the foregoing subparagraphs shall be sent to the Protecting Power at the address previously made known to the Detaining Power.
ARTICLE 108.
Sentences pronounced on prisoners of war after a conviction has become duly enforceable, shall be served in the same establishments and under the same conditions as in the case of members of the armed forces of the Detaining Power. These conditions shall in all cases conform to the requirements of health and humanity.
105.
DODD0A-012142
A woman prisoner of war on whom such a sentence has been pro­nounced shall be confined in separate quarters and shall be under the supervision of women.
In any case, prisoners of war sentenced to a penalty depriving them of their liberty shall retain the benefit of the provisions of Articles 78 and 126 of the present Convention. Furthermore, they shall be entitled to receive and despatch correspondence, to receive at least one relief parcel monthly, to take regular exercise in the open air, to have the medical care required by their state of health, and the spiritual assistance they may desire. Penalties to which they may be subjected shall be in accordance with the provisions of Article 87, third paragraph.
PART IV. TERMINATION OF CAPTIVITY
SECTION 1. DIRECT REPATRIATION AND ACCOMMODATION IN
NEUTRAL COUNTRIES.

ARTICLE 109.
Subject to the provisions of the third paragraph of this Article, Parties to the conflict are bound to send back to their own country, regardless of number or rank, seriously wounded and seriously sick prisoners of war, after having cared for them until they are fit to travel, in accordance with the first paragraph of the following Article.
Throughout the duration of hostilities, Parties to the conflict shall endeavor, with the cooperation of the neutral Powers concerned, to make arrangements for the accommodation in neutral countries of the sick and wounded prisoners of war referred to in the second paragraph of the following Article. They may, in addition, conclude agreements with a view to the direct repatriation or internment in a neutral country of able-bodied prisoners of war who have undergone a long period of captivity.
No sick or injured prisoner of war who is eligible for repatriation under the first paragraph of this Article may be repatriated against his will during hostilities.
ARTICLE 110.
The following shall be repatriated direct:
(1)
Incurably wounded and sick whose mental or physical fitness
seems to have been gravely diminished.

(2)
Wounded and sick who, according to medical opinion, are
not likely to recover within one year, whose condition re­quires treatment and whose mental or physical fitness seems
to have been gravely diminished.

(3)
Wounded and sick who have recovered, but whose mental

106. DODDOA-012143
or physical fitness seems to have been gravely and per­manently diminished.
The following may be accommodated in a neutral country:

(1)
Wounded and sick whose recovery may be expected within
one year of the date of the wound or the beginning of the
illness, if treatment in a neutral country might increase
the prospects of a more certain and speedy recovery.

(2)
Prisoners of war whose mental or physical health, according
to medical opinion, is seriously threatened by continued
captivity, but whose accommodation in a neutral country
might remove such a threat.

The conditions which prisoners of war accommodated in a neutral country must fulfil in order to permit their repatriation shall be fixed, as shall likewise their status, by agreement between the Powers concerned. In general, prisoners of war who have been accommodated in a neutral country, and who belong to the following categories, should be repatriated:
(1)
Those whose state 'of health has deteriorated so as to fulfil
the conditions laid down for direct repatriation;

(2)
Those-whose mental or physical powers remain, even after
treatment, considerably impaired.

If no special agreements are concluded between the Parties to the conflict concerned, to determine the cases of disablement or sickness entailing direct repatriation or accommodation in a neutral country, such cases shall be settled in accordance with the principles laid down in the Model Agreement concerning direct repatriation and accommodation in neutral countries of wounded and sick prisoners of war and in the Regulations concerning Mixed Medical Commis­sions annexed to the present Convention.
ARTICLE 111.
The Detaining Power, the Power on which the prisoners of war depend, and a neutral Power agreed upon by these two Powers, shall endeavour to conclude agreements which will enable prisoners of war to be interned in the territory of the said neutral Power until the close of hostilities.
ARTICLE 112.
Upon the outbreak of hostilities, Mixed Medical Commissions shall be appointed to examine sick and wounded prisoners of war, and to make all appropriate decisions regarding them. The appoint­ment, duties and functioning of these Commissions shall be in con-formity with the provisions of the Regulations annexed to the present Convention.
However, prisoners of war who, in the opinion of the medical authorities of the Detaining Power, are manifestly seriously injured
107. DODD0A-012144
or seriously sick, may be repatriated without having to be examined by a Mixed Medical Commission.
ARTICLE 113.
Besides those who are designated by the medical authorities of the Detaining Power, wounded or sick prisoners of war belonging to the categories listed below shall be entitled to present themselves for examination by the Mixed Medical Commissions provided for in the foregoing Article:
(1)
Wounded and sick proposed by a'physican or surgeon who
is of the same nationality, or a national of a Party to the
conflict allied with the Power on which the said prisoners
depend, and who exercises his functions in the camp.

(2)
Wounded and sick proposed by their prisoners' represent­ative.

(3)
Wounded and sick proposed by the Power on which they
depend, or by an organization duly recognized by the said
Power and giving assistance to the prisoners.

Prisoners of war who do not belong to one of the three foregoing categories may nevertheless present themselves for examination by Mixed Medical Commissions, but shall be examined only after those belonging to the said categories.
The physician or surgeon of the same nationality as the prisoners who present themselves for examination by the Mixed Medical Commission, likewise the prisoners' representative of the said pris­oners, shall have permission to be present at the examination.
ARTICLE 114.
Prisoners of war who meet with accidents shall, unless the injury is self-inflicted, have the benefit of the provisions of this Convention as regards repatriation or accommodation in a neutral country.
ARTICLE 115.
No prisoner of war on whom a disciplinary punishment has been imposed and who is eligible for repatriation or for accommodation in a neutral country, may be kept back on the plea that he has not undergone his punishment.
Prisoners of war detained in connection with a judicial prosecution or conviction and who are designated for repatriation or accom­modation in a neutral country, may benefit by such measures before
the end of the proceedings or the completion of the punishment, if
the Detaining Power consents.
Parties to the conflict shall communicate to each other the names of those who will be detained until the end of the proceedings or the completion of the punishment.
108. DODDOA-012145
ARTICLE 116.
The cost of repatriating prisoners of war or of transporting them to a neutral country shall be borne, from the frontiers of the De­taining Power, by the Power on which the said prisoners depend.
ARTICLE 117.
No repatriated person may be employed on active military service.

SECTION II. RELEASE AND REPATRIATION OF PRISONERS OF WAR
AT THE CLOSE OF HOSTILITIES.
ARTICLE 138.
Prisoners of war shall be released and repatriated without delay after the cessation of active hostilities.
In the absence of stipulations to the above effect. in any agreement concluded between the Parties to the conflict with a view to the cessa­tion of hostilities, or failing any such agreement, each of the Detaining Powers shall itself establish and execute without delay a plan of re-patriation in conformity with the principle laid down in the foregoing paragraph.
In either case, the measures adopted shall be brought to the knowl­edge of the prisoners of war.
The costs of repatriation of prisoners of war shall in all cases be equitably apportioned between the Detaining Power and the Power on which the prisoners depend. This apportionment shall be carried out on the following basis:
(a)
If the two Powers are contiguous, the Power on which the
prisoners of war depend shall bear the costs of repatriation
from the frontiers of the Detaining Power.

(b)
If the two Powers are not contiguous, the Detaining Power
shall bear the costs of transport of prisoners of war over its
own territory as far as its frontier or its port of embarkation
nearest to the territory of the Power on which the prisoners
of war depend. The Parties concerned shall agree between
themselves as to the equitable apportionment of the remain­ing costs of the repatriation. The conclusion of this agree­ment shall in no circumstances justify any delay in the re­patriation of the prisoners of war.

ARTICLE 119.
Repatriation shall be effected in conditions similar to those laid down in Articles 46 to 48 inclusive of the present Convention for the transfer of prisoners of war, having regard to the provisions of Article 118 and to those of the following paragraphs.
On repatriation, any articles of value impounded from prisoners of war under Article 18, and any foreign currency which has not been
109.
DODDOA-012146
converted into the currency of the Detaining Power, shall be restored to them. Articles of value and foreign currency which, for any reason whatever, are not restored to prisoners of war on repatriation, shall be despatched to the Information Bureau set up under Article 122.
Prisoners of war shall be allowed to take with them their personal effects, and any correspondence and parcels which have arrived for them. The weight of such baggage may be limited, if the conditions of repatriation so require, to what each prisoner can reasonably carry. Each prisoner shall in all cases be authorized to carry at least twenty­five kilograms.
The other personal effects of the repatriated prisoner shall be left in the charge of the Detaining Power which shall have them forwarded to him as soon as it has concluded an agreement to this effect, regu­lating the conditions of transport and the payment of the costs in­volved, with the Power on which the prisoner depends.
Prisoners of war against whom criminal proceedings for an indictable offence are pending may be detained until the end of such proceedings, and, if necessary, until the completion of the punishment. The same shall apply to prisoners of war already convicted for an indictable offence.
Parties to the conflict shall communicate to each other the names of any prisoners of war who are detained until the end of the proceedings or until punishment has been completed.
By agreement between the Parties to the conflict, commissions shall be established for the purpose of searching for dispersed prisoners of war and of assuring their repatriation with the least possible delay.
SECTION III. DEATH OF PRISONERS OF WAR.
ARTICLE 120.
Wills of prisoners of war shall be drawn up so as to satisfy the condi­tions of validity required by the legislation of their country of origin, which will take steps to inform the Detaining Power of its require­ments in this respect. At the request of the prisoner of war and, in all cases, after death, the will shall be transmitted without delay to the Protecting Power; a certified copy shall be sent to the Central Agency.
Death certificates, in the form annexed to the present Convention, or lists certified by a responsible officer, of all persons who die as prison­ers of war shall be forwarded as rapidly as possible to the Prisoner of War Information Bureau established in accordance with Article 122. The death certificates or certified lists shall show particulars of identity as set out in the third paragraph of Article 17, and also the date and place of death, the cause of death, the date and place of burial and all particulars necessary to identify the graves.
The burial or cremation of a prisoner of war shall be preceded by a medical examination of the body with a view to confirming death
110.
DODDOA-012147
The fact that sick or wounded members of the armed forces are nursed in these hospitals, or the presence of small arms and ammuni­tion taken from such combatants and not yet handed to the proper service, shall not be considered to be acts harmful to the enemy.
ARTICLE 20.
Persons regularly and solely engaged in the operation and adminis­tration of civilian hospitals, including the personnel engaged in the search for, removal and transporting of and caring for wounded and sick civilians, the infirm and maternity cases, shall be respected and protected.
In occupied territory and in zones of military operations, the above personnel shall be recognizable by means of an identity card certifying their status, bearing the photograph of the holder and embossed with the stamp of the responsible authority, and also by means of a stamped, water-resistant armlet which they shall wear on the left arm while carrying out their duties. This armlet shall be issued by the State and shall bear the emblem provided for in Article 38 of the Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field of August 12, 1949.
Other personnel who are engaged in the operation and administra­tion of civilian hospitals shall be entitled to respect and protection and to wear the armlet, as provided in and under the conditions prescribed in this Article, while they are employed on such duties. The identity card shall state the duties on which they are employed.
The management of each hospital shall at all times hold at the disposal of the competent national or occupying authorities an up-to-date list of such personnel.
ARTICLE 21.
Convoys of vehicles or hospital trains on land or specially provided vessels on sea, conveying wounded and sick civilians, the infirm and maternity cases, shall be respected and protected in the same manner as the hospitals provided for in Article 18, and shall be marked, with the consent of the State, by the display of the distinctive emblem provided for in Article 38 of the Geneva Convention for the Ameliora­tion of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field of August 12, 1949.
ARTICLE 22.
Aircraft exclusively employed for the removal of wounded and sick civilians, the infirm and maternity cases, or for the transport of medical personnel and equipment, shall not be attacked, but shall be respected while flying at heights, times and on routes specifically agreed upon between all the Parties to the conflict concerned.
142. DODD0A-012148
ARTICLE 16.
The wounded and sick, as well as the infirm, and expectant mothers, shall be the object of particular protection and respect.
As far as military considerations allow, each Party to the conflict shall facilitate the steps taken to search for the killed and wounded, to assist the shipwrecked and other persons exposed to grave danger, and to protect them against pillage and ill-treatment.
ARTICLE 17.
The Parties to the conflict shall endeavour to conclude local agree­ments for the removal from besieged or encircled areas, of wounded, sick, infirm, and aged persons, children and maternity cases, and for the passage of ministers of all religions, medical personnel and medical equipment on their way to such areas.
ARTICLE. 18.
Civilian hospitals organized to give care to the wounded and sick, the infirm and maternity cases, may in no circumstances be the object of attack, but shall at all times be respected and protected by the Parties to the conflict.
States which are Parties to a conflict shall provide all civilian hospitals with certificates showing that they are civilian hospitals and that the buildings which they occupy are not used for any purpose which would deprive these hospitals of protection in accordance with Article 19.
Civilian hospitals shall be marked by means of the emblem provided for in Article 38 of the Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field of-August 12, 1949, but only if so authorized by the State.
The Parties to the conflict shall, in so far as military considerations permit, take the necessary steps to make the distinctive emblems indicating civilian hospitals clearly visible to the enemy land, air and naval forces in order to obviate the possibility of any hostile action.
In view of the dangers to which hospitals may be exposed by being
close to military objectives, it is recommended that such hospitals
be situated as far as possible from such objectives.
ARTICLE 19.
The protection to which civilian hospitals are entitled shall not
cease unless they are used to commit, outside their humanitarian
duties, acts harmful to the enemy. Protection may, however, cease
only after due warning has been given, naming, in all appropriate
cases, a reasonable time limit, and after such warning has remained
unheeded.

141
DODD0A-012149
approval by the Parties to the conflict, a person belonging to a neu­tral Power or delegated by the International Committee of the Red Cross, who shall be invited to take part in such a meeting.
PART II. GENERAL PROTECTION OF POPULATIONS AGAINST CERTAIN CONSEQUENCES OF WAR
ARTICLE 13.
The provisions of Part II cover the whole of the populations of the countries in conflict, without any adverse distinction based, in particular, on race, nationality, religion or political opinion, and are intended to alleviate the sufferings caused by war.
ARTICLE 14.
In time of peace, the High Contracting Parties and, after the out­break of hostilities, the Parties thereto, may establish in their own territory and, if the need arises, in occupied areas, hospital and safety zones and localities so organized as to protect from the effects of war, wounded, sick and aged persons, children under fifteen, expectant-mothers and mothers of children under seven.
Upon the outbreak and during the course of hostilities, the Parties concerned may conclude agreements on mutual recognition of the zones and localities they have created. They may for this purpose implement the provisions of the Draft Agreement annexed to the present Convention, with such amendments as they may consider necessary.
The Protecting Powers and the International Committee of the Red Cross are invited to lend their good offices in order to facilitate the institution and recognition of these hospital and safety zones and localities.
ARTICLE 15.
Any Party to the conflict may, either direct or through a neutral State or some humanitarian organization, propose to the adverse Party to establish, in the regions where fighting is taking place, neu­tralized zones intended to shelter from the effects of war the following persons, without distinction:
(a)
wounded and sick combatants or non-combatants;

(b)
civilian persons who take no part in hostilities, and who,
while they reside in the zones, perform no work of a military
character.

When the Parties concerned have agreed upon the geographical position, administration, food supply and supervision of the proposed neutralized zone, a written agreement shall be concluded and signed by the representatives of the Parties to the conflict. The agreement shall fix the beginning and the duration of the neutralization of the zone.
140
DODD0A-012150
When persons protected by the present Convention do not benefit or cease to benefit, no matter for what reason, by the activities of a Protecting Power or of an organization provided for in the first para­graph above, the Detaining Power shall request a neutral State, or such an organization, to undertake the functions performed under the present Convention by a Protecting Power designated by the Parties to a conflict.
If protection cannot be arranged accordingly, the Detaining Power shall request or shall accept, subject to the provisions of this Article, the offer of the services of a humanitarian organization, such as the International Committee of the Red Cross, to assume the humani­tarian functions performed by Protecting Powers under the present Convention.
Any neutral Power, or any organization invited by the Power con­cerned or offering itself for these purposes, shall be required to act with a sense of responsibility towards the Party to the conflict on which persons protected by the present Convention depend, and shall be required to furnish sufficient assurances that it is in a position to undertake the appropriate functions and to discharge them impartially.
No derogation from the preceding provisions shall be made by special agreements between Powers one of which is restricted, even temporarily, in its freedom to negotiate with the other Power or its allies by reason of military events, more particularly where the whole, or a substantial part, of the territory of the said Power is occupied.
Whenever in the present Convention mention is made of a Protect­ing Power, such mention applies to substitute organizations in the sense of the present Article.
The provisions of this Article shall extend and be adapted to cases of nationals of a neutral State who are in occupied territory or who find themselves in the territory of a belligerent State in which the State of which they are nationals has not normal diplomatic representation.
ARTICLE 12.
In cases where they deem it advisable in the interest of protected persons, particularly in cases of disagreement between the Parties to the conflict as to the application or inter2retation of the provisions of the present Convention, the Protecting Powers shall lend their good offices with a view to settling the disagreement.
For this purpose, each of the Protecting Powers may, either at the invitation of one Party or on its own initiative, propose to the Parties to the conflict a meeting of their representatives, and in par­ticular of the authorities responsible for protected persons, possibly on neutral territory suitably chosen. The Parties to the conflict shall be bound to give effect to the proposals made to them for this purpose. The Protecting Powers may, if necessary, propose for
139
DODD0A-012151
cerning which they may deem it suitable to make separate provision.
No special agreement shall adversely affect the situation of protected
persons,. as defined by the present Convention, nor restrict the rights
which it confers upon them.
Protected persons shall continue to have the benefit of such agree­ments as long as the Convention is applicable to them, except where express provisions to the contrary are contained in the aforesaid or in subsequent agreements, or where more favourable measures have been taken with regard to them by one or other of the Parties to the conflict.
ARTICLE 8.
Protected persons may in no circumstances renounce in part or in entirety the rights secured to them by the present Convention, and by the special agreements referred to in the foregoing Article, if such there be.
ARTICLE 9.
The present Convention shall be applied with the cooperation and under the scrutiny of the Protecting Powers whose duty it is to safeguard the interests of the Parties to the conflict. For this pur­pose, the Protecting Powers may appoint, apart from their diplomatic or consular staff, delegates from amongst their own nationals or the nationals of other neutral Powers. The said delegates shall be sub­ject to the approval of. the Power with which they are to carry out their duties.
The Parties to the conflict shall facilitate to the greatest extent possible the task of the representatives or delegates of the Protecting Powers.
The representatives or delegates of the Protecting Powers shall not in any case exceed their mission under the present Convention. They shall, in particular, take account of the imperative necessities of security of the State wherein they carry out their duties.
ARTICLE 10.
The provisions of the present Convention constitute no obstacle to the humanitarian activities which the International Committee of the Red Cross or any other impartial humanitarian organization may, subject to the consent of the Parties to the conflict concerned, undertake for the protection of civilian persons and for their relief.
ARTICLE 11. *
The High Contracting Parties may at any time agree to entrust to an organization which offers all guarantees of impartiality and efficacy the duties incumbent on the Protecting Powers by virtue of the present Convention.
'In ratifying the present Convention, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and certain other govern­ments made specific reservations with respect to this Article.
138.
DODD0A-012152
of Armed Forces at Sea of August 12, 1949, or by the Geneva Conven­tion relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War of August 12, 1949, shall not be considered as protected persons within the meaning of the present Convention.
ARTICLE 5.
Where, in the territory of a Party to the conflict, the latter is satis­fied that an individual protected person is definitely suspected of or engaged in activities hostile to the security of the State, such indi­vidual person shall not be entitled to claim such rights and privileges under the present Convention as would, if exercised in the favour of such individual person, be prejudicial to the security of such State.
Where in occupied territory an individual protected person is detained as a spy or saboteur, or as a person under definite suspicion of activity hostile to the security of the Occupying Power, such per­son shall, in those cases where absolute military security so requires, be regarded as having forfeited rights of communication under the present Convention.
In each case, such persons shall nevertheless be treated with humanity, and in case of trial, shall not be deprived of the rights of fair and regular trial prescribed by the present Convention. They shall also be granted the full rights and privileges of a protected person under the present Convention at the earliest date consistent with the security of the State or Occupying Power, as the case may be.
ARTICLE 6.
The present Convention shall apply from the outset of any conflict or occupation mentioned in Article 2.
In the territory of Parties to the conflict, the application of the present Convention shall cease on the general close of military operations.
In the case of occupied territory, the application of the present Convention shall cease one year after the general close of military operations; however, the Occupying Power shall be bound, for the duration of the occupation, to the extent that such Power exercises the functions of government in such territory, by the provisions of the following Articles of the present Convention: 1 to 12, 27, 29 to 34, 47, 49, 51, 52, 53, 59, 61 to 77, 143.
Protected persons whose release, repatriation or re-establishment may take place after such dates shall meanwhile continue to benefit by the present Convention.
ARTICLE 7.
In addition to the agreements expressly provided for in Articles 11, 14, 15, 17, 36, 108, 109, 132, 133 and 149, the High Contracting Parties may conclude other special agreements for all matters con-
137
DODD0A-012153
(1)
Persons taking no active part in the hostilities, including mem­bers of armed forces who have laid down their arms and those placed hors de combat by sickness, wounds, detention, or any other cause, shall in all circumstances be treated humanely, without any adverse distinction founded on race, colour, religion or faith, sex, birth or wealth, or any other similar criteria.

To this end, the following acts are and shall remain pro­hibited at any time and in any place whatsoever with respect to the above-mentioned persons:

(a)
violence to life and person, in particular murder of all kinds,
mutilation, cruel treatment and torture;

(b)
taking of hostages;

(c)
outrages upon personal dignity, in particular humiliating and
degrading treatment;

(d)
the passing of sentences and the carrying out of executions
without previous judgment pronounced by a regularly con­stituted court, affording all the judicial guarantees which are
recognized as indispensable by civilized peoples.

(2)
The wounded and sick shall be collected and cared for.

An impartial humanitarian body, such as the International Com­mittee of the Red Cross, may offer its services to the Parties to the conflict.
The Parties to the conflict should further endeavour to bring into force, by means of special agreements, all or part of the other provi­sions of the present Convention.
The application of the preceding provisions shall not affect the legal status of the Parties to the conflict.
ARTICLE 4.
Persons protected by the Convention are those who, at a given moment and in any manner whatsoever, find themselves, in case of a conflict or occupation, in the hands of a Party to the conflict or Occupying Power of which they are not nationals.
Nationals of a State which is not bound by the Convention are not protected by it. Nationals of a neutral State who find themselves in the territory of a belligerent State, and nationals of a co-belligerent State, shall not be regarded as protected persons while the State of which they are nationals has normal diplomatic representation in the State in whose hands they are.
The provisions of Part II are, however, wider in application, as defined in Article 13.
Persons protected by the Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field of August 12, 1949, or by the Geneva Convention for the Amel­ioration of the Condition of Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members

136.
DODDOA-012154
Chapter 7

Geneva Convention
Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons
in Time of War

12 August 1949
(Treaties and Other International Acts Series 3365)
The undersigned Plenipotentiaries of the Governments represented at the Diplomatic Conference held at Geneva from April 21 to August 12, 1949, for the purpose of establishing a Convention for the Protec­tion of Civilian Persons in Time of War, have agreed as follows:
PART I. GENERAL PROVISIONS
ARTICLE 1.
The High Contracting Parties undertake to respect and to ensure respect for the present Convention in all circumstances.
ARTICLE 2.
In addition to the provisions which shall be implemented in peace­time, the present Convention shall apply to all cases of declared war or of any other armed conflict which may arise between two or more of the High Contracting Parties, even if the state of war is not recognized by one of them.
The Convention shall also apply to all cases of partial or total occu­pation of the territory of a High Contracting Party, even if the said occupation meets with no armed resistance.
Although one of the Powers in conflict may not be a party to the present Convention, the Powers who are parties thereto shall remain bound by it in their mutual relations. They shall furthermore be bound by the Convention in relation to the said Power, if the latter accepts and applies the provisions thereof.
ARTICLE 3.
In the case of armed conflict not of an international character occur­ring in the territory of one of the High Contracting Parties, each Party to the conflict shall be bound to apply, as a minimum, the following provisions:
135
DODDOA-012155

ANNEX V

MODEL REGULATIONS CONCERNING PAYMENTS SENT BY PRISONERS TO THEIR OWN COUNTRY
(see Article 63)
(1)
The notification referred to in the third paragraph of Article 63 will show:

(a)
number as specified in Article 17, rank, surname. and first names of the prisoner of war who is the payer;

(b)
the name and address of the payee in the country of origin;

(c)
the amount to be so paid in the currency of the country in which he is detained.

(2)
The notification will be signed by the prisoner of war, or his witnessed mark made upon it if he cannot write, and shall be countersigned by the prisoners' representative.

(3)
The camp commander will add to this notification a certificate that the prisoner of war concerned has a credit balance of not less than the amount registered as payable.

(4)
The notification may be made up in lists, each sheet of such lists being witnessed by the prisoners' representative and certified by the camp commander.

134
DODD0A-0121 56
E. Repatriation Ceritficate
(see Annex II, Article 11)
REPATRIATION CERTIFICATE
Date:
Camp:
Hospital:
Surname:
First names:
Date of birth:
Rank:
Army Number:

P. W. Number:
Injury Disease:
Decision of the Commission:

Chairman of the Mixed Medical Commission
A=direct repatriation B=accommodation in a neutral country NC= re-examination by next Comm:.:;­
,;ion
133.
DODDOA-0121 57
.
D. Notification ofDeath
(see Article 120)
(Title of responsible. NOTIFICATION OF DEATH authority)
Power on which the prisoner depended .
Name and first names
First name of father
Place and date of birth
Place and date of death
Rank and service number (as given on identity disc)
Address of next of kin
Where and when taken prisoner
Cause and circumstances of death
Place of burial
Is the grave marked and can it be found later by the relatives?
Are the personal effects of the deceased in the keeping of the Detaining Power or are they being forwarded together with this notification ?
If forwarded, through what agency?
Can the person who cared for the deceasedduring . sickness or during his last moments (doctor, nurse, minister of religion, fellow prisoner) give here or on an attached sheet a short account of the circumstances of the death and burial ?
(Date, seal and signature of responsible Signature and address of two witnesses authority.)
Remarks. This form should be made out in two or three languages, particu­larly in the prisoner's own language and in that of the Detaining Power. Actual size of the form: 21 by 30 centimetres.
.
DODD0A-012158
132

1. Front
2. Reverse side
C. Correspondence Card and Letter
(see Article 71)
1. Card.
PRISONER OF WAR MAIL I Postage free POST CARD To .
Sender: Name and first names
Place of Destination
Place and date of birth
Prisoner of War No.
Street .
Name of camp
Country .
Country where posted
Province or Department .
NAME OF CAMP . Date .
Write on the dotted lines only and as legibly as possible.
Remarks. This form should be made out in two or three lan­guages, particularly in the prisoner's own language and in that of the Detaining Power. Actual size of form: i5 by 10 centimetres.
.
130 DODDOA-012160
1. Front
2. Reverse side
B. Capture Card
(see Article 70)
PRISONER OF WAR MAIL Postage free
CAPTURE CARD FOR PRISONER OF WAR
IMPORTANT
This.card.must.be
completed by each pris-CENTRAL PRISONERS
oner immediately after OF WAR AGENCY
being taken prisoner and
each time his address is
changed (by reason of ..INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE
transfer to a hospital or OF THE RED CROSS
to another camp). .

This card is distinct
from the special card
GENEVA

which each prisoner is
allowed to send to his SWITZERLAND
relatives.

Write legibly and in.1. Power on which the
block letters. prisoner depends .

2. Name.3. First names (in full).4. First name of father
5. Date of birth .6. Place of birth .
7.
Rank .

8.
Service number .

9.
Address of next of kin .

*10. Taken prisoner on: (or)
Coming from (Camp No., hospital, etc.) .
*11. (a) Good health—(b) Not wounded—(c) Recovered—

(d) Convalescent— (e) Sick—(f ) Slightly wounded

(g) Seriously wounded.
12.
My present address is: Prisoner No. .
Name of camp .

13.
Date .14. Signature .

*Strike out what is not applicable—Do not add any remarks—
See explanations overleaf.

Remarks. This form should be made out in two or three languages particularly in the prisoner's own language and in that of the De­taining Power. Actual size: 15 by 10.5 centimetres.
DODD0A-01211-1
ANNEX IV
A. Identity Card
(see Article 4)
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Aq setup ;Tv ;e paws* eq ;mita pnra eq/
lump lo pled ;ou are lncl
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3311.014
V
y OO
ti•
311Pdan
ren TIPS30 adL; pools
sa4C3
fiH R2Phi.VISPH
(Name of the country and military authority issuing this card)
Photograph
of the IDENTITY CARD

bearer
FOR . PERSON WO ACCOMPAUGIS
TEX AMID FORCICS
Name .
First awes .
Date and place of birth . Accompanies the Armed Forces as .
Date of issue. Signature of bearer
(Left forefinger) (Right forefinger)
Any other mark of identification
Remarks. This card should be made out for preference in two or three languages, one of which is in international use. Actual size of the card: 13 by 10 centimetres. It should be folded along the dotted line.
128
DODD0A-012162
ARTICLE 6.
In order to secure the regular issue of collective relief to the prisoners of war in their camp, and to meet any needs that may arise from the arrival of new contingents of prisoners, prisoners' representatives shall be allowed to build up and maintain adequate reserve stocks of col­lective relief. For this purpose, they shall have suitable warehouses at their disposal; each warehouse shall be provided with two locks, the prisoners' representative holding the keys of one lock and the camp commander the keys of the other.
ARTICLE 7.
When collective consignments of clothing are available, each prisoner of war shall retain in his possession at least one complete set of clothes. If a prisoner has more than one set of clothes, the prisoners' representa­tives shall be permitted to withdraw excess clothing from those with the largest number of sets, or particular articles in excess of one, if this is necessary in order to supply prisoners who are less well provided. He shall not, however, withdraw second sets of underclothing, socks or footwear, unless this is the only means of providing for -prisoners of war with none.
ARTICLE 8.
The High Contracting Parties, and the Detaining Powers in parti­cular, shall authorize, as far as possible and subject to the regulations governing the supply of the population, all purchases of goods made in their territories for the distribution of collective relief to prisoners of war. They shall similarly facilitate the transfer of funds and other financial measures of a technical or administrative nature taken for the purpose of making such purchases.
ARTICLE 9.
The foregoing provisions shall not constitute an obstacle to the right of prisoners of war to receive collective relief before their arrival in a camp or in the course of transfer, nor to the possibility of representa­tives of the Protecting Power, the International Committee of the Red Cross, or any other body giving assistance to prisoners which may be responsible for the forwarding of such supplies, ensuring the dis­tribution thereof to the addressees by any other means that they maydeem useful.
127.
DODDOA-012163
ANNEX III
REGULATIONS CONCERNING COLLECTIVE RELIEF
(see Article 73)
ARTICLE 1.
Prisoners' representatives shall be allowed to distribute collective relief shipments for which they are responsible, to all prisoners of war administered by their camp, including those who are in hospitals, or in prisons or other penal establishments.
ARTICLE 2.
The distribution of collective relief shipments shall be effected in accordance with the instructions of the donors and with a plan drawn up by the prisoners' representatives. The issue of medical stores shall, however, be made for preference in agreement with the senior medical officers, and the latter may, in hospitals and infirmaries, waive the said instructions, if the needs of their patients so demand. Within the limits thus defined, the distribution shall always be carried out equitably.
ARTICLE 3.
The said prisoners' representatives or their assistants shall be al­lowed to go to the points of arrival of relief supplies near their camps, so as to enable the prisoners' representatives or their assistants to verify the quality as well as the quantity of the goods received, and to make out detailed reports thereon for the donors.
ARTICLE 4.
Prisoners' representatives shall be given the facilities necessary for verifying whether the distribution of collective relief in all subdivisions and annexes of their camps has been carried out in accordance with their instructions.
ARTICLE 5.
Prisoners' representatives shall be allowed to fill up, and cause to be filled up by the prisoners' representatives of labour detachments or by the senior medical officers of infirmaries and hospitals, forms or questionnaires intended for the donors, relating to collective relief supplies (distribution, requirements, quantities, etc.). Such forms and questionnaires, duly completed, shall be forwarded to the donors without delay.
126
DODD0A-012164
ARTICLE 8.
By agreement with the Detaining Power, the International Commit­tee of the Red Cross, when making the appointments provided for in Articles 2 and 4 of the present Regulations, shall settle the terms of service of the nominees.
ARTICLE 9.
The Mixed Medical Commissions shall begin their work as soon as possible after the neutral members have been approved, and in any case within a period of three months from the date of such approval.
ARTICLE 10.
The Mixed Medical Commissions shall examine all the prisoners designated in Article 113 of the Convention. They shall propose repatriation, rejection, or reference to a later examination. Their decisions shall be made by a majority vote.
ARTICLE 11.
The decisions made by the Mixed Medical Commissions in each specific case shall be communicated, during the month following their visit, to the Detaining Power, the Protecting Power and the Inter­national Committee of the Red Cross. The Mixed Medical Com­missions shall also inform each prisoner of war examined of the decision made, and shall issue to those whose repatriation has been proposed, certificates similar to the model appended to the present Convention.
ARTICLE 12.
The Detaining Power shall be required to carry out the decisions of the Mixed Medical Commissions within three months of the time when it receives due notification of such decisions.
ARTICLE 13.
If there is no neutral physician in a country where the services of a Mixed Medical Commission seem to be required, and if it is for any reason impossible to appoint neutral doctors who are resident in another country, the Detaining Power, acting in agreement with the Protecting Power, shall set up a Medical Commission which shall undertake the same duties as a Mixed Medical Commission, subject to the provisions of Articles 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 8 of the present Regulations.
ARTICLE 14.
Mixed Medical Commissions shall function permanently and shall visit each camp at intervals of not more than six months.
125 . DODDOA-0 12165
ANNEX II
REGULATIONS CONCERNING MIXED MEDICAL
COMMISSIONS
(see Article 112).

ARTICLE 1.
The Mixed Medical Commissions provided for in Article 112 of the Convention shall be composed of three members, two of whom shall belong to a neutral country, the third being appointed by the Detaining Power. One of the neutral members shall take the chair.
ARTICLE 2.
The two neutral members shall be appointed by the International Committee of the Red Cross, acting in agreement with the Protecting Power, at the request of the Detaining Power. They may be domiciled either in their country of origin, in any other neutral country, or in the territory of the Detaining Power.
ARTICLE 3.
The neutral members shall be approved by the Parties to the conflict concerned, who shall notify their approval to the International Committee of the Red Cross and to the Protecting Power. Upon such notification, the neutral members shall be considered as effectively appointed.
ARTICLE 4.
Deputy members shall also be appointed in sufficient number to replace the regular members in case of need. They shall be appointed at the same time as the regular members or, at least, as soon as possible.
ARTICLE 5.
If for any reason the International Committee of the Red Cross cannot arrange for the appointment of the neutral members, this shall be done by the Power protecting the interests of the prisoners of war to be examined.
ARTICLE 6.
So far as possible, one of the two neutral members shall be a surgeon and the other a physician.
ARTICLE 7.
The neutral members shall be entirely independent of the Parties to the conflict, which shall grant them all facilities in the accomplishmentof their duties.
124
DODD0A-012166
captivity, as well as cases of tuberculosis in all stages, shall above all benefit by such liberal interpretation. Prisoners of war who have sustained several wounds, none of which, considered by itself, justifies repatriation, shall be examined in the same spirit, with due regard for the psychic traumatism due to the number of their wounds.
(2)
All unquestionable cases giving the right to direct repatriation (amputation, total blindness or deafness, open pulmonary tuber­culosis, mental disorder, malignant growth; etc.) shall be ex­amined and repatriated as soon as possible by the camp physicians or by military medical commissions appointed by the Detaining Power.

(3)
Injuries and diseases which existed before the war and which have not become worse, as well as war injuries which have not pre­vented subsequent military service, shall not entitle. to direct repatriation.

(4)
The provisions of this Annex shall be interpreted and applied in a similar manner in all countries party to the conflict. The Powers and authorities concerned shall grant to Mixed Medical Commissions all the facilities necessary for the accomplishment of their task.

(5)
The examples quoted under (1) above represent only typical cases. Cases which do not correspond exactly to these provisions shall be judged in the spirit of the provisions of Article 110 of the present Convention, and of the principles embodied in the present Agreement.

123.
DODD0A-012167
• disorders; tertiary visceral syphilis resistant to treatment; leprosy; etc.
(t) Serious avitaminosis or serious inanition.
B. Accommodation in Neutral Countries
The following shall be eligible . for accommodation in a neutral country:
(1)
All wounded prisoners of war who are not likely to recover in captivity, but who might be cured or whose condition might be considerably improved by accommodation in a neutral country.

(2)
Prisoners of war suffering from any form of tuberculosis, of what­ever organ, and whose treatment in a neutral country would be likely to lead to recovery or at least to considerable improvement, with the exception of primary tuberculosis cured before captivity.

(3)
Prisoners of war suffering from affections requiring treatment,of respiratory, circulatory, digestive, nervous, sensory, genito­urinary, cutaneous, locomotive organs, etc., if such treatment would clearly have better results in a neutral country than in captivity.

(4)
Prisoners of war who have undergone a nephrectomy in captivity for a non-tubercular renal affection; cases of osteomyelitis, on the way to recovery or latent; diabetes mellitus not requiring insulin treatment; etc.

(5)
Prisoners of war suffering from war or captivity neuroses.

Cases of captivity neurosis which are not cured after three
months of accommodation in a neutral country, or which after
that length of time are not clearly on the way to complete cure,
shall be repatriated.

(6)
All prisoners ol war suffering from chronic iitoxication (gases, metals, alkaloids, etc.), for whom the prospects of cure in a neu­tral country are especially favourable.

(7)
All women prisoners of war who are pregnant or mothers with infants and small children.

The following cases shall not be eligible for accommodation in a neutral country:
(1)
All duly verified chronic psychoses.

(2)
All organic or functional nervous affections considered to be in­curable.

(3)
All contagious diseases during the period in which they are trans­missible, with the exception of tuberculosis.

II. GENERAL OBSERVATIONS

(1)
The conditions given shall, in a general way, be interpreted and

applied in as broad a spirit as possible.
Neuropathic and psychopathic conditions caused by war or

122
DODD0A-012168
(f)
Serious chronic affections of the genito-urinary organs, for
example: chronic diseases of the kidney with consequent
disorders; nephrectomy because of a tubercular kidney;
chronic pyelitis or chronic cystitis; hydronephrosis or pyone­phrosis; chronic grave gynaecological conditions; normal
pregnancy and obstetrical disorder, where it is impossible
to accommodate in a neutral country; etc.

(g)
Serious chronic diseases of the central and peripheral nervous
system, for example: all obvious psychoses and psychoneu­roses, such as serious hysteria, serious captivity psycho­neurosis, etc., duly verified by a specialist*; any epilepsy
duly verified by the camp physician*; cerebral arterioscle­rosis; chronic neuritis lasting more than one year; etc.

(h)
Serious chronic diseases of the neuro-vegetative system, with
considerable diminution of mental or physical fitness, notice­able loss of weight and general asthenia.

(i)
Blindness of both eyes, or of one eye when the vision of the
other is less than 1 in spite of the use of corrective glasses;
diminution of visual acuity in cases where it is impossible to
restore it by correction to an acuity of 3' in at least one eye*;
other grave ocular affections, for example: glaucoma, iritis,
choroiditis; trachoma; etc.

(k)
Auditive disorders, such as total unilateral deafness, if the
other ear does not discern the ordinary spoken word at a
distance of one metre*, etc.

(1)
Serious affections of metabolism, for example: diabetes melli­tus requiring insulin treatment; etc.

(m)
Serious disorders of the endocrine glands, for example: thy­rotoxicosis; hypothyrosis; Addison's disease; Simmonds'
cachexia; tetany; etc.

(n)
Grave and chronic disorders of the blood-forming organs.

(o)
Serious cases of chronic intoxication, for example: lead poison­ing, mercury poisoning, morphinism, cocainism, alcoholism;
gas or radiation poisoning; etc.

(p)
Chronic affections of locomotion, with obvious functional
disorders, for example: arthritis deformans; primary and
secondary progressive chronic polyarthritis; rheumatism
with serious clinical symptoms; etc.

(g)
Serious chronic skin diseases, not amenable to treatment.

(r)
Any malignant growth.

(s)
Serious chronic infectious diseases, persisting for one year
after their inception, for example: malaria with decided or­ganic impairment, amcebic or bacillary dysentery with grave

The decision of the Mixed Medical Commission shall be based to a great extent on the records kept by camp physicians and surgeons of the same nationality as the prisoners of war, or on an examination by medical specialists of the Detaining Power.
121. DODDOA-012169
(d)
Perforating and suppurating injury to the large joints.

(e)
Injury to the skull, with loss or shifting of bony tissue.

(f)
Injury or burning of the face with loss of tissue and functional lesions.

(g)
Injury to the spinal cord.

(h)
Lesion of the peripheral nerves, the sequelae of which are equivalent to the loss of a hand or foot, and the cure of which requires more than a year from the date of injury, for ex­ample: injury to the brachial or lumbosacral plexus median or sciatic nerves, likewise combined injury to the radial and cubital nerves or to the lateral popliteal nerve (N. peroneous communis) and medial popliteal nerve (N. tibialis); etc. The separate injury of the radial (musculospiral), cubital, lateral or medial popliteal nerves shall not, however, warrant repatriation except in case of contractures or of serious neurotrophic disturbance.

(i)
Injury to the urinary system, with incapacitating results.

(3)
All sick prisoners of war whose condition has become chronic to
the extent that prognosis seems to exclude recovery—in spite of
treatment—within one year from the inception of the disease, as,
for example, in case of:

(a)
Progressive tuberculosis of any organ which, according to medical prognosis, cannot be cured or at least considerably improved by treatment in a neutral country.

(b)
Exudate pleurisy.

(c)
Serious diseases of the respiratory organs of non-tubercular etiology, presumed incurable, for example: serious pulmo­nary emphysema, with or without bronchitis; chronic asthma*; chronic bronchitis* lasting more than one year in captivity; bronchiectasis*; etc.

(d)
Serious chronic affections of the circulatory system, for
example: valvular lesions and myocarditis*, which have
shown signs of circulatory failure during captivity, even
though the Mixed Medical Commission cannot detect any
such signs at the time of examination; affections of the peri­cardium and the vessels (Buerger's disease, aneurisms of the
large vessels); etc.

(e)
Serious chronic affections of the digestive organs, for ex­ample: gastric or duodenal ulcer; sequelae of gastric opera­tions performed in captivity; chronic gastritis, enteritis or
colitis, having lasted more than one year and seriously
affecting the general condition; cirrhosis of the liver; chronic
cholecystopathy*; etc.

'The decision of the Mixed Medical Commission shall be based to a great extent on the records kept by camp physicians and surgeons of the same nationality as the prisoners of war, or on an examination by medical specialists of the Detaining Power.
120
DODDOA-012170
ANNEX I

MODEL AGREEMENT CONCERNING DIRECT REPATRIA-TION AND ACCOMMODATION IN NEUTRAL COUNTRIES OF WOUNDED AND SICK PRISONERS OF WAR
(see Article 110)
I. PRINCIPLES FOR DIRECT REPATRIATION AND ACCOMMODATION IN
NEUTRAL COUNTRIES
A. Direct Repatriation
The following shall be repatriated direct:
(1) All prisoners of war suffering from the following disabilities as the result of trauma: loss of a limb, paralysis, articular or other disabilities, when this disability is at least the loss of a hand or a foot, or the equivalent of the loss of a hand or a foot.
Without prejudice to a more generous interpretation, the fol­lowing shall be considered as equivalent to the loss of a hand or a foot:
(a)
Loss of a hand or of all the fingers, or of the thumb and fore­finger of one hand; loss of a foot, or of all the toes and meta­tarsals of one foot.

(b)
Ankylosis, loss of osseous tissue, cicatricial contracture pre­venting the functioning of one of the large articulations or of all the digital joints of one hand.

(c)
Pseudarthrosis of the long bones.

(d)
Deformities due to fracture or other injury which seriously interfere with function and weight-bearing power.

(2)
All wounded prisoners of war whose condition has become chronic, to the extent that prognosis appears to exclude recovery—in spite of treatment—within one year from the date of the injury, as, for example, in case of:

(a)
Projectile in the heart, even if the Mixed Medical Commis­sion should fail, at the time of their examination, to detect any serious disorders.

(b)
Metallic splinter in the brain or the lungs, even if the Mixed Medical Commission cannot, at the time of examination, detect any local or general reaction.

(c)
Osteomyelitis, when recovery cannot be foreseen in the course of the year following the injury, and which seems likely to result in ankylosis of a joint, or other impairments equivalent to the loss of a hand or a foot.

119
DODD0A-012171

ARTICLE 143.

The Swiss Federal Council shall register the present Convention with the Secretariat of the United Nations. The Swiss Federal Council shall also inform the Secretariat of the United Nations of all ratifications, accessions and denunciations received by it with respect to the present Convention.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned, having deposited their respective full powers, have signed the present Convention.
DONE at Geneva this twelfth day of August 1949, in the English and French languages. The original shall be deposited in the Archives of the Swiss Confederation. The Swiss Federal Council shall trans­mit certified copies thereof to each of the signatory and acceding States.
[Here follow signatures.)
118
DODD0A-012172
ARTICLE 138.
The present Convention shall come into force six months after not less than two instruments of ratification have been deposited. Thereafter, it shall come into force for each High Contracting Party six' months after the deposit of the instrument of ratification.
ARTICLE 139.
From the date of its coming into force, it shall be open to any
Power in whose name the present Convention has not been signed, to
accede to this Convention.

ARTICLE 140.
Accessions shall be notified in writing to the Swiss Federal Council, and shall take effect six months after the date on which they are received.
The Swiss Federal Council shall communicate the accessions to all the Powers in whose name the Convention has been signed, or whose accession has been notified.
ARTICLE 141.
The situations provided for in Articles 2 and 3 shall give immediate effect to ratifications deposited and accessions notified by the Parties to the conflict before or after the beginning of hostilities or occupation. The Swiss Federal Council shall communicate by the quickest method any ratifications or accessions received from Parties to the conflict.
ARTICLE 142.
Each of the High Contracting Parties shall be at liberty to denounce
the present Convention.
The denunciation shall be notified in writing to the Swiss Federal Council, which shall transmit it to the Governments of all the High Contracting Parties.
The denunciation shall take effect one year after the notification thereof has been made to the Swiss Federal Council. However, a denunciation of which notification has been made at a time when the denouncing Power is involved in a conflict shall not take effect until peace has been concluded, and until after operations connected with release and repatriation of the persons protected by the present Convention have been terminated.
The denunciation shall have effect only in respect of the denouncing Power. It shall in no way impair the obligations which the Parties to the conflict shall remain bound to fulfil by virtue of the principles of the law of nations, as they result from the usages established among civilized peoples, from the laws of humanity and the dictates of the public conscience.
117
DODDOA-012173
ARTICLE 132.
At the request of a Party to the conflict, an enquiry shall be insti­
.
tuted, in a manner to be decided between the interested Parties, con­
cerning any alleged violation of the Convention.
If agreement has not been reached concerning the procedure for
the enquiry, the Parties should agree on the choke of an umpire who
will decide upon the procedure to be followed.
Once the violation has been established, the Parties to the conflict
shall put an end to it and shall repress it with the least possible delay.
SECTION II. FINAL PROVISIONS.
ARTICLE 133.
The present Convention is established in English and in French. Both texts are equally authentic. The Swiss Federal Council shall arrange for official translations of the Convention to be made in the Russian and Spanish languages.
ARTICLE 134.
The present Convention replaces the Convention of July 27, 1929, in relations between the High Contracting Parties.
ARTICLE 135.
In the relations between the Powers which are bound by the Hague Convention respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land, whether that of July 29, 1899, or that of October 18, 1907, and which are parties to the present Convention, this last Convention shall be complementary to Chapter II of the Regulations annexed to the above-mentioned Conventions of The Hague.
ARTICLE 136.
The present Convention, which bears the date of this day, is open to signature until February 12, 1950, in the name of the Powers repre­sented at the Conference which opened at Geneva on April 21, 1949; furthermore, by Powers not represented at that Conference, but which are parties to the Convention of July 27, 1929.
ARTICLE 137.
The present Convention shall be ratified as soon as possible and the ratifications shall be deposited at Berne.
A record shall be drawn up of the deposit of each instrument of ratification and certified copies of this record shall be transmitted by the Swiss Federal Council to all the Powers in whose name the Con­vention has been signed, or whose accession has been notified.
116.
DODDOA-012174
Any military or other authorities, who in time of war assume responsibilities in respect of prisoners of war, must possess the text of the Convention and be specially instructed as to its provisions.
ARTICLE 128.
The High Contracting Parties shall communicate to one another
through the Swiss Federal Council and, during hostilities, through the
Protecting Powers, the official translations of the present Convention,
as well as the laws and regulations which they may adopt to ensure
the application thereof.
ARTICLE 129.
The High Contracting Parties undertake to enact any legislation necessary to provide effective penal sanctions for persons committing, or ordering to be committed, any of the grave breaches of the.present Convention defined in the following Article.
Each High Contracting Party shall be under the obligation to search for persons alleged to have committed, or to have ordered to be com­mitted, such grave breaches, and shall bring such persons, regardless of their nationality, before its own courts. It may also, if it prefers, and in accordance with the provisions of its own legislation, hand such persons over for trial to another High Contracting Party concerned, provided such High Contracting Party has made out a prima facie case.
Each High Contracting Party shall take measures necessary for the suppression of all acts contrary to the provisions of the present Con­vention other than the grave breaches defined in the following Article.
In all circumstances, the accused persons shall benefit by safeguards of proper trial and defence, which shall not be less favourable than those provided by Article 105 and those following of the present Convention.
ARTICLE 130.
Grave breaches to which the preceding Article relates shall be those involving any of the following acts, if committed against persons or property protected by the Convention: wilful killing, torture or inhu­man treatment, including biological experiments, wilfully causing great suffering or serious injury to body or health, compelling a prisoner of war to serve in the forces of the hostile Power, or wilfully depriving a prisoner of war of the rights of fair and regular trial prescribed in this Convention.
ARTICLE 131.
No High Contracting Party shall be allowed to absolve itself or anyother High Contracting Party of any liability incurred by itself or by another High Contracting Party in respect of breaches referred to in the preceding Article.

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DODD0A-012175
izations whose delegates are allowed to carry out their activities in its
territory and under its supervision, on condition, however, that such
limitation shall not hinder the effective operation of adequate relief
to all prisoners of war.
The special position of the International Committee of the Red
Cross in this field shall be recognized and respected at all times.
As soon as relief supplies or material intended for the above­mentioned purposes are handed over to prisoners of war, or very shortly afterwards, receipts for each consignment, signed by the prisoners' representative, shall be forwarded to the relief society or organization making the shipment. At the same time, receipts for these consignments shall be supplied by the administrative authorities responsible for guarding the prisoners.
PART VI. EXECUTION OF THE CONVENTION
SECTION I. GENERAL PROVISIONS.
ARTICLE 126.
Representatives or delegates of the Protecting Powers shall have permission to go to all places where prisoners of war may be, partic­ularly to places of internment, imprisonment and labour, and shall have access to all premises occupied by prisoners of war; they shall also be allowed to go to the places of departure, passage and arrival of prisoners who are being transferred. They shall be able to interview the prisoners, and in particular the prisoners' representatives, without witnesses, either personally or through an interpreter.
Representatives and delegates of the Protecting Powers shall have full liberty 1,o select the places they wish to visit. The duration and frequency of these visits shall not be restricted. Visits may not be prohibited except for reasons of imperative military necessity, and then only as an exceptional and temporary measure.
The Detaining Power and the Power on which the said prisoners of war depend may agree, if necessary, that compatriots of these prisoners of war be permitted to participate in the visits.
The delegates of the International Committee of the Red Cross shall enjoy the same prerogatives. The appointment of such delegates shall be submitted to the approval of the Power detaining the prisoners of war to be visited.
ARTICLE 127.
The High Contracting Parties undertake, in time of peace as intime of war, to disseminate the text of the present Convention as widely as possible in their respective countries, and, in particular, to include the study thereof in their programmes of military and, if possible, civil instruction, so that the principles thereof may become known to all their armed forces and to the entire population.
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DODDOA-012176
who have escaped or died, and shall forward the said valuables to the Powers concerned. Such articles shall be sent by the Bureau in sealed packets which shall be accompanied by statements giving clear and full particulars of the identity of the person to whom the articles belonged, and by a complete list of the contents of the parcel. Other personal effects of such prisoners of war shall be transmitted under arrangements agreed upon between the Parties to the conflict
concerned.
ARTICLE 123.
A Central Prisoners of War Information Agency shall be created in a neutral country. The International Committee of the Red Cross shall, if it deems necessary, propose to the Powers concerned the organization of such an Agency.
The function of the Agency shall be to collect all the information it may obtain through official or private channels respecting prisoners of war, and to transmit it as rapidly as possible to the country of origin of the prisoners of war or to the Power on which they depend. It shall receive from the Parties to the conflict all facilities for effecting such transmissions.
The High Contracting Parties, and in particular those whose nationals benefit by the services of the Central Agency, are requested to give the said Agency the financial aid it may require.
The foregoing provisions shall in no way be interpreted as restricting the humanitarian activities of the International Committee of the Red Cross, or of the relief societies provided for in Article 125.
ARTICLE 124.
The national Information Bureaux and the Central Information Agency shall enjoy free postage for mail, likewise all• the exemptions provided for in Article 74, and further, so far as possible, exemption from telegraphic charges or, at least, greatly reduced rates.
ARTICLE 125.
Subject to the measures which the Detaining Powers may consider essential to ensure their security or to meet any other reasonable need, the representatives of religious organizations, relief societies, or any other organization assisting prisoners of war, shall receive from the said Powers, for themselves and their duly accredited agents, all necessary facilities for visiting the prisoners, for distributing relief supplies and material, from any source, intended for religious, educa­tional or recreative purposes, and for assisting them in organizing their leisure time within the camps. Such societies or organizations may be constituted in the territory of the Detaining Power or in any other country, or they may have an international character.
The Detaining Power may limit the number of societies and organ-
113.
DODD0A-012177
belligerent Powers who may have received within their territory
persons belonging to one of the categories referred to in Article 4,
shall take the same action with respect to such persons. The Power
concerned shall ensure that the Prisoners of War Information Bureau
is provided with the necessary accommodation, equipment and staff
to ensure its efficient working. It shall be at liberty to employ
prisoners of war in such a Bureau under the conditions laid down in
the Section of the present Cony Lilt ion dcalir,; with work by prisoners
of war.
Within the shortest possible period, each of the Parties. to the
conflict shall give its Bureau the information referred to in the fourth,
fifth and sixth paragraphs of this Article regarding any enemy person
belonging to one of the categories referred to in Article 4, who has
fallen into its power. Neutral or non-belligerent Powers shall take
the same action with regard to persons belonging to such categories
whom they have received within their territory.
The Bureau shall immediately forward such information by the
most rapid means to the Powers concerned, through the intermediary
of the Protecting Powers and likewise of the Central Agency provided
for in Article 123.
This information shall make it possible quickly to advise the next
of kin concerned. Subject to the provisions of Article 17, the informa­
tion shall include, in so far as available to the Information Bureau,
in respect of each prisoner of war, his surname, first names, rank,
army, regimental, personal or serial number, place and full date of
birth, indication of the Power on which he depends, first name of the
father and maiden name of the mother, name and address of the
person to be informed and the address to which correspondence for
the prisoner may be sent.
The Information Bureau shall receive from the various depart­ments concerned information regarding transfers, releases, repatria­tions, escapes ; admissions to hospital, and deaths, and shall transmit such infcrmation in the manner described in the third paragraph above.
Likewise, information regarding the state of health of prisoners of war who are seriously ill or seriously wounded shall be supplied regu­larly, every week if possible.
The Information Bureau shall also be responsible for replying to all enquiries sent to it concerning prisoners of war, including those who have died in captivity; it will make any enquiries necessary to obtain the information which is asked for if this is not in its possession.
All written communications made by the Bureau shall be authenti­cated by a signature or a seal.
The Information Bureau shall furthermore be charged with collect­ing all personal valuables, including sums in currencies other than that of the Detaining Power and documents of importance to the next of kin, left by prisoners of war who have been repatriated or released, or
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DODD0A-012178
and enabling a report to be made and, where necessary, establishing
identity.
The detaining authorities shall ensure that prisoners of war who have
died in captivity are honourably buried, if possible according to the
rites of the religion to which they belonged, and that their graves
are respected, suitably maintained and marked so as to be found at
any time. Wherever possible, deceased prisoners of war who de­
pended on the same Power shall be interred in the same place.
Deceased prisoners of war shall be buried in individual graves unless unavoidable circumstances require the use of collective graves. Bodies may be cremated only for imperative reasons of hygiene, on account of the religion of the deceased or in accordance with his express wish to this effect. In case of cremation, the fact shall be stated and the reasons given in the death certificate of the deceased.
In order that graves may always be found, all particulars of burials and graves shall be recorded with a Graves Registration Service established by the Detaining Power. Lists of graves and particulars of the prisoners of war interred in cemeteries and elsewhere shall be transmitted to the Power on which such prisoners of war depended. Responsibility for the care of these graves and for records of any subsequent moves of the bodies shall rest on the Power controlling the territory, if a Party to the present Convention. These provisions shall also apply to the ashes, which shall be kept by the Graves Registration Service until proper disposal thereof in accordance with the wishes of the home country.
ARTICLE 121.
Every death or serious injury of a prisoner of war caused or suspected to have been caused by a sentry, another prisoner of war, or any other person, as well as any death the cause of which is unknown, shall be immediately followed by an official enquiry by the Detaining Power.
A communication on this subject shall be sent immediately to the Protecting Power. Statements shall be taken from witnesses, es­pecially from those who are prisoners of war, and a report including such statements shall be forwarded to the Protecting Power.
If the enquiry indicates the guilt of one or more persons, the Detain­ing Power shall take all measures for the prosecution of the person or persons responsible.
PART V. INFORMATION BUREAUX AND RELIEF
SOCIETIES FOR PRISONERS OF WAR

ARTICLE 122.
Upon the outbreak of a conflict and in all cases of occupation, each of the Parties to the conflict shall institute an official Information Bureau for prisoners of war who are in its power. Neutral or non-
111.
DODD0A-012179
They may be marked with the distinctive emblem provided for in Article 38 of the Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Con­dition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field of August 12, 1949.
Unless agreed otherwise, flights over enemy or enemy-occupied territory are prohibited.
Such aircraft shall obey every summons to land. In the event of a landing thus imposed, the aircraft with its occupants may continue its flight after examination, if any.
ARTICLE 23.
Each High Contracting Party shall allow the free passage of all consignments of medical and hospital stores and objects necessary for religious wcrship intended only for civilians of another High Con­tracting Party, even if the latter is its adversary. It shall likewise permit the free passage of all consignments of essential foodstuffs, clothing and tonics intended for children under fifteen, expectant mothers and maternity cases.
The obligation of a High Contracting Party to allow the free passage of the consignments indicated in the preceding paragraph is subject to the condition that this Party is satisfied that there are no serious reasons for fearing:
(a)
that the consignments may be diverted from their destination,

(b)
that the control may not be effective, or

(c)
that a definite advantage may accrue to the military efforts or economy of the enemy through the substitution of the above-mentioned consignments for goods which would otherwise be provided or produced by the enemy or through the release of such material, services or facilities as would otherwise be required for the production of such goods.

The Power which allows the passage of the consignments indicated in the first paragraph of this Article may make such permission con­ditional on the distribution to the persons benefited thereby being made under the local supervision of the Protecting Powers.
Such consignments shall be forwarded as rapidly as possible, and the Power which permits their free passage nail have the right to
prescribe the technical arrangements under which such passage allowed. is
ARTICLE 24.
The Parties to the conflict shall take the necessary measures to

ensure that children under fifteen, who are orphaned or are separated from their families as a result of the war, are not left to their own resources, and that their maintenance, the exercise of their religion and their education are facilitated in all circumstances. Their educa­
tion shall, as far as possible, be entrusted to persons of a similar cultural tradition.
143
DODD0A-012180
The Parties to the conflict shall facilitate the reception of such children in a neutral country for the duration of the conflict with the consent of the Protecting Power, if any, and under due safeguards for the observance of the principles stated in the first paragraph.
They shall, furthermore, endeavour to arrange for all children under twelve to be identified by the wearing of identity .discs, or by some other means.
ARTICLE 25.
All persons in the territory of a Party to the conflict, or in a territory occupied by it, shall be enabled to give news of a strictly personal nature to members of their families, wherever they may be, and to receive news from them. This correspondence shall be forwarded speedily and without undue delay:
If, as a result of circumstances, it becomes difficult or impossible to exchange family correspondence by the ordinary post, the Parties to the conflict concerned shall apply to a neutral intermediary, such as the Central Agency provided for in Article 140, and shall decide in consultation with it how to ensure the fulfilment of their obligations under the best possible conditions, in particular with the cooperation of the National Red Cross (Red Crescent, Red Lion and Sun) Societies.
If the Parties to the conflict deem it necessary to restrict family correspondence, such restrictions shall be confined to the compulsory use of standard forms containing twenty-five freely chosen words, and to the limitation of the number of these forms despatched to one each month.
ARTICLE 26.
Each Party to the conflict shall facilitate enquiries made by members of families dispersed owing to the war, with the object of renewing contact with one another and of meeting, if possible. It shall encour­age, in particular, the work of organizations engaged on this task provided they are acceptable to it and conform to its security regu­lations.
PART III. STATUS AND TREATMENT OF PROTECTED
PERSONS

SECTION I. PROVISIONS COMMON TO THE TERRITORIES OF THE PARTIES
TO THE CONFLICT AND TO OCCUPIED TERRITORIES.
ARTICLE 27.
Protected persons are entitled, in all circumstances, to respect for their persons, their honour, their family rights, their religious convic­tions and practices, and their manners and customs. They shall at all times be humanely treated, and shall be protected especially against all acts of violence or threats thereof and against insults and public curiosity.
144. DODDOA-012181
Women shall be especially protected against any attack on their honour, in particular against rape, enforced prostitution, or any form of indecent assault.
Without prejudice to the provisions relating to their state of health, age and sex, all protected persons shall be treated with the same consideration by the Party to the conflict in whose power they are, without any adverse distinction based, in particular, on race, religion or political opinion.
However, the Parties to the conflict may take such measures of control and security in regard to protected persons as may be necessary as a result of the war.
ARTICLE 28.
The presence of a protected person may not be used to render certain points or areas immune from military operations.
ARTICLE 29.
The Party to the conflict in whose hands protected persons may be, is responsible for the treatment accorded to them by its agents, irre­spective of any individual responsibility which may be incurred.
ARTICLE 30.
Protected persons shall have every facility for making application to the Protecting Powers, the International Committee of the Red Cross, the National Red Cross (Red Crescent, Red Lion and Sun) Society of the country where they may be, as well as to any organiza­tion that might assist them.
These several organizations shall be granted all facilities for that purpose by the authorities, within the bounds set by military or security considerations.
Apart from the visits of the delegates of the Protecting Powers and of the International Committee of. the Red Cross, provided for by Article 143, the. Detaining or Occupying Powers shall facilitate as much as possible visits to protected persons by the representatives of other organizations whose object is to give spiritual aid or material relief to such persons.
ARTICLE 31.
No physical or moral coercion shall be exercised against protected persons, in particular to obtain information from them or from third parties.
ARTICLE 32.
The High Contracting Parties specifically agree that each of them is prohibited from taking any measure of such a character as to cause the physical suffering or extermination of protected persons in their hands. This prohibition applies not only to murder, torture, corporal
145
DODD0A-01 21 82
punishment, mutilation and medical or scientific experiments not necessitated by the medical treatment of a protected person, but also to any other measures of brutality whether applied by civilian or military agents.
ARTICLE 33.
No protected person may be punished for an offence he or she has not personally committed. Collective penalties and likewise all measures of intimidation or of terrorism are prohibited.
Pillage is prohibited. Reprisals against protected persons and their property are pro­hibited. ARTICLE 34.
The taking of hostages is prohibited.
SECTION II. ALIENS IN THE TERRITORY OF A PARTY TO THE CONFLICT.
ARTICLE 35.
All protected persons who may desire to leave the territory at the outset of, or during a conflict, shall be entitled to do so, unless their departure is contrary to the national interests of the State. The applications of such persons to leave shall be decided in accordance with regularly established procedures and the decision shall be taken as rapidly as possible. Those persons permitted to leave may provide themselves with the necessary funds for their journey and take with them a reasonable amount of their effects and articles of personal use.
If any such person is refused permission to leave the territory, he shall be entitled to have such refusal reconsidered as soon as possible by an appropriate court or administrative board designated by the Detaining Power for that purpose.
Upon request, representatives of the Protecting Power shall, unless reasons of security prevent it, or the persons concerned object, be furnished with the reasons for refusal of any request for permission to leave the territory and be given, as expeditiously as possible, the names of all persons who have been denied permission to leave.
ARTICLE 36.
Departures permitted under the foregoing Article shall be carried out in satisfactory conditions as regards safety, hygiene, sanitation and food. All costs in connection therewith, from the point of exit in the territory of the Detaining Power, shall be borne by the country of destination, or, in the case of accommodation in a neutral country, by the Power whose nationals are benefited. The practical details of such movements may, if necessary, be settled by special agreements between the Powers concerned.
146. DODDOA-012183
The foregoing shall not prejudice such special agreements as may be concluded between Parties to the conflict concerning the exchange and repatriation of their nationals in enemy hands.
ARTICLE 37.
Protected persons who are confined pending proceedings or serving a sentence involving loss of liberty, shall during their confinement be humanely treated.
As soon as they are released, they may ask to leave the territory in conformity with the foregoing Articles.
ARTICLE 38.
With the exception of special measures authorized by the present Convention, in particular by Articles 27 and 41 thereof, the situation of protected persons shall continue to be regulated, in principle, by the provisions concerning aliens in time of peace. In any case, the following rights shall be granted to them:
(1)
They shall be enabled to receive . the individual or collective
relief that may be sent to them.

(2)
They shall, if their state of health so requires, receive medical
attention and hospital treatment to the same extent as the
nationals of the State concerned.

(3)
They shall be allowed to practise their religion and to receive
spiritual assistance from ministers of their faith.

(4)
If they reside in an area particularly exposed to the dangers of
war, they shall be authorised to move from that area to the
same extent as the nationals of the State concerned.

(5)
Children under fifteen years, pregnant women and mothers
of children under seven years shall benefit by any preferential
treatment to the same extent as the nationals of the State
concerned.

ARTICLE 39.
Protected persons who, as a result of the war, have lost their gainful employment, shall be granted the opportunity to find paid employ­ment. That opportunity shall, subject to security considerations and to the provisions of Article 40, be equal to that enjoyed by the nationals of the Power in whose territory they are.
Where a Party to the conflict applies to a protected person methods of control which result in his being unable to support himself, and especially if such a person is prevented for reasons of security from finding paid employment on reasonable conditions, the said Party shall ensure his support and that of his dependents.
Protected persons may in any case receive allowances from their home country, the Protecting Power, or the relief societies referred to in Article 30.
.
147
DODD0A-012184
— _ _
ARTICLE 40.
Protected persons may be compelled to work only to the same extent as nationals of the Party to the conflict in whose territory they are.
If protected persons are of enemy nationality, they may only be compelled to do work which is normally necessary to ensure the feed­ing, sheltering, clothing, transport and health of human beings and which is not directly related to the conduct of military operations.
In the cases mentioned in the two preceding paragraphs, protected persons compelled to work shall have the benefit of the same working conditions and of the same safeguards as national workers, in par­ticular as regards wages, hours of labour, clothing and equipment, previous training and compensation for occupational accidents and diseases.
If the above provisions are infringed, protected persons. shall be allowed to exercise their right of complaint in accordance with Article 30.
ARTICLE 41.
Should the Power in whose hands protected persons may be consider the measures of control mentioned in the present Convention to be inadequate, it may not have recourse to any other measure of control more severe than that of assigned residence or internment, in accord­ance with the provisions of Articles 42 and 43.
In applying the provisions of Article 39, second paragraph, to the cases of persons required to leave their usual places of residence by virtue of a decision placing them in assigned residence elsewhere, the Detaining Power shall be guided as closely as possible by the standards of welfare set_ forth in Part III, Section IV of this Convention.
ARTICLE 42.
The internment or placing in assigned residence of protected persons may be ordered only if the security of the Detaining Power makes it absolutely necessary.
If any person, acting -through the representatives of the Protecting Power, voluntarily demands internment, and if his situation renders this step necessary, he shall be interned by the Power in whose hands he may be.
ARTICLE 43.
Any protected person who has been interned or placed in assigned residence shall be entitled to have such action reconsidered as soon as possible by an appropriate court or administrative board designated by the Detaining Power for that purpose. If the internment or placing in assigned residence is maintained, the court or administra­tive board shall periodically, and at least twice yearly, give considera­tion to his or her case with a view to the favourable amendment of the initial decision, if circumstances permit.
148.
DODDOA-012185
Unless .the protected persons concerned object, the Detaining Power shall, as rapidly as possible, give the Protecting Power the names of any protected persons who have been interned or subjected to assigned residence, or who have been released from internment or assigned residence. The decisions of the courts or boards mentioned in the first paragraph of the present Article shall also, subject to the same conditions, be notified as rapidly as possible to the Protecting Power.
ARTICLE 44. In applying the measures of control mentioned in the present Convention, the Detaining Power shall not treat as enemy aliens exclusively on the basis of their nationality de jure of an enemy State, refugees who do not, in fact, enjoy the protection of any government. ARTICLE 45.* Protected persons shall not be transferred to a Power which is not a party to the Convention. This provision shall in no way constitute an obstacle to the repatria­tion of protected persons, or to their return to their country of residence after the cessation of hostilities. Protected persons may be transferred by the Detaining Power only to a Power which is a party to the present Convention and after the Detaining Power has satisfied itself of the willingness and ability of such transferee Power to apply the present Convention. If protected persons are transferred under such circumstances, responsibility for the application of the present Convention rests on the Power accepting them, while they are in its custody. Nevertheless, if that Power fails to carry out the provisions of the present Convention in any important respect, the Power by which the protected persons were transferred shall, upon being so notified by the Protecting Power, take effective measures to correct the situation or shall request the return of the protected persons. Such request must be complied with. In no circumstances shall a protected person be transferred to a country where he or she may have reason to fear persecution for his or her political opinions or religious beliefs. The provisions of this Article do not constitute an obstacle to the extradition, in pursuance of extradition treaties concluded before the outbreak of hostilities, of protected persons accused of offences against ordinary criminal law. ARTICLE 46. In so far as they have not been previously withdrawn, restrictive measures taken regarding protected persons shall be cancelled as soon as possible after the close of hostilities. Restrictive measures affecting their property shall be cancelled, in accordance with the law of the Detaining Power, as soon as possible after the close of hostilities.
'In ratifying the present Convention, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics end certain other Wan­mews made specific reservations with respect to this Article.
149 DODD0A-012186
SECTION III. OCCUPIED TERRITORIES.
ARTICLE 47.
Protected persons who are in occupied territory shall not be de­prived, in any case or in any manner whatsoever, of the benefits of
the present Convention by any change introduced, as the result of
the occupation of a territory, into the institutions or government• of
the said territory, nor by any agreement concluded between the

authorities of the occupied territories and the Occupying Power, nor by any annexation by the latter of the whole or part of the occupied territory.
ARTICLE 48.
Protected persons who are not nationals of the Power whose terri­tory is occupied may avail themselves of the right to leave the territory subject to the provisions of Article 35, and decisions thereon shall be taken according to the procedure which the Occupying Power shall establish in accordance with the said Article.
ARTICLE 49.
Individual or mass forcible transfers, as well as deportations of pro­tected persons from occupied territory to the territory of the Occupy­ing Power or to that of any other country, occupied or not, are pro­hibited, regardless of their motive.
Nevertheless, the Occupying Power may undertake total or partial evacuation of a given area if the security of the population or impera­tive military reasons .so demand. Such evacuations may not involve the displacement of protected persons outside the bounds of the occu­pied territory except when for material reasons it is impossible to avoid such displacement. Persons thus evacuated shall be transferred back to their homes as soon as hostilities in the area in question have ceased.
The Occupying Power undertaking such transfers or evacuations shall ensure, to the greatest practicable extent, that proper accom­modation is provided to receive the protected persons, that the re­movals are effected in satisfactory conditions of hygiene, health, safety and nutrition, and that members of the same family are not separated.
The protecting Power shall be informed of any transfers and evacu­ations as soon as they have taken place.
The Occupying Power shall not detain protected persons in an area particularly exposed to the dangers of war unless the security of the population or imperative military reasons so demand.
The Occupying Power shall not deport or transfer parts of its own civilian population into the territory it occupies.
150
DODDOA-012187
ARTICLE 50.
The Occupying Power shall, with the cooperation of the national and local authorities, facilitate the proper working of all institutions devoted to the care and education of children.
The Occupying Power shall take all necessary steps to facilitate the identification of children and the registration of their parentage. It may not, in any case, change their personal status, nor enlist them in formations or organizations subordinate to it.
Should the local institutions be inadequate for the purpose, the Occupying Power shall make arrangements for the maintenance and education, if possible by persons of their own nationality, language and religion, of children, who are orphaned or separated from their parents as a result of the war and who cannot be adequately cared for by a near relative or friend.
A special section of the Bureau set up in accordance with Article 136 shall be responsible for taking all necessary steps to identify children whose identity is in doubt. Particulars of their parents or other near relatives should always be recorded if available.
The Occupying Power shall not hinder the application of any prefer­ential measures in regard to food, medical care and protection against the effects of war, which may have been adopted prior to the occupa­tion in favour of children under fifteen years, expectant mothers, and mothers of children under seven years.
ARTICLE 51.
The Occupying Power may not compel protected persons to serve in its armed or auxiliary forces. No pressure or propaganda which aims at securing voluntary enlistment is permitted.
The Occupying Power may not compel protected persons to work unless they are over eighteen years of age, and then only on work which is necessary either for the needs of the army of occupation, or for the public utility services, or for the feeding, sheltering, clothing, transportation or health of the population of the occupied country. Protected persons may not be compelled to undertake any work which would involve them in the obligation of taking part in military opera­tions. The Occupying Power may not compel protected persons to employ forcible means to ensure the security of the installations where they are performing compulsory labour.
The work shall be carried out only in the occupied territory where the persons whose services have been requisitioned are. Every such person shall, so far as possible, be kept in his usual place of employ­ment. Workers shall be paid a fair wage and the work shall be pro­portionate to their physical and intellectual capacities. The legisla­tion in force in the occupied country concerning working conditions, and safeguards as regards, in particular, such matters as wages, hours
151
DODD0A-012188
of work, equipment, preliminary training and compensation for occu­pational accidents and diseases, shall be applicable to the protected persons assigned to the work referred to in this Article.
In no case shall requisition of labour lead to a mobilization of work­ers in an organization of a military or semi-military character.
ARTICLE 52.
No contract, agreement or regulation shall impair the right of any worker, whether voluntary or not and wherever he may be, to apply to the representatives of the Protecting Power in order to request the said Power's intervention.
All measures aiming at creating unemployment or at restricting the opportunities offered to workers in an occupied territory, in order to induce them to work for the Occupying Power, are prohibited.
ARTICLE 53.
Any destruction by the Occupying Power of real or personal prop­erty belonging individually or collectively to private persons, or to the State, or to other public authorities, or to social or cooperative organizations, is prohibited, except where such destruction is rendered absolutely necessary by military operations.
ARTICLE 54.
The Occupying Power may not alter the status of public officials or judges in the occupied territories, or in any way apply sanctions to or take any measures of coercion or discrimination against them, should they abstain from fulfilling their functions for ieasons of conscience.
This prohibition does not prejudice the application of the second paragraph of Article 51. It does not affect the right of the Occupying Power to remove public officials from their posts.
.
ARTICLE 55.
To the fullest extent of the means available to it, the Occupying Power has the duty of ensuring the food and medical supplies of the population; it should, in particular, bring in the necessary foodstuffs, medical stores and other articles if the resources of the occupied territory are inadequate.
The Occupying Power may not requisition foodstuffs, articles or medical supplies available in the occupied territory, except for use by the occupation forces and administration personnel, and then only if the requirements of the civilian population have been taken into account. Subject to the provisions of other international Con­ventions, the Occupying Power shall make arrangements to ensure that fair value is paid for any requisitioned goods.
152.
DODD0A-012189
The Protecting Power shall, at any time, be at liberty to verify the state of the food and medical supplies in occupied territories, except where temporary restrictions are made necessary by imperative military requirements.
ARTICLE 56.
To the fullest extent of the means available to it, the Occupying
Power has the duty of ensuring and maintaining, with the cooperation
of national and local authorities, the medical and hospital establish­
ments and services, public health and hygiene in the occupied territory,
with particular reference to the adoption and application of the pro­
phylactic and preventive measures necessary to combat the spread
of contagious diseases and epidemics. Medical personnel of all cate­
gories shall be allowed to carry out their duties.
If new hospitals are set up in occupied territory and if the competent
organs of the occupied State are not operating there, the occupying
authorities shall, if necessary, grant them the recognition provided for
in Article 18. In similar circumstances, the occupying authorities
shall also grant recognition to hospital personnel and transport
vehicles under the provisions of Articles 20 and 21.
In adopting measures of health and hygiene and in their imple­mentation, the Occupying Power shall take into consideration the moral and ethical susceptibilities of the population of the occupied territory.
ARTICLE 57.
The Occupying Power may requisition civilian hospitals only temporarily and only in cases of urgent necessity for the care of military wounded and sick, and then on condition that suitable arrangements are made in due time for the care and treatment of the patients and for the needs of the civilian population for hospital accommodation.
The material and stores of civilian hospitals cannot be requisitioned as long as they are necessary for the needs of the civilian population.
ARTICLE 58.
The Occupying Power shall permit ministers of religion to give spiritual assistance to the members of their religious communities.
The Occupying Power shall also accept consignments of books and articles required for religious needs and shall facilitate their distribu­tion in occupied territory.
ARTICLE 59;
If the whole or part of the population of an occupied territory is inadequately supplied, the Occupying Power shall agree to relief
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schemes on behalf of the said population, and shall facilitate them by all the means at its disposal.
Such schemes, which may be undertaken either by States or by impartial humanitarian organizations such as the International Committee of the Red Cross, shall consist, in particular, of the provi­sion of consignments of foodstuffs, medical supplies and clothing.
All Contracting Parties shall permit the free passage of these consignments and shall guarantee their protection.
A Power granting free passage to consignments on their way to territory occupied by an adverse Party to the conflict shall, however, have the right to search the consignments, to regulate their passage according to prescribed times and routes, and to be reasonably satisfied through the Protecting Power that these consignments are to be used for the relief of the needy population and are not to be used for the benefit of the Occupying Power.
ARTICLE 60.
Relief consignments shall in no way relieve the Occupying Power of any of its responsibilities under Articles 55, 56 and 59. The Oc­cupying Power shall in no way whatsoever divert relief consignments from the purpose for which they are intended, except in cases of urgent necessity, in the interests of the population of the occupied territory and with the consent of the Protecting Power.
ARTICLE 61.
The distribution of the relief consignments referred to in the fore­going Articles shall be carried out with the cooperation and under the st-pervision of the Protecting Power. This duty may also be delegated, by agreement between the Occupying Power and the Protecting Power, to a neutral Power, to the International Committee of the Red Cross or to any other impartial humanitarian body.
Such consignments shall be exempt in occupied territory from all charges, taxes or customs duties unless these are necessary in the interests of the economy of the territory. The Occupying Power shall facilitate the rapid distribution of these consignments.
All Contracting Parties shall endeavour to permit the transit and transport, free of charge, of such relief consignments on their way to occupied territories.
ARTICLE 62.
Subject 'to imperative reasons of security, protected persons in occupied territories shall be permitted to receive the individual relief consignments sent to them.
ARTICLE 63.
Subject to temporary and exceptional measures imposed for urgent reasons of security by the Occupying Power:
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_ _._
(a)
recognized National Red Cross (Red Crescent, Red Lion and
Sun) Societies shall be able to pursue their activities in
accordance with Red Cross principles, as defined by the
International Red Cross Conferences. Other relief societies
shall be permitted to continue their humanitarian activities
under similar conditions;

(b)
the Occupying Power may not require any changes in the
personnel or structure of these societies, which would
prejudice the aforesaid activities.

The same principles shall apply to the activities and personnel of speCial organizations of a non-military character, which already exist or which may be established, for the purpose of ensuring the living conditions of the civilian population by the maintenance of the es­sential public utility services, by the distribution of relief and by the organization of rescues.
ARTICLE 64.
The penal laws of the occupied territory shall remain in force, with the exception that they may be repealed or suspended by the Occupy­ing Power in cases where they constitute a threat to its security or an obstacle to the application of the present Convention. Subject to the latter consideration and to the necessity for ensuring the effective administration of justice, the tribunals of the occupied territory shall continue to function in respect of all offences covered by the said laws.
The Occupying Power may, however, subject the population of the occupied territory to provisions which are essential to enable the Occupying Power to fulfil its obligations under the present Convention, to maintain the orderly government of the territory, and to ensure the security of the Occupying Power, of the members and property of the occupying forces or administration, and likewise of the establishments and lines of communication used by them.
ARTICLE 65.
The penal provisions enacted by the Occupying Power shall not come into force before they have been published and brought to the knowledge of the inhabitants in their own language. The effect of these penal provisions shall not be retroactive.
ARTICLE 66.
In case of a breach of the penal provisions promulgated by it by virtue of the second paragraph of Article 64, the Occupying Power may hand over the accused to its properly constituted, non political
-
military courts, on condition that the said courts sit in the occupied country. Courts of appeal shall preferably sit in the occupied country.
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DODDOA-012192
ARTICLE 67.
The courts shall apply only those provisions of law which were
applicable prior to the offence, and which are in accordance with
general principles of law, in particular the principle that the penalty
shall be proportionate to the offence. They shall take into considera­tion the fact that the accused is not a national of the Occupying Power.

ARTICLE 68.*
Protected persons who commit an offence which is solely intended
to harm the Occupying Power, but which does not constitute an
attempt on the life or limb of members of the occupying forces or
administration, nor a grave collective danger, nor seriously damage
the property of the occupying forces or administration or the installa­
tions used by them, shall be liable to internment or simple imprison­
ment, provided the duration of such internment or imprisonment is
proportionate to the offence committed. Furthermore, internment
or imprisonment shall, for such offences, be the only measure adopted
for depriving protected persons of liberty. The courts provided for
under Article 66 of the present Convention may at their discretion
convert a sentence of imprisonment to one of internment for the same
period.
The penal provisions promulgated by the Occupying Power in
accordance with Articles 64 and 65 may impose the death penalty on
a protected person only in cases where the person is guilty of espionage,
of serious acts of sabotage against the military installations of the
Occupying Power or -of intentional offences which have caused the
death of one or more persons, provided that such offences were
punishable by death under the law of the occupied territory in force
before the occupation began.
The death penalty may not be pronounced against a protected
person unless the attention of the court has been particularly called
to the fact that since the accused is not a national of the Occupying
Power, he is not bound to it by any duty of allegiance.
In any case, the death penalty may not be pronounced against a
protected person who was under eighteen years of age at the time of
the offence.
ARTICLE 69.
In all cases, the duration of the period during which a protected
.
person accused of an offence is under arrest awaiting trial or punish­ment shall be deducted from any period of imprisonment awarded.
'In ratifying the present Convention, the United States made the following reservation:
"The United States reserves the right to impose the death penalty in accordance with the provisions
of Article 68, paragraph 2, without regard to whether the offenses referred to therein are punishable
by death under the law of the occupied territory at the time the occupation begins."
Certain other countries also made reservations to Article 68.
.
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ARTICLE 70.
Protected persons shall not be arrested, prosecuted or convicted by the Occupying Power for acts committed or for opinions expressed before the occupation, or during a temporary interruption thereof, with the exception of breaches of the laws and customs of war.
Nationals of the Occupying Power who, before the outbreak of hostilities, have sought refuge in the territory of the occupied State, shall not be arrested, prosecuted, convicted or deported from the occupied territory, except for offences committed after the outbreak of hostilites, or for offences under common law committed before the outbreak of hostilities which, according to the law of the occupied State, would have justified extradition in time of peace.
ARTICLE 71.
No sentence shall be pronounced by the competent courts of the Occupying Power except after a regular trial.
Accused persons who are prosecuted by the Occupying Power shall be promptly informed, in writing, in a language which they under­stand, of the particulars of the charges preferred against them, and shall be brought to trial as rapidly as possible. The Protecting Power shall be informed of all proceedings instituted by the Occupying Power against protected persons in respect of charges involving the death penalty or imprisonment for two years or more; it shall be enabled, at any time, to obtain information regarding the state of such proceedings. Furthermore, the Protecting Power shall be entitled, on request, to be furnished with all particulars of these and of any other proceedings instituted by the Occupying Power against protected persons.
The notification to the Protecting Power, as provided for in the second paragraph above, shall be sent immediately, and shall in any case reach the Protecting Power three weeks before the date of the first hearing. Unless, at the opening of the trial, evidence is sub­mitted that the provisions of this Article are fully complied with, the trial shall not proceed. The notification shall include the following particulars:
(a)
description of the accused;

(b)
place of residence or detention;

(c)
specification of the charge or charges (with mention of the
penal provisions under which it is brought) ;

(d)
designation of the court which will hear the case;

(e)
place and date of the first hearing.

ARTICLE 72.
Accused persons shall have the right to present evidence necessary to their defence and may, in particular, call witnesses. They shall
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have the right to be assisted by a qualified advocate or counsel of
their own choice, who shall be able to visit them freely and shall
enjoy the necessary facilities for preparing the defence.
Failing a choice by the accused, the Protecting Power may provide
him with an advocate or counsel. When an accused person has to
meet a serious charge and the Protecting Power is not functioning,
the. Occupying Power, subject to the consent of the accused, shall
provide an advocate or counsel.
Accused persons shall, unless they freely waive such assistance, be aided by an interpreter, both during preliminary investigation and during the hearing in court. They shall have the right at any time to object to the interpreter and to ask for his replacement.
ARTICLE 73.
A convicted person shall have the right of appeal provided for by the laws applied by the court. He shall be fully informed of his right to appeal or petition and of the time limit within which he may do so.
The penal procedure provided in the present Section shall apply, as far as it is applicable, to appeals. Where the laws applied by the Court make no provision for appeals, the convicted person shall have the right to petition against the finding and sentence to the competent authority of the Occupying Power.
ARTICLE 74.
Representatives of the Protecting Power shalt nave the right to attend the trial of any protected person, unless the hearing has, as an exceptional measure, to be held in camera in the interests of the security of the Occupying Power, which shall then notify the Pro-tecting Power. A notification in respect of the date and place of trial shall be sent to the Protecting Power.
Any judgment involving a sentence of death, or imprisonment for two years or more, shall be communicated, with the relevant grounds, as rapidly as possible to the Protecting Power. The notification shall contain a reference to the notification made under Article 71, and, in the case of sentences of imprisonment, the name of the place where the sentence is to be served. A record of judgments other than those referred to above shall be kept by the court and shall be open to inspection by representatives of the Protecting Power. Any period allowed for appeal in the case of sentences involving the death penalty, or imprisonment of two years or more, shall not run until notification of judgment has been received by the. Protecting Power.
ARTICLE 75.
In no case shall persons condemned to death be deprived of the right of petition for pardon or reprieve.
158. DODDOA-012195
No death sentence shall be carried out before the expiration of a
period of at least six months from the date of receipt by the Protecting
Power of the notification of the final judgment confirming such death
sentence, or of an order denying pardon or reprieve.
The six months period of suspension of the death sentence herein
prescribed may be reduced in individual cases in circumstances of
grave emergency involving an organized threat to the security of the
Occupying Power or its forces, provided always that the Protecting
Power is notified of such reduction and is given reasonable time and
opportunity to make representations to the competent occupying
authorities in respect of such death sentences.

ARTICLE 76.
Protected persons accused of offences shall be detained in the occupied country, and if convicted they shall serve their sentences therein. They shall, if possible, be separated from other detainees and shall enjoy conditions of food and hygiene which will be sufficient to keep them in good health, and which will be at least equal to those obtaining in prisons in the occupied country.
They shall receive the medical attention required by their state of health. They shall also have the right to receive any spiritual assistance which they may require. Women shall be confined in separate quarters and shall be under the
direct supervision of women.
Proper regard shall be paid to the special treatment due to minors.
Protected persons who are detained shall have the right to be visited by delegates of the Protecting Power and of the International Committee of the Red Cross, in accordance with the provisions of Article 143.
Such persons shall have the right to receive at least one relief parcel monthly. ARTICLE 77.
Protected persons who have been accused of offences or convicted by the courts in occupied territory, shall be handed over at the close of occupation, with the relevant records, to the authorities of the liberated territory.
ARTICLE 78.
If the Occupying Power considers it necessary, for imperative reasons of security, to take safety measures concerning protected persons, it may, at the most, subject them to assigned residence or to internment.
Decisions regarding such assigned residence or internment shall be made according to a regular procedure to be prescribed by the Occupy-
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DODD0A-012196
ing Power in accordance with the provisions of the present Convention. This procedure shall include the right of appeal for the parties con cerned. Appeals shall be decided with the least possible delay. In the event of the decision being upheld, it shall be subject to periodical review, if possible every six months, by a competent body set up the said Power.
Protected persons made subject to assigned residence and thus re­
quired to leave their homes shall enjoy the full benefit of Article 39 of
the present Convention.
SECTION IV. REGULATIONS FOR THE TREATMENT OF INTERNEES.
CHAPTER I. General Provisions.
ARTICLE 79. The Parties to the conflict shall not intern protected persons, except in accordance with the provisions of Articles 41, 42, 43, 68 and 78.
ARTICLE 80.
Internees shall retain their full civil capacity and shall exercise such attendant rights as may be compatible with their status.
ARTICLE 81.
Parties to the conflict who intern protected persons shall be bound to provide free of charge for their maintenance, and to grant them also the medical attention required by their state of health.
No deduction from the allowances, salaries or credits due to the internees shall be made for the repayment of these costs.
The Detaining Power shall provide for the support of those depend­ent on the internees, if such dependents are without adequate means of support or are unable to earn a living.
ARTICLE 82.
The Detaining Power shall, as far as possible, accommodate the internees according to their nationality, language and customs. Internees who are nationals of the same country shall not be separated merely because they have different languages.
Throughout the duration of their internment members of the same family, and in particular parents and children, shall be lodged together in the same place of internment, except when separation of a temporary nature is necessitated for reasons of employment or health or for the purposes of enforcement of the provisions of Chapter IX of the present Section. Internees may request that their children who are left at liberty without parental care shall be interned with them.
Wherever possible, interned members of the same family shall be housed in the same premises and given separate accommodation from other internees, together with facilities for leading a proper family life.
160. DODDOA-012197
CHAPTER II. Places of Internment.
ARTICLE 83.
The Detaining Power shall not set up places of internment in areas particularly exposed to the dangers of war.
The Detaining Power shall give'the enemy Powers, through the in­termediary of the Protecting Powers, all useful information regarding the geographical location of places of internment.
Whenever military considerations permit, internment camps shall be indicated by the letters IC, placed so as to be clearly visible in the daytime from the air. The Powers concerned may, however, agree upon any other system of marking. No place other than an intern­ment camp shall be marked as such.
ARTICLE 84.
Internees shall be accommodated and administered separately from prisoners of war and from persons deprived of liberty for any other reason.
ARTICLE 85.
The Detaining Power is bound to take all necessary and possible measures to ensure that protected persons shall, from the outset of their internment, be accommodated in buildings or quarters which afford every possible safeguard as regards hygiene and health, and provide efficient protection against the rigours of the climate and the effects of the war. In no case shall permanent places of internment be situated in unhealthy areas, or in districts the climate of which is injurious to the internees. In all cases where the district, in which a protected person is temporarily interned, is in an unhealthy area or has a climate which is harmful to his health, he shall be removed to a more suitable place of internment as rapidly as circumstances permit.
The premises shall be fully protected from dampness, adequately heated and lighted, in particular between dusk and lights out. The sleeping quarters shall be sufficiently spacious and well ventilated, and the internees shall have suitable bedding and sufficient blankets, account being taken of the climate, and the age, sex, and state of health of the internees.
Internees shall have for their use, day and night, sanitary conven­iences which conform to the rules of hygiene and are constantly maintained in a state of cleanliness. They shall be provided with sufficient water and soap for their daily personal toilet and for washing their personal laundry; installations and facilities necessary for this purpose shall be granted to them. Showers or baths shall also be available. The necessary time shall be set aside for washing and for cleaning.
Whenever it is necessary, as an exceptional and temporary measure,
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to accommodate women internees who are not members of a family
unit in the same place of internment as men, the provision of separate
sleeping quarters and sanitary conveniences for the use of such women
internees shall be obligatory.

ARTICLE 86.
The Detaining Power shall place at the disposal of interned persons,
of whatever denomination, premises suitable for the holding of their
religious services.

ARTICLE 87.
Canteens shall be installed in every place of internment, except where other suitable facilities are available. Their purpose shall, be to enable internees to make purchases, at prices not higher than local market prices, of foodstuffs and articles of everyday use, including soap and tobacco, such as would increase their personal well-being and comfort.
Profits made by canteens shall be credited to a welfare fund to be set up for each place of internment, and administered for the benefit of the internees attached to such place of internment. The Internee Committee provided for in Article 102 shall have the right to check the management of the canteen and of the said fund.
When a place of internment is closed down, the balance of the welfare fund shall be transferred to the welfare fund of a place of internment for internees of the same nationality, or, if such a place does not exist, to a central welfare fund which shall be administered for the benefit of all internees remaining in the custody of the Detain­ing Power. In case of a general release, the said profits shall be kept by the Detaining Power, subject to any agreement to the contrary between the Powers concerned.
ARTICLE 88.
In all places of internment exposed to air raids and other hazards of war, shelters adequate in number and structure to ensure the necessary protection shall be installed. In case of alarms, the intern­ees shall be free to enter such shelters as quickly as possible, excepting those who remain for the protection of their quarters against the aforesaid hazards. Any protective measures taken in favour of the population shall also apply to them.
All due precautions must be taken in places of internment against the danger of fire.
CHAPTER III. Food and Clothing.
ARTICLE 89.
Daily food rations for internees shall be sufficient in quantity, quality and variety to keep internees in a good state of health and
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prevent the development of nutritional deficiencies. Account shall
also be taken of the customary diet of the internees.
Internees shall also be given the means by which they can prepare
for themselves any additional food in their possession.
Sufficient drinking water shall be supplied to internees. The use
of tobacco shall be permitted.
Internees who work shall receive additional rations in proportion
to the kind of labour which they perform.
Expectant and nursing mothers, and children under fifteen years of
age, shall be given additional food, in proportion to their physiological
needs.
ARTICLE 90.

When taken into custody, internees shall be given all facilities to provide themselves with the necessary clothing, footwear and change of underwear, and later on, to procure further supplies if required. Should any internees not have sufficient clothing, account being taken of the climate, and be unable to procure any, it shall be provided free of charge to them by the Detaining Power.
The clothing supplied by the Detaining Power to internees and the outward markings placed on their own clothes shall not be ignominious nor expose them to ridicule.
Workers shall receive suitable working outfits, including protective clothing, whenever the nature of their work so requires.
CHAPTER IV. Hygiene and Medical Attention.
ARTICLE 91.
Every place of internment shall have an adequate infirmary, under the direction of a qualified doctor, where internees may have the atten­tion they require, as well as an appropriate diet. Isolation wards shall be set aside for cases of contagious or mental diseases.
Maternity cases and internees suffering from serious diseases, or whose condition requires special treatment, a surgical operation or hospital care, must be admitted to any institution where adequate treatment can be given and shall receive care not inferior to that provided for the general population.
Internees shall, for preference, have the attention of medical per­sonnel of their own nationality.
Internees may not be prevented from presenting themselves to the medical authorities for examination. The medical authorities of the Detaining Power shall, upon request, issue to every internee who has undergone treatment an official certificate showing the nature of his illness or injury, and the duration and nature of the treatment given. A duplicate of this certificate shall be forwarded to the Central Agency provided for in Article 140.
.
r

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Treatment, including the provision of any apparatus necessary for the maintenance of internees in good health, particularly dentures and other artificial appliances and spectacles, shall be free of charge to the internee.
ARTICLE 92.
Medical inspections of internees shall be made at least once a month. Their purpose shall be, in particular, to supervise the general state of health, nutrition and cleanliness of internees, and to detect contagious diseases, especially tuberculosis, malaria, and venereal diseases. Such inspections shall include, in particular, the checking of weight of each internee and, at least ante a year, radioscopic examination.
CHAPTER V. Religious, Intellectual and Physical Activities.
ARTICLE 93.
Internees shall enjoy complete latitude in the exercise of their religious duties, including attendance at the services of their faith, on condition that they comply with the disciplinary routine prescribed by the detaining authorities.
Ministers of religion who are interned shall be allowed to minister freely to the members of their community. For this purpose, the Detaining Power shall ensure their equitable allocation amongst the various places of internment in which there are internees speaking the same language and belonging to the same religion. Should such ministers be too few in number, the Detaining Power shall provide them with the necessary facilities, including means of transport, for moving from one place to another, and they shall be authorized to visit any internees who are in hospital. Ministers of religion shall be at liberty to correspond on matters concerning their ministry with the religious authorities in the country of detention and, as far as possible, with the international religious organizations of their faith. Such correspondence shall not be considered as forming a part of the quota mentioned in Article 107. It shall, however, be subject to the pro­visions of Article 112.
When internees do not have at their disposal the assistance of ministers of their faith, or should these latter be too few in number, the local religious authorities of the same faith may appoint, in agree­ment with the Detaining Power, a minister of the internees' faith or, if such a course is feasible from a denominational point of view, aminister of similar religion or a qualified layman. The latter shall enjoy the facilities granted to the ministry he has assumed. Persons so appointed shall comply with all regulations laid down by the De­taining Power in the interests of discipline and security.
.
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ARTICLE 94.
The Detaining Power shall encourage intellectual, educational and
recreational pursuits, sports and games amongst internees, whilst
leaving them free to take part in them or not. It shall take all prac­
ticable measures to ensure the exercise thereof, in particular by
providing suitable premises.
All possible facilities shall be granted to internees to continue their
studies or to take up new subjects. The education of children and
young people shall be ensured; they shall he allowed to attend schools
either within the place of internment or outside.
Internees shall be given opportunities for physical exercise, sports
and outdoor games. For this purpose, sufficient open spaces shall be
set aside in all places of internment. Special playgrounds shall be
reserved for children and young people.
ARTICLE 95.
The Detaining Power shall not employ internees as workers, unless
they so desire. Employment which, if undertaken under compulsion
by a protected person not in internment, would involve a breach of
Articles 40 or 51 of the present Convention, and employment on
work which is of a degrading or humiliating character are in any case
prohibited.
After a working period of six weeks, internees shall be free to give up work at any moment, subject to eight days' notice.
These provisions constitute no obstacle to the right of the Detaining Power to employ interned doctors, dentists and other medical person­nel in their professional capacity on behalf of their fellow internees, or to employ internees for administrative and maintenance work in places of internment and to detail such persons for work in the kitchens or for other domestic tasks, or to require such persons to undertake duties connected with the protection of internees against aerial bombard­ment or other war risks. No internee may, however, be required to perform tasks for which he is, in the opinion of a medical officer, physically unsuited.
The Detaining Power shall take entire responsibility for all working conditions, for medical attention, for the payment of wages, and for
ensuring that all employed internees receive compensation for occu­pational accidents and diseases. The standards prescribed for the said working conditions and for compensation shall be in accordance with the national laws and regulations, and with the existing practice; they shall in no case be inferior to those obtaining for work of the same nature in the same district. Wages for work done shall be determined on an equitable basis by special agreements between the internees, the Detaining Power, and, if the case arises, employers other than the Detaining Power, due regard being paid to the obliga-
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tion of the Detaining Power to provide for free maintenance of in­ternees and for the medical attention which their state of health may
require. Internees permanently detailed for categories of work men­tioned in the third paragraph of this Article, shall be paid fair wages
by the Detaining Power. The working conditions and the scale of
compensation for occupational accidents and diseases to internees
thus detailed, shall not be inferior to those applicable to work of the
same nature in the same district.

ARTICLE 96.
All labour detachments shall remain part of and dependent upon a place • of internment. The competent authorities of the Detaining Poiver and the commandant of a place of internment shall be responsi­ble for the observance in a labour detachment of the provisions of the present Convention. The commandant shall keep an up todate list of the labour detachments subordinate to him and shall communicate it to the delegates of the Protecting Power, of the International Com­mittee of the Red Cross and of other humanitarian organizations who may visit the places of internment.
CHAPTER VI. Personal Property and Financial Resources.
ARTICLE 97.
Internees shall be permitted to retain articles of personal use. Monies, cheques, bonds, etc., and valuables in their possession may not be taken from them except in accordance with established pro­cedure. Detailed receipts shall be given therefor.
The amounts shallbe paid into the account of every internee as
,
provided for in Article 98. Such amounts may not be converted into
any other currency unless legislation in force in the territory in which
the owner is interned so requires or the internee gives his consent.
Articles which have above all a personal or sentimental value may not be taken away.
A woman internee shall not be searched except by a woman.
On release or repatriation, internees shall be given all articles, monies or other valuables taken from them during internment and shall receive in currency the balance of any credit to their accounts kept in accordance with Article 98, with the exception of any articles or amounts withheld by the Detaining Power by virtue of its legislation in force. If the property of an internee is so withheld, the owner shall receive a detailed receipt.
Family or identity documents in the possession of internees may not be taken away without a receipt being given. At no time shall internees be left without identity documents. If they have none, they shall be issued with special documents drawn up by the detaining authorities, which will serve as their identity -papers until the end oftheir internment.
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Internees may keep on their persons a certain amount of money,
in cash or in the shape of purchase coupons, to enable them to make
purchases.
ARTICLE 98.
All internees shall receive regular allowances, sufficient to enable
them to purchase goods and articles, such as tobacco, toilet requisites,
etc. Such allowances may take the form of credits or purchase
coupons.
Furthermore, internees may receive allowances from the Power to
which they owe allegiance, the Protecting Powers, the organizations
which may assist them, or their families, as well as the income on
their property in accordance with the law of the Detaining Power.
The amount of allowances granted by the Power to which they owe
allegiance shall be the same for each category of internees (infirm,
sick, pregnant women, etc.), but may not be allocated by that Power
or distributed by the Detaining Power on the basis of discriminations
between internees which are prohibited by Article 27 of the present
Convention.
The Detaining Power shall open a regular account for every internee, to which shall be credited the allowances named in the present Article, the wages earned and the remittances received, together with such sums taken from him as may be available under the legislation in force in the territory in which he is interned. Internees shall be granted all facilities consistent with the legislation in force in such territory to make remittances to their families and to other dependants. They may draw from their accounts the amounts necessary for their personal expenses, within the limits fixed by the Detaining Power. They shall at all times be afforded reasonable facilities for consulting and obtaining copies of their accounts. A statement of accounts shall be furnished to the Protecting Power on request, and shall accompany the internee in case of transfer.
CHAPTER VII. Administration and Discipline.
ARTICLE 99.
Every place of internment shall be put under the authority of a responsible officer, chosen from the regular military forces or the regular civil administration of the Detaining Power. The officer in charge of the place of internment must have in his possession a copy of the present Convention in the official language, or one of the official languages, of his country and shall be responsible for its application. The staff in control of internees shall be instructed in the provisions of the present Convention and of the administrative measures adoptedto ensure its application.
The text of the present Convention and the texts of special agree­ments concluded under the said Convention shall be posted inside the
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place of internment, in a language which the internees understand, or shall be in the possession of the Internee Committee.
Regulations, orders, notices and publications of every kind shall be communicated to the internees and posted inside the places of intern­ment, in a language which they understand.
Every order and command addressed to internees individually, must likewise, be given in a language which they understand.
ARTICLE 100.
The disciplinary regime in places of internment shall be consistent with humanitarian princip'es, and shall in no circumstances include regulations imposing on internees any physical exertion dangerous to their health or involving physical or moral victimization. Identi­fication by tattooing or imprinting signs or markings on the body, is prohibited.
In particular, prolonged standing and roll-calls, punishment drill, military drill and manoeuvres, or the reduction of food rations, are prohibited.
ARTICLE 101.
Internees shall have the right to present to the authorities in whose power they are, any petition with regard to the conditions of intern­ment to which they are subjected.
They shall also have the right to apply without restriction through the Internee Committee or, if they consider it necessary, direct to the representatives of the Protecting Power, in order to indicate to them any points on which they may have complaints to make with regard to the conditions of internment.
Such petitions and complaints shall be transmitted forthwith and without alteration, and even if the latter are recognized to be un­founded, they may not occasion any punishment.
Periodic reports on the situation in places of internment and as to the needs of the internees, may be sent by the Internee Committees to the representatives of the Protecting Powers.
ARTICLE 102.
In every place of internment, the internees shall freely elect by secret ballot every six months, the members of a Committee em­powered to represent them before the Detaining and the Protecting Powers, the International Committee of the Red Cross and any other organization which may assist them. The members of the Committee shall be eligible for re-election.
Internees so elected shall enter upon their duties after their election has been approved by the detaining authorities. The reasons for any refusals or dismissals shall be communicated to the Protecting Powers concerned.
DODD0A-012205
168.
ARTICLE 103.
The Internee Committees shall further the physical, spiritual and intellectual well-being of the internees.
In case the internees decide, in particular, to organize a system of mutual assistance amongst themselves, this organization would be within the competence of the Committees in addition to the special duties entrusted to them under other provisions of the present Convention.
ARTICLE 104.
Members of Internee Committees shall not be required to perform any other work, if the accomplishment of their duties is rendered more difficult thereby.
Members of Internee Committees may appoint from amongst the internees such assistants, as they may require. All material facilities shall be granted to them, particularly a certain freedom of movement necessary for the accomplishment of their duties (visits to labour detachments, receipt of supplies, etc.).
All facilities shall likewise be accorded to members of Internee Com­mittees for communication by post and telegraph with the detaining authorities, the Protecting Powers, the International Committee of the Red Cross and their delegates, and with the organizations which give assistance to internees. Committee members in labour detach­ments shall enjoy similar facilities for communication with their In­ternee Committee in the principal place of internment. Such com­munications shall not be limited, nor considered as forming a part of the quota mentioned in Article 107.
Members of Internee Committees who are transferred shall be al­lowed a reasonable time to acquaint their successors with current affairs.
CHAPTER VIII. Relations with the Exterior.
ARTICLE 105.
Immediately upon interning protected persons, the Detaining Powers shall inform them, the Power to which they owe allegiance and their Protecting Power of the measures taken for executing the provisions of the present Chapter. The Detaining Powers shall like­wise inform the Parties concerned of any subsequent modifications of such measures.
ARTICLE 106.
As soon as he is interned, or at the latest not more than one week after his arrival in a place of internment, and likewise in cases of sick­ness or transfer to another place of internment or to a hospital, every internee shall be enabled to send direct to his family, on the one hand, and to the Central Agency, provided for by Article 140, on the other,
169.
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an internment card similar, if possible, to the model annexed to the
present Convention, informing his relatives of his detention, address
and state of health. The said cards shall be forwarded as rapidly as
possible and may not be delayed in any way.

ARTICLE 107.
Internees shall be allowed to send and receive letters and cards.
If the Detaining Power deems it necessary. to limit the number of letters
and cards sent by each internee, the said number shall not be less than
two letters and four cards monthly; these shall be drawn up so as to
conform as closely as possible to the models annexed to the present
Convention. If limitations must be placed on the correspondence
addressed to internees, they may be ordered only by the Power to
which such internees owe allegiance, possibly at the request of the
Detaining Power. Such letters and cards must be conveyed with
reasonable despatch; they may not be delayed or retained for discipli­
nary reasons.
Internees who have been a long time without news, or who find it impossible to receive news from their relatives, or to give them news by the ordinary postal route, as well as those who are at a considerable distance from their homes, shall be allowed to send telegrams, the charges being paid by them in the currency at their disposal. They shall likewise benefit by this provision in cases which are recognized to be urgent.
As a rule, internees' mail shall be written in their own language. The Parties to the conflict may authorize correspondence in other languages.
ARTICLE 108.
Internees shall be allowed to receive, by post or by any other means, individual parcels or collective shipments containing in particular foodstuffs, clothing, medical supplies, as well as books and objects of a devotional, educational or' ecreational character which may meet their needs. Such shipments shall in no way free the Detaining Power from the obligations imposed upon it by virtue of the present Convention.
Should military necessity require the quantity of such shipments to be limited, due notice thereof shall be given to the Protecting Power and to the International Committee of the Red Cross, or to any other organization giving assistance to the internees and responsible for the forwarding of such shipments.
The conditions for the sending of individual parcels and collective shipments shall, if necessary, be the subject of special agreements between the Powers concerned, which may in no case delay the receipt by the internees of relief supplies. Parcels of clothing and foodstuffs may not include books. Medical relief supplies shall, as a rule, be sent in collective parcels.
DODD0A-012207
17n
ARTICLE 109.

In the absence of special agreements between Parties to the conflict regarding the conditions for the receipt and distribution of collective relief shipments, the regulations concerning collective relief which are annexed to the present Convention shall be applied.
The Special agreements provided for above shall in no case restrict the right of Internee Committees to take possession of collective relief shipments intended for internees, to undertake their distribution and to dispose of them in the interests of.the recipients.
Nor shall such agreements restrict the right of representatives of the Protecting Powers, the International Committee of the Red Cross, or any other organization giving assistance to internees and responsible for the forwarding of collective shipments, to supervise their distribu­tion to the recipients.
ARTICLE 110.
All relief shipments for internees shall be exempt from import, customs and other dues.
All matter sent by mail, including relief parcels sent by parcel post and remittances of money, addressed from other countries to internees or despatched by them through the post office, either direct or through the Information Bureaux provided for in Article 136 and the Central Information Agency provided for in Article 140, shall be exempt from all postal dues both in the countries of origin and destination and in intermediate countries. To this end, in particular, the exemption provided by the Universal Postal Convention of 1947 and by the agreements of the Universal Postal Union in favour of civilians of enemy nationality detained in camps or civilian prisons, shall be extended to the other interned persons protected by the present Con­vention. The countries not signatory to the above-mentioned agree­ments shall be bound to grant freedom from charges in the same cir­cumstances.
The cost of transporting relief shipments which are intended for internees and which, by reason of their weight or any other cause, can­not be sent through the post office, shall be borne by the Detaining Power in all the territories under its control. Other Powers which are Parties to the present Convention shall bear the cost of transport in their respective territories.
Costs connected with the transport of such shipments, which are not covered by the above paragraphs, shall be charged to the senders.
The High Contracting Parties shall endeavour to reduce, so far as possible, the charges for telegrams sent by internees, or addressed to them.
ARTICLE 111.
Should military operations prevent the Powers concerned from ful­filling their obligation to ensure the conveyance of the mail and relief
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shipments provided for in Articles 106, 107, 108 and 113, the Protect­ing Powers concerned, the International Committee of the Red Cross
or any other organization duly approved by the Parties to the conflict
may undertake the conveyance of such shipments by suitable means
(rail, motor vehicles, vessels or aircraft, etc.). For this purpose, the
High Contracting Parties shall endeavour to supply them with such
transport, and to allow its circulation, especially by granting the
necessary safe-conducts.

Such transport may also be used to convey:
(a)
correspondence, lists and reports exchanged between the
Central Information Agency referred to in Article 140 and
the National Bureaux referred to in Article 136;

(b)
correspondence and reports relating to internees which the
Protecting Powers, the International Committee of the Red
Cross or any other organization assisting the internees ex­change either with their own delegates or with the Parties to
the conflict.

These provisions in no way detract from the right of any Party to
the conflict to arrange other means of transport if it should so prefer,
nor preclude the granting of safe-conducts, under mutually agreed
conditions, to such means of transport.
The costs occasioned by the use of such means of transport shall be
borne, in proportion to the importance of the shipments, by the Parties
to the conflict whose nationals are benefited thereby.
ARTICLE 112.
The censoring of correspondence addressed to internees or des­patched by them shall be done as quickly as possible.
The examination of consignments intended for internees shall not be carried out under conditions that will expose the goods contained in them to deterioration. It shall be done in the presence of the ad­dressee, or of a fellow-internee duly delegated by him. The delivery to internees of individual or collective consignments shall not be de­layed under the pretext of difficulties of censorship.
Any prohibition of correspondence ordered by the Parties to the conflict either for military or political reasons, shall be only temporary and its duration shall be as short as possible.
ARTICLE 113.
The Detaining Powers shall provide all reasonable facilities for the transmission, through the Protecting Power or the Central Agency provided for in Article 140, or as otherwise required, of wills, powers of attorney, letters of authority, or any other documents intended for internees or despatched by them.
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In all cases the. Detaining Powers shall facilitate the execution and authentication in due legal form of such documents on behalf of in­ternees, in particular by allowing them to consult a lawyer.
ARTICLE 114.
The Detaining Power shall afford internees all facilities to enable them to manage their property, provided this is not incompatible with the conditions of internment and the law which is applicable. For this purpose, the said Power may give them permission to leave the place of internment in urgent cases and if circumstances allow.
ARTICLE 115.
In all cases where an inte-fnee is a party to proceedings in any court, the Detaining Power shall, if he so requests, cause the court to be informed of his detention and shall, within legal limits, ensure that all necessary steps are taken to prevent him from being in any way prejudiced, by reason of his internment, as regards the preparation and conduct of his case or as regards the execution of any judgment of the court.
ARTICLE 116.
Every internee shall be allowed to receive visitors, especially near relatives, at regular intervals and as frequently as possible.
As far as is possible, internees shall be permitted to visit their homes
in urgent cases, particularly in cases of death or serious illness of
relatives.
CHAPTER IX. Penal and Disciplinary Sanctions.
ARTICLE 117.
Subject to the provisions of the present Chapter, the laws in force
in the territory in which they are detained will continue to apply to
internees who commit offenses during internment.
If general laws, regulations or orders declare acts committed by
internees to be punishable, whereas the same acts are not punishable
when committed by persons who are not internees, such acts shall
entail disciplinary punishments only.
No internee may be punished more than once for the same act, or
on the same count.
ARTICLE 118.
The courts or authorities shall in passing sentence take as far as
possible into account, the fact that the defendant is not a national of
the Detaining Power. They shall be free to reduce the penalty
prescribed for the offense with which the internee is charged and shall
not be obliged, to this end, to apply the minimum sentence prescribed.
Imprisonment in premises without daylight and, in general, all
forms of cruelty without exception are forbidden.
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DODDOA-012210
Internees who have served disciplinary or judicial sentences shall not be treated differently from other internees.

The duration of preventive detention undergone by an internee shall be deducted from any disciplinary or judicial penalty involving confinement to which he may be sentenced.
Internee Committees shall be informed of all judicial proceedings instituted against internees whom they represent, and of their result.
ARTICLE 119.
The disciplinary punishments applicable to internees shall be the following:
(1)
A fine which shall not exceed 50 per cent of the wages which
the internee would otherwise receive under the provisions
of Article 95 during a period of not more than thirty days.

(2)
Discontinuance of privileges granted over and above the
treatment provided for by the present Convention.

(3)
Fatigue duties, not exceeding two hours daily, in connection
with the maintenance of the place of internment.

(4)
Confinement.

In no case shall disciplinary penalties be inhuman, brutal or danger­ous for the health of internees. Account shall be taken of the in­ternee's age, sex and state of health.
The duration of any single punishment shall in no case exceed a maximum of thirty consecutive days, even if the internee is answerable for several breaches of discipline when his case is dealt with, whether such breaches are connected or not.
ARTICLE 120.
Internees who are recaptured after having escaped or when at­tempting to escape, shall be liable only to disciplinary punishment in respect of this act, even if it is a repeated offense.
Article 118, paragraph 3, notwithstanding, internees punisbed as a result of escape or attempt to escape, may be subjected to special surveillance, on condition that such surveillance does not affect the state of their health, that it is exercised in a place of internment and that it does not entail the abolition of any of the safeguards granted by the present Convention.
Internees who aid and abet an escape or attempt to escape, shall be liable on this count to disciplinary punishment only.
ARTICLE 121.
Escape, or attempt to escape, even if it is a 'repeated offense, shall not be deemed an aggravating circumstance in cases where an internee is prosecuted for offenses committed during his escape. •
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DODD0A-012211
The Parties to the conflict shall ensure that the competent authorities exercise • leniency in deciding whether punishment inflicted for an offence shall be of a disciplinary or judicial nature, especially in respect of acts committed in connection with an escape, whether successful
or not. ARTICLE 122.
Acts which constitute offences against discipline shall be investi­gated immediately. This rule shall be applied, in particular, in cases of escape or attempt to escape. Recaptured internees shall be handed over to the competent authorities as soon as possible.
In case of offences against discipline, confinement awaiting trial shall be reduced to an absolute minimum for all internees, and shall not exceed fourteen days. Its duration shall in any case be deducted from any sentence of confinement.
The provisions of Articles 124 and 125 shall apply to internees who are in confinement awaiting trial for offences against discipline.
ARTICLE 123.
Without prejudice to the competence of courts and higher authori­ties, disciplinary punishment may be ordered only by the commandant of the place of internment, or by a responsible officer or official who replaces him, or to whom he has delegated his disciplinary powers.
Before any disciplinary punishment is awarded, the accused internee shall be given precise information regarding the offences of which he is accused, and given an opportunity of explaining his conduct and of defending himself. He shall be permitted, in particular, to call wit­nesses and to have recourse, if necessary, to the services of a qualified interpreter. The decision shall be announced in the presence of the accused and of a member of the Internee Committee.
The period elapsing between the time of award of a disciplinary punishment and its execution shall not exceed one month.
When an internee is awarded a further disciplinary punishment, a period of at least three days shall elapse between the execution of any two of the punishments, if the duration of one of these is ten days or more.
A record of disciplinary punishments shall be maintained by the commandant of the place of internment and shall be open to inspection by representatives of the Protecting Power.
ARTICLE 124.
Internees shall not in any case be transferred to penitentiary estab­lishments (prisons, penitentiaries, convict prisons, etc.) to undergo disciplinary punishment therein.
The premises in which disciplinary punishments are undergone shall conform to sanitary requirements; they shall in particular be provided
175.
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with adequate bedding. Internees undergoing punishment shall be enabled to keep themselves in a state of cleanliness.
Women internees undergoing disciplinary punishment shall be con­fined in separate quarters from male internees and shall be under the immediate supervision of women.
ARTICLE 125.
Internees awarded disciplinary punishment shall be allowed to exercise and to stay in the open air at least two hours daily.
They shall be allowed, if they so request, to be present at the daily medical inspections. They shall receive the attention which their state of health requires and, if necessary, shall be removed to the infirmary of the place of internment or to a hospital.
They shall have permission to read and write, likewise to send and receive letters. Parcels and remittances of money, however, may be withheld from them until the completion of their punishment ; such consignments shall meanwhile be entrusted to the Internee Com­mittee, who will hand over to the infirmary the perishable goods con­tained in the parcels.
No internee given a disciplinary punishment may be deprived of the benefit of the provisions of Articles 107 and 143 of the present Con­vention.
ARTICLE 126.
The provisions of Articles 71 to 76 inclusive shall apply, by analogy, to proceedings against internees who are in the national territory of the Detaining Power.
CHAPTER X. Transfers of Internees.
ARTICLE 127.
The transfer of internees shall always be effected humanely. As a general rule, it shall be carried out by rail or other means of transport, and under conditions at least equal to those obtaining for the forces of the Detaining Power in their changes of station. If, as an excep­tional measure, such removals have to be effected on foot, they may not take place unless the internees are in a fit state of health, and may not in any case expose them to excessive fatigue.
The Detaining Power shall supply internees during transfer with drinking water and food sufficient in quantity, quality and variety to maintain them in good health, and also with the necessary clothing, adequate shelter and the necessary medical attention. The Detaining Power shall take all suitable precautions to ensure their safety during transfer, and shall establish before their departure a complete list of all internees transferred.
Sick, wounded or infirm internees, and maternity cases shall not
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be transferred if the journey would be seriously detrimental to them, unless their safety imperatively so demands.
If the combat zone draws close to a place of internment, the in­ternees in the said place shall not be transferred unless their removal can be carried out in adequate conditions of safety, or unless they are exposed to greater risks by remaining on the spot than by being transferred.
When making decisions regarding the transfer of internees, the De­taining Power shall take their interests into account and, in particular, shall not do anything to increase the difficulties of repatriating them or returning them to their own homes.
ARTICLE 128.
In the event of transfer, internees shall be officially advised of their departure and of their new postal address. Such notification shall be given in time for them to pack their luggage and inform their next of kin.
They shall be allowed to .take with them their personal effects, and the correspondence and parcels which have arrived for. them. The weight of such baggage may be limited if the conditions of transfer so require, but in no case to less than twenty-five kilograms per internee.
Mail and parcels addressed to their former place of internment shall be forwarded to them without delay.
The commandant of the place of internment shall take, in agree­ment with the Internee Committee, any measures needed to ensure the transport of the internees' community property and of the lug ;
gage the internees are unable to take with them in consequence of restrictions imposed by virtue of the second paragraph.
CHAPTER XI. Deaths.
ARTICLE 129.
The wills of internees shall be received for safe-keeping by the re­sponsible authorities; and in the event of the death of an internee his will shall be transmitted without delay to a person whom he has previously designated.
Deaths of internees shall be certified in every case by a doctor, and a death certificate shall be made out, showing the causes of death and the conditions under which it occurred.
An official record of the death, duly registered, shall be drawn up in accordance with the procedure relating thereto in force in the ter­ritory where the prace of internment is situated, and a duly certified copy of such record shall be transmitted without delay to the Pro­tecting Power as well as to the Central Agency referred to in Article
140.
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DODD0A-012214
ARTICLE 130.
The detaining authorities shall ensure that internees who die while interned are honourably buried, if possible according to the rites of the religion to which they belonged, and that their graves are re­spected, properly maintained, and marked in such a way that they can always be recognized.
Deceased internees shall be buried in individual graves unless un­avoidable circumstances require the use of collective graves. Bodies may be cremated only for imperative reasons of hygiene, on account of the religion of the deceased or in accordance with his expressed wish to this effect. In case of cremation, the fact shall be stated and the reasons given in the death certificate of the deceased. The ashes shall be retained for safe-keeping by the detaining authorities and shall be transferred as soon as possible to the next of kin on their request.
As soon as circumstances permit, and not later than the close of hostilities, the Detaining Power shall forward lists of graves of de­ceased internees to the Powers on whom the deceased internees de­pended, through the Information Bureaux provided for in Article 136. Such lists shall include all particulars necessary for the identification of the deceased internees, as well as the exact location of their graves.
ARTICLE 131.
Every death or serious injury of an internee, caused or suspected to have been caused by a sentry, another internee or any other per­son, as well as any death the cause of which is unknown, shall be immediately followed by an official enquiry by the Detaining Power.
A communication on this subject shall be sent immediately to the Protecting Power. The evidence of any witnesses shall be taken, and a report including such evidence shall be prepared and forwarded to the said Protecting Power.
If the enquiry indicates the guilt of one or more persons, the De­taining Power shall take all necessary steps to ensure the prosecution of the person or persons responsible.
CHAPTER XII. Release, Repatriation, and Accommodation in Neutral Countries.
ARTICLE 132.
Each interned person shall be released by the Detaining Power as soon as the reasons which necessitated his internment no longer exist.
The Parties to the conflict shall, moreover, endeavour during the course of hostilities, to conclude agreements for the release, the re-patriation, the return to places of residence or the accommodation in
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DODDOA-012215
a neutral country of certain classes of internees, in particular children, pregnant women and mothers with infants and young children, wounded and sick, and internees who have been detained for a long time.
ARTICLE 133.
Internment shall cease as soon as possible after the close of hostilities.
Internees in the territory of a Party to the conflict against whom penal proceedings are pending for offences not exclusively subject to disciplinary penalties, may be detained until the close of such pro­ceedings and, if circumstances require, until the completion of the penalty. The same shall apply to internees who have been previously sentenced to a punishment depriving them of liberty.
By agreement between the Detaining Power and the Powers con­cerned, committees may be set up after the close of hostilities, or of the occupation of territories, to search for dispersed internees.
ARTICLE 134.
The High Contracting Parties shall endeavour, upon the close of hostilities or occupation, to ensure the return of all internees to their last place of residence, or to facilitate their repatriation.
ARTICLE 135.
The Detaining Power shall bear the expense of returning released internees to the places where they were residing when interned, or, if it took them into custody while they were in transit or on the high seas, the cost of completing their journey or of their return to their point of departure.
Where a Detaining Power refuses permission to reside in its territory to a released internee who previously had his permanent domicile therein, such Detaining Power shall pay the cost of the said internee's repatriation. If, however, the internee elects to return to his country on his own responsibility or in obedience to the Government of the Power to which he owes allegiance, the Detaining Power need not pay the expenses of his journey beyond the point of his departure from its territory. The Detaining Power need not pay the costs of repatriation of an internee who was interned at his own request.
If internees are transferred in accordance with Article 45, the trans­ferring and receiving Powers shall agree on the portion of the above costs to be borne by each.
The foregoing shall not prejudice such special agreements as may be concluded between Parties to the conflict concerning the exchange and repatriation of their nationals in enemy hands.
179 DODD0A-012216
SECTION V. INFORMATION BUREAUX AND CENTRAL AGENCY
ARTICLE 136.
Upon the outbreak of a conflict and in all cases of occupation, each of the Parties to the conflict shall establish an official Information Bureau responsible for receiving and transmitting information in respect of the protected persons who are in its power.
Each of the Parties to the conflict shall, within the shortest possible period, give its Bureau information of any measure taken by it con­cerning any protected persons who are kept in custody for more than two weeks, who are subjected to assigned residence or who are interned. It shall, furthermore, require its various departments concerned with such matters to provide the aforesaid Bureau promptly with information concerning all changes pertaining to these protected persons, as, for example, transfers, releases, repatriations, escapes, admittances to hospitals, births and deaths.
ARTICLE 137.
Each national Bureau shall immediately forward information con­cerning protected persons by the most rapid means to the Powers of whom the aforesaid persons are nationals, or to Powers in whose terri­tory they resided, through the intermediary of the Protecting Powers and likewise through the Central Agency provided for in Article 140. The Bureaux shall also reply to all enquiries which may be received regarding protected persons.
Information Bureaux shall transmit information concerning a protected person unless its transmission might be detrimental to the person concerned or to his or her relatives. Even in such a case, the information may not be withheld from the Central Agency which, upon being notified of the circumstances, will take the necessaryprecautions indicated in Article 140.
All communications in writing made by any Bureau shall be au­thenticated by a signature or a seal.
ARTICLE 138.
The information received by the national Bureau and transmitted by it shall be of such a character as to make it possible to identify the protected person exactly and to advise his next of kin quickly. The information in respect of each person shall include at least his surname, first names, place and date of birth, nationality, last residence and distinguishing characteristics, the first name of the father and themaiden name of the mother, the date, place and nature of the action taken with regard to the individual, the address at which correspond­ence may be sent to him and the name and address of the person to
be informed.
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Likewise, information regarding the state of health of internees who are seriously ill or seriously wounded shall be supplied regularly and if possible every week.
ARTICLE 139.
Each national Information Bureau shall, furthermore, be responsible for collecting all personal valuables left by protected persons mentioned in Article 136, in particular those who have been repatriated or re­leased, or who have escaped or died; it shall forward the said valuables to those concerned, either direct, or, if necessary, through the Central Agency. Such articles shall be sent by the Bureau in sealed packets which shall be accompanied by statements giving clear and full identity particulars of the person to whom the articles belonged, and by a complete list of the contents of the parcel. Detailed records shall be maintained of the receipt and despatch of all such valuables.
ARTICLE 140.
A Central Information Agency for protected persons, in particular for internees, shall be created in a neutral country. The International Committee of the Red Cross shall, if it deems necessary, propose to the Powers concerned the organization of such an Agency, which may be the same as that provided for in Article 123 of the Geneva Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War of August 12, 1949.
The function of the Agency shall be to collect all information of the type set forth in Article 136 which it may obtain through official or private channels and to transmit it as rapidly as possible to the countries of origin or of residence of the persons concerned, except in cases where such transmissions might be detrimental to the persons whom the said information concerns, or to their relatives. It shall receive from the Parties to the conflict all reasonable facilities for effecting such transmissions.
The High Contracting Parties, and in particular those whose nationals benefit by the services of the Central Agency, are requested to give the said Agency the financial aid it may require.
The foregoing provisions shall in no way be interpreted as restricting the humanitarian activities of the International Committee of the Red Cross and of the relief societies described in Article 142.
ARTICLE 141.
The national Information Bureaux and the Central Information Agency shall enjoy free postage for all mail, likewise the exemptions provided for in Article 110, and further, so far as possible, exemption from telegraphic charges or, at least, greatly reduced rates.
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PART IV. EXECUTION OF THE CONVENTION
SECTION I. GENERAL PROVISIONS.
ARTICLE 142.
Subject to the measures which the Detaining Powers may consider
essential to ensure their security or to meet any other reasonable need,
the representatives of religious organizations, relief societies, or any
other organizations assisting the protected persons, shall receive from
these Powers, for themselves or their duly accredited agents, all facili­
ties for visiting the protected persons, for distributing relief supplies
and material from any source, intended for educational, recreational
or religious purposes, or for assisting them in organizing their leisure
time within the places of internment. Such societies or organizations
may be constituted in the territory of the Detaining Power, or in any
other country, or they may have an international character.
The Detaining Power may limit the number of societies and or­
ganizations whose delegates are allowed to carry out their activities
in its territory and under its supervision, on condition, however, that
such limitation shall not hinder the supply of effective and adequate
relief to all protected persons.
The special position of the International Committee of the Red
Cross in this field shall be recognized and respected at all times.
ARTICLE 143.
Representatives or delegates of the Protecting Powers shall have permission to go to all places where protected persons are, particularly to places of internment, detention and work.
They shall have access to all premises occupied by protected persons and shall be able to interview the latter without witnesses, personally or through an interpreter.
Such visits may not be prohibited except for reasons of imperative military necessity, and then only as an exceptional and temporary measure. Their duration and frequency shall not be restricted.
Such representatives and delegates shall have full liberty to select the places they wish to visit. The Detaining or Occupying Power, the Protecting Power and when occasion arises the Power of origin of the persons to be visited, may agree that compatriots of the internees shall be permitted to participate in the visits.
The delegates of the International Committee of the Red Cross shall also enjoy the above prerogatives. The appointment of such delegates shall be submitted to the approval of the Power governing the terri­tories where they will carry out their duties.
ARTICLE 144. The High Contracting Parties undertake, in time of peace as in time of war, to disseminate the text of the present Convention as widely as
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possible in their respective countries, and in particular, to include the study thereof in their programmes of military and, if possible, civil instruction, so that the principles thereof may become known to the entire population.
Any civilian, military,, police or other authorities, who in time of war assume responsibilities in respect of protected persons, must possess the text of the Convention and be specially instructed as to its pro­visions.
ARTICLE 145.
The High Contracting Parties shall communicate to one another through the Swiss Federal Council and, during hostilities, through the Protecting Powers, the official translations of the present Convention, as well as the laws and regulations which they may adopt to ensure the application thereof.
ARTICLE 146.
The High Contracting Parties undertake to enact any legislation necessary to provide effective penal sanctions for persons committing, or ordering to be committed; any of the grave breaches of the present Convention defined in the following Article.
Each High Contracting Party shall be under the obligation to search for persons alleged to have committed, or to have ordered to be com­mitted, such grave breaches, and shall bring such persons, regardless of their nationality, before its own courts. It may also, if it prefers, and in accordance with the provisions of its own legislation, hand such persons over for trial to another High Contracting Party concerned, provided such High Contracting Party has made out a prima facie
case.
Each High Contracting Party shall take measures necessary for the suppression of all acts contrary to the provisions of the present Con­vention other than the grave breaches defined in the following Article.
In all circumstances, the accused persons shall benefit by safeguards of proper trial and defence, which shall not be less favourable than those provided by Article 10.5 and those following of the Geneva Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War of August 12, 1949.
ARTICLE 147.
Grave breaches to which the preceding Article relates shall be those involving any of the following acts, if committed against persons or property protected by the present Convention: wilful killing, torture or inhuman treatment, including biological experiments, wilfully caus­ing great suffering or serious injury to body or health, unlawful de­portation or transfer or unlawful confinement of a protected person, compelling a protected person to serve in the forces of a hostile Power, or willfully depriving a protected person of the rights of fair and
183
DODDOA-012220
regular trial prescribed in the present Convention, taking of hostages and extensive destruction and appropriation of property, not justified by military necessity and carried out unlawfully and wantonly.
ARTICLE 148.
No High Contracting Party shall be allowed to absolve itself or any other High Contracting Party of any liability incurred by itself or by another High Contracting Party in respect of breaches referred to in the preceding Article.
ARTICLE 149.
At the request of a Party to the conflict, an enquiry shall be insti­tuted, in a manner to be decided between the interested Parties, con­cerning any alleged violation of the Convention.
If agreement has not been reached concerning the procedure for the enquiry, the Parties should agree on the choice of an umpire who will decide upon the procedure to be followed.
Once the violation has been established, the Parties to the conflict shall put an end to it and shall repress it with the least posSible delay.
SECTION II. FINAL PROVISIONS.
ARTICLE 150.
The present Convention is established in English and in French. Both texts are equally authentic. The Swiss Federal Council shall arrange for official translations of the Convention to be made in the Russian and Spanish languages.
ARTICLE 151.
The present Convention, which bears the date of this day, is open to signature until February 12, 1950, in the name of the Powers repre­sented at the Conference which opened at Geneva on April 21, 1949.
ARTICLE 152.
The present Convention shall be ratified as soon as possible and the ratifications shall be deposited at Berne.
A record shall be drawn up of the deposit of each instrument of ratification and certified copies of this record shall be transmitted by the Swiss Federal Council to all the Powers in whose name the Conven­tion has been signed, or whose accession has been notified.
ARTICLE 153.
The present Convention shall come into force six months after not less than two instruments of ratification have been deposited.
Thereafter, it shall come into force for each High Contracting Party six months after the deposit of the instrument of ratification.
184
DODD0A-01 2221
ARTICLE 154.
In the relations between the Powers who are bound by The Hague Conventions respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land, whether that of July 29, 1899, or that of October 18, 1907, and who are parties to the present Convention, this last Convention shall be supplementary to Sections II and III of the Regulations annexed to the above mentioned Conventions of The Hague.
ARTICLE 155.
From the date or its coming into force, it shall be open to any Power in whose name the present Convention has not been signed, to accede to this Convention.
ARTICLE 156.
Accessions shall be notified in writing to the Swiss Federal Council, and shall take effect six months after the date on which they are received.
The Swiss Federal Council shall communicate the accessions to all the Powers in whose name the Convention has been signed, or whose accession has been notified.
ARTICLE 157.
The situations provided for in Articles 2 and 3 shall give immediate effect to ratifications deposited and accessions notified by the Parties to the conflict before or after the beginning of hostilities or occupation. The Swiss Federal Council shall communicate by the quickest method any ratifications or accessions received from Parties to the conflict.
ARTICLE 158.
Each of the High Contracting Parties shall be at liberty to denounce the present Convention.
The denunciation shall be notified in writing to the Swiss Federal Council, which shall transmit it to the Governments of all the High Contracting Parties.
The denunciation shall take effect one year after the notification thereof has been made to the Swiss Federal Council. However, a denunciation of which notification has been made at a time when the denouncing Power is involved in a conflict shall not take effect until peace has been concluded, and until after operations connected with the release, repatriation and re-establishment of the persons protected by the present Convention have been terminated.
The denunciation shall have effect only in respect of the denouncing Power. It shall in no way impair the obligations which the Parties to the conflict shall remain bound to fulfil by virtue of the principlesof the law of nations, as they result from the usages established among
185
DODD0A-012222
civilized peoples, from the laws of humanity and the dictates of the public conscience.
ARTICLE 159.
The Swiss Federal Council shall register the present Convention with the Secretariat of the United Nations. The Swiss Federal Council shall also inform the Secretariat of the United Nations of all ratifications, accessions and denunciations received by -it with respect to the present Convention.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned, having deposited their respective full powers, have signed the present Convention.
DONE at Geneva this twelfth day of August, 1949, in the English and French languages. The original shall be deposited in the Archives of the Swiss Confederation. The Swiss Federal Council shall trans­mit certified copies thereof to each of the signatory and acceding States.
[Here follow signatures].
186.
DODD0A-012223
ANNEX I

DRAFT AGREEMENT RELATING TO HOSPITAL AND
SAFETY ZONES AND LOCALITIES

ARTICLE 1.
Hospital and safety zones shall be strictly reserved for the persons mentioned in Article 23 of the Geneva Convention for the Ameliora­tion of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field of August 12, 1949, and in Article 14 of the Geneva Conven­tion relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War of August 12, 1949, and for the personnel entrusted with the organiza­tion and administration of these zones and localities and with the care of the persons therein assembled.
Nevertheless, persons whose permanent residence is within such zones . shall have the right to stay there.
ARTICLE 2.
No persons residing, in whatever capacity, in a hospital and safety zone shall perform any work, either within or without the zone, directly connected with military operations or the production of Avar material.
ARTICLE 3.
The Power establishing a hospital and safety zone shall take all necessary measures to prohibit access to all persons who have no right of residence or entry therein.
ARTICLE 4.
Hospital and safety zones shall fulfil the following conditions:
(a)
They shall comprise only a small part of the territory gov­erned by the Power which has established them.

(b)
They shall be thinly populated in relation to the possibilities of accommodation.

(c)
They shall be far removed and free from all military objec­tives, or large industrial or admipistrative establishments.

(d)
They shall not be situated in areas which, according to every

probability, may become important for the conduct of the war.
187
DODD0A-012224

ARTICLE 5.
Hospital and safety zones shall be subject to the following obliga­tions:
(a)
The lines of communication and means of transport which
they possess shall not be used for the transport of military
personnel or material, even in transit.

(b)
They shall in no case be defended by military means.

ARTICLE 6.
Hospital and safety zones shall be marked by means of oblique red bands on a white ground, placed on the buildings and outer pre­cincts.
Zones reserved exclus;vely for the wounded and sick may be marked by means of the Red Cross, (Red Crescent, Red Lion and Sun) emblem on a white ground.
They may be similarly marked at night by means of appropriate
llumination.
ARTICLE 7.
The Powers shall communicate to all the High Contracting Parties in peacetime or on the outbreak of hostilities, a list of the hospital and safety zones in the territories governed by them. They shall also give notice of any new zones set up during hostilities.
As soon as the adverse Party has received the abovementioned
-
notification, the zone shall be regularly established.
If, however, the adverse Party considers that the conditions of the present agreement have not been fulfilled, it may refuse to recognize the zone by giving immediate notice thereof to the Party responsible for the said zone, or may make its recognition of such zone dependent upon the institution of the control provided for in Article 8.
ARTICLE 8.
Any Power having recognized one or several hospital and safety zones instituted by the adverse Party shall be entitled to demand control by one or more Special Commissions, for the purpose of as­certaining if the zones fulfil the conditions and obligations stipulated in the present agreement.
For this purpose, members of the Special Commissions shall at all times have free access to the various zones and may even reside there permanently. They shall be given all facilities for their duties of inspection.
ARTICLE 9.
Should the Special Commissions note any facts which they consider contrary to the stipulations of the present agreement, they shall at once draw the attention of the Power governing the said zone to these
188
DODD0A-012225
facts, and shall fix a time limit of five days within which the matter should be rectified. They shall duly notify the Power who has rec­ognized the zone.
If, when the time limit has expired, the Power governing the zone has not complied with the warning, the adverse Party may declare that it is no longer bound by the present agreement in respect of the
said zone. ARTICLE 10.
Any Power setting up one or more hospital and safety zones, and the adverse Parties to whom their existence has been notified, shall nominate or have nominated by the Protecting Powers or by other neutral Powers, persons eligible to be members of the Special Com­missions mentioned in Articles 8 and 9.
ARTICLE 11.
In no circumstances may hospital and safety zones be the object of attack. They shall be protected and respected at all times by the Parties to the conflint-
ARTICLE 12.
In the case of occupation of a territory, the hospital and safety zones therein shall continue to be respected and utilized as such.
Their purpose may, however, be modified by the Occupying Power, on condition that all measures are taken to ensure the safety of the persons accommodated.
ARTICLE 13.
The present agreement shall also apply to localities which the Powers may utilize for the same purposes as hospital and safety
zones.
189
DODD0A-012226
ANNEX II

DRAFT REGULATIONS CONCERNING COLLECTIVE RELIEF

ARTICLE 1.
The Internee Committees shall be allowed to distribute collective relief shipments for which they are responsible, to all internees who are dependent for administration on the said Committee's place of internment, including those internees who are in hospitals, or in prisons or other penitentiary establishments.
ARTICLE 2.
The distribution of collective relief shipments shall be effected in accordance with the instructions of the donors and with a plan drawn up by the Internee Committees. The issue of medical stores shall, however, be made for preference in agreement with the senior medical officers, and the latter may, in hospitals and infirmaries, waive the said instructions, if the needs of their patients so demand. Within the limits thus defined, the distribution shall always be carried out equitably.
ARTICLE 3.
Members of Internee Committees shall be allowed to go to the railway stations or other points of arrival of relief supplies near their places of internment so as to enable them to verify the quantity as well as the quality of the goods received and to make out detailed reports thereon for the donors.
ARTICLE 4.
Internee Committees shall be given the facilities necessary for verifying whether the distribution of collective relief in all subdivisions and annexes of their places of internment has been carried out inaccordance with their instructions.
ARTICLE 5.
Internee Committees shall be allowed to complete, and to cause to be completed by members of the Internee Committees in labour detachments or by the senior medical officers of infirmaries and hospitals, forms or questionnaires intended for the donors, relating to collective relief supplies (distribution, requirements, quantities,
190
DODD0A-012227

etc.). Such forms and questionnaires, duly completed, shall be forwarded to the donors without delay.
ARTICLE 6.
In order to secure the regular distribution of collective relief supplies to the internees in their place of internment, and to meet any needs that may arise through the arrival of fresh parties of internees, the Internee Committees shall be allowed to create and maintain sufficient reserve stocks of collective relief. For this purpose, they shall have suitable warehouses at their disposal; each warehouse shall be provided with two locks, the Internee Committee holding the keys of one lock, and the commandant of the place of internment the keys of the other.
ARTICLE 7.
The High Contracting Parties, and the Detaining Powers in par­ticular, shall, so far as is in any way possible and subject to the regulations governing the food supply of the population, authorize purchases of goods to be made in their territories for the distribution of collective relief to the internees. They shall likewise facilitate the transfer of funds and other financial measures of a technical or administrative nature taken fs,- the purpose of making such purchases.
ARTICLE 8.
The foregoing provisions shall not constitute an obstacle to the right of internees to receive collective relief before their arrival in a place of internment or in the course of their transfer, nor to the possibility of representatives of the Protecting Power, or of the International Committee of the Red Cross or any other humanitarian organization giving assistance to internees and responsible for forwarding such supplies, ensuring the distribution thereof to the recipients by any other means they may deem suitable.
191.
DODDOA-012228
ANNEX III
I. INTERNMENT CARD
1. Front
CIVILIAN INTERNEE MAIL I.Postage free.I
POST. CARD
IMPORTANT
This card must be completed
CENTRAL INFORMATION AGENCY by each internee immediately FOR PROTECTED PERSONS
on being interned and each time his address is altered by reason of transfer to another place of INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE internment or to a hospital. OF TSB RED CROSS
This card is not the same as the special card which each internee is allowed to send to his relatives.
Write legibly and in block letters—t. Nationality
2 . Surname.3. First names (in full).4. First acme of father
5. Date of birth. 6. Place of birth
7.
Occupation

8.
Address before detention

9.
Address of next of kin

ow. Interned on : (or)
Coming from (hospital. etc.) on : In . State of health
12.
Present address

13.
Date. 14. Signature

•Strilie out what is not applicable —Do not add any remarks — See explanations
on other side of card

2. Reverse side
(Size of internment card10X 15 cm.)
-
192
DODD0A-012229
II. LETTER
CIVILIAN INTERNEE SERVICE
Postage free
To
Street and number
Place of destination (in block capitals)
Province or Department
Country (in block capitals)
ssaapps luarawalui gum ;o aosid pus alga Sata1312 4S.IU pus aursu.ms
:lapusg
(Size of letter-29X15 cm.)
193
DODD0A-012230
III. CORRESPONDENCE CARD
1. Front
CZVILI .N Itrritaxsz Man. Postap fren
POST CARD
To Street and number Place of destination (in block capitals) Province or Department Country (is block capitals)
Place and date ofbirth Internment address
Date :
¦••••••••••
Write on the dotted lines only and u legibly as perible.
2. Reverse side
(Size of correspondence card-10X15 cm.) 194. DODDOA-012231
Appendix A
Forms of Passport, Safe Conduct, and
Safeguard

FORM OF PASSPORT
(Place and date of issue.)
Authority is hereby granted to Mr. (or other title) .living at .(if on a mission, state the same), to pass out of the lines for the purpose of (state object of journey) .
He will cross the lines by the road from A to B (or at a designated point) during the . (forenoon, afternoon, or day) of .(date).
He is authorized to take with him . (persons, articles, vehicles, etc.).
He will proceed to (name destination) by the route C. D. E.
(Signature of officer.)
Photograph or
finger print

(Rank, etc.)
or signature. NOTE. This passport is strictly personal and will be void unless used on the date stated.
NOTE. Blank forms for these should be issued at the commencement of hostili­ties. A photograph should be attached where the pass is for an extended period. A finger print or signature can be substituted if desired.
195
DODD0A-012232
SAFE CONDUCT
(Place and date of issue.) . residing at .
(or if on a mission, the mission to be stated)
Photograph. is authorized to proceed to . for
the purpose of .
He will follow the route A. B. C.
He is authorized to take with him (persons, articles, vehicles).
This safe conduct is good until .
All military authorities are directed to protect the bearer of this safe
conduct and in nowise to molest him.
(Signature of officer.)
(Rank, etc.)
Norz. This safe conduct is strictly personal and shall be void unless used within the time fixed.
FORM OF SAFEGUARD
(Date and place of issue.) All officers and enlisted men belonging to the . (Name the army
.are directed to respect the premises u, .72.helivision thereof.) of .situated at . No requisitions thereon, nor damage thereto, will be permitted, and
protection will be afforded by all officers and enlisted men against any person who shall attempt to act in violation of this order.
(Signature of officer.)
(Rank, etc.)
196
DODD0A-012233
Appendix B

Agreement Between the Commander-In-Chief, United Na­tions Command, on the One Hand, and the Supreme Commander of the Korean People's Army and the Com­mander of the Chinese People's Volunteers, on the Other Hand, Concerning a Military Armistice in Korea
Signed 27 July 1953
(Treaties and Other International Acts Series 2782)
PREAMBLE
The undersigned, the Commander-in-Chief, United Nations Com­mand, on the one hand, and the Supreme Commander of the Korean People's Army and the Commander of the Chinese People's Volun­teers, on the other hand, in the interest of stopping the Korean conflict, with its great toll of suffering and bloodshed on both sides, and with the objective of establishing an armistice which will insure a compkte cessation of hostilities and of all acts of armed force in Korea until a final peaceful settlement is achieved, do individually, collectively, and mutually agree to accept and to be bound and.governed by the con­ditions and terms of armistice set forth in the following Articles and Paragraphs, which said conditions and terms are intended to be purely military in character and to pertain solely to the belligerents in Korea.
ARTICLE I. MILITARY DEMARCATION LINE AND DEMILITARIZED ZONE
1.
A Military Demarcation Line shall be fixed and both sides shall withdraw two (2) kilometers from this line so as to establish a De­militarized Zone between the opposing forces. A Demilitarized Zone shall be established as a buffer zone to prevent the occurrence of incidents which might lead to a resumption of hostilities.

2.
The Military Demarcation Line is located as indicated on the attached map.

3.
The Demilitarized Zone is defined by a northern and a southern boundary as indicated on the attached map.

4.
The Military Demarcation Line shall be plainly marked as directed by the Military Armistice Commission hereinafter established. The Commanders of the opposing sides shall have suitable markers

197
DODD0A-012234

erected along the boundary between the Demilitarized Zone and their respective areas. The Military Armistice Commission shall supervise the erection of all markers placed along the Military Demarcation Line and along the boundaries of the Demilitarized Zone.
5.
The waters of the Han River Estuary shall be open to civil shipping of both sides wherever one bank is controlled by one side and the other bank is controlled by the other side. The Military Armistice Commission shall prescribe rules for the shipping in that part of the Han River Estuary indicated on the attached map. Civil shipping of each side shall have unrestricted access to the land under the military control of that side.

6.
Neither side shall execute any hostile act within, from, or against the Demilitarized Zone.

7.
No person, military or civilian, shall be permitted to cross the Military Demarcation Line unless specifically authorized to do so by the Military Armistice Commission.

8.
No person, military or civilian, in the Demilitarized Zone shall be permitted to enter the territory under the military control of either side unless specifically authorized to do so by the Commander into whose territory entry is sought.

9.
No person, military or civilian, shall be permitted to enter the Demilitarized Zone except persons concerned with the conduct of civil administration and relief and persons specifically authorized to enter by the Military Armistice Commission.

10.
Civil administration and relief in that part of the Demilitarized Zone which is south of the Military Demarcation Line shall be the responsibility of the Commander-in-Chief, United Nations Command and civil administration and relief in that part of the Demilitarized ; Zone which is north of the Military Demarcation Line shall be the joint responsibility of the Supreme Commander of the Korean People's Army and the Commander of the Chinese People's Volunteers. The number of persons, military or civilian from each side who are per­mitted to enter the Demilitarized Zone for the conduct of civil admin­istration and relief shall be as determined by the respective Com­manders, but in no case shall the total number authorized by either side exceed one thousand (1,000) persons at any one time. The number of civil police and the arms to be carried by them shall be as prescribed by the Military Armistice Commission. Other personnel shall not carry arms unless specifically authorized to do so by the Military Armistice Commission.

11.
Nothing contained in this Article shall be construed to pre­vent the complete freedom of movement to, from, and within the Demilitarized Zone by the Military Armistice Commission, its assist­ants, its Joint Observer Teams with their assistants, the Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission hereinafter established, its assist­ants, its Neutral Nations Inspection Teams with their assistants,

.
198 DODDOA-012235
and of any other persons, materials, and equipment specifically authorized to enter the Demilitarized Zone by the Military Armis­tice Commission. Convenience of movement shall be permitted through the territory under the military control of either side over any route necessary to move between points within the Demilitarized Zone where such points are not connected by roads lying completely within the Demilitarized Zone.
ARTICLE II. CONCRETE ARRANGEMENTS FOR CEASE-FIRE AND ARMISTICE
A. General
12.
The Commanders of the opposing sides shall order and enforce a complete cessation of all hostilities in Korea by all armed forces under their control, including all units and personnel of the ground, naval, and air forces, effective twelve (12) hours after this Armistice Agreement is signed. (See Paragraph 63 hereof for effective date and hour of the remaining provisions of this Armistice Agreement.)

13.
In order to insure the stability of the Military Armistice so as to facilitate the attainment of a peaceful settlement through the holding by both sides of a political conference of a higher level, the Commanders of the opposing sides shall:

a.
Within seventy-two (72) hours after this Armistice Agree­ment becomes effective, withdraw all of their military forces, sup­plies, and equipment from the Demilitarized Zone except as otherwise provided herein. All demolitions, minefields, wire entanglements, and other hazards to the safe movement of personnel of the Military Armistice Commission or its Joint Observer Teams, known to exist within the Demilitarized Zone after the withdrawal of military forces therefrom, together with lanes known to be free of all such hazards, shall be reported to the Military Armistice Commission by the Com­mander of the side whose forces emplaced such hazards. Subse­quently, additional safe lanes shall be cleared; and eventually, within forty-five (45) days after the termination of the seventy-two (72) hour period, all such hazards shall be removed from the Demilitar­ized Zone as directed by and under the supervision of the Military Armistice Commission. At the termination of the seventy-two (72) hour period, except for unarmed troops authorized a forty-five (45) day period to complete salvage operations under Military Armistice Commission supervision, such units of a police nature as may be specifically requested by the Military Armistice Commission and agreed to by the Commanders of the opposing sides, and personnel authorized under Paragraphs 10 and 11 hereof, no personnel of either side shall be permitted to enter the Demilitarized Zone.

b.
Within ten (10) days after this Armistice Agreement becomes effective, withdraw all of their military forces, supplies, and equip-

199
DODD0A-012236
ment from the rear and the coastal islands and waters of Korea of the other side. If such military forces are not withdrawn within the stated time limit, and there is no mutually agreed and valid reason for the delay, the other side shall have the right to take any action which it deems necessary for the maintenance of security and order. The term "coastal islands," a's used above, refers to those islands which, though occupied by one side at the time when this Armistice Agreement becomes effective, were controlled by the other side on 24 June 1950; provided, however, that all the islands lying to the north and west of the provincial boundary line between HIVANGHAE-DO and KYONGGI-DO shall be under the military control of the Supreme Commander of the Korean People's Army and the Commander of the Chinese People's Volunteers, except the island groups of PAENGYONG-DO (37°58' N, 124°40' E), TAECHONG-DO (37°50' N, 124°42' E), SOCHONG-DO (37°46' N, 124°46' E), YONPYONG-DO (37°38' N, 125°40' E), and U-DO
(37°36' N, 125°58' E), which shall remain under the military control of the Commander-in-Chief, United Nations Command. All the islands on the west coast of Korea lying south of the above-mentioned boundary line shall remain under the military control of the Com­mander-in-Chief, United Nations Command.
c. Cease the introduction into Korea of reinforcing military personnel; provided, however, that the rotation of units and personnel, the arrival in Korea of personnel on a temporary duty basis, and the return to Korea of personnel after short periods of leave or temporary duty outside of Korea shall be permitted within the scope prescribed below. "Rotation" is defined as the replacement of units or personnel by other units or personnel who are commencing a tour of duty in Korea. Rotation personnel shall be introduced into and evacuated from Korea only through the ports of entry enumerated in Paragraph 43 hereof. Rotation shall be conducted on a man-for­man basis; provided, however, that no more than thirty-five thousand (35,000) persons in the military service shall be admitted into Korea by either side in any calendar month under the rotation policy. No military personnel of either side shall be introduced into Korea if the introduction of such personnel will cause the aggregate of the military personnel of that side admitted into Korea since the effective date of this Armistice Agreement to exceed the cumulative total of the mili­tary personnel of that side who have departed from Korea since that date. Reports concerning arrivals in and departures from Korea of military personnel shall be made daily to the Military Armistice Com­mission and the Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission; such reports shall include places of arrival and departure and the number of persons arriving at or departing from each such place. The Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission, through its Neutral Nations In­spection Teams, shall conduct supervision and inspection of the rota-
200
DODDOA-012237
tion of units and personnel authorized above, at the ports of entry enumerated in Paragraph 43 hereof.
d.
Cease the introduction into Korea of reinforcing combat aircraft, armored vehicles, weapons, and ammunition; provided, however, that combat aircraft, armored vehicles, weapons, and am­munition which are destroyed, damaged, worn out or used up during the period of the armistice may be replaced on the basis of piece-for­piece of the same effectiveness and the same type. Such combat air­craft, armored vehicles, weapons, and ammunition shall be introduced into Korea only through the ports of entry enumerated in Paragraph 43 hereof. In order to justify the requirement for combat aircraft, armored vehicles, weapons, and ammunition to be introduced into Korea for replacement purposes, reports concerning every incoming shipment of these items shall be made to the Military Armistice Com­mission and the Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission; such re­ports shall include statements regarding the disposition of the items being replaced. Items to be replaced which are removed from Korea shall be removed only through the ports of entry enumerated in Para­graph 43 hereof. The . Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission, through its Neutral Nations Inspection Teams, shall conduct super­vision and inspection of the replacement of combat aircraft, armored Vehicles, weapons, and ammunition authorized above, at the ports of entry enumerated in Paragraph 43 hereof.

e.
Insure that personnel of their respective commands who violate any of the provisions of this Armistice Agreement are adequately punished.

f.
In those cases where places of burial are a matter of record and graves are actually found to exist, permit graves registration per­sonnel of the other side to enter, within a definite time limit after this Armistice Agreement becomes effective, the territory of Korea under their military control, for the purpose of proceeding to such graves to recover and evacuate the bodies of the deceased military personnel of that side, including deceased prisoners of war. The specific procedures and the time limit for the performance of the above task shall be de­termined by the Military Armistice ComMission. The Commanders of the opposing sides shall furnish to the other side all available in­formation pertaining to the places of burial of the deceased military personnel of the other side.

g.
Afford full protection and all possible assistance and cooperation to the Military Armistice Commission, its Joint Observer Teams, the Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission, and its Neutral Nations Inspection Teams, in the carrying out of their functions and responsi­bilities hereinafter assigned; and accord to the Neutral Nations Super­visory Commission, and to its Neutral Nations Inspection Teams, full convenience of movement between the headquarters of the Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission and the ports of entry enumerated in

201
DODD0A-012238
Paragraph 43 hereof over main lines of communication agreed upon by both sides, and between the headquarters of the Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission and the places where violations of this Armi­stice Agreement have been reported to have occurred. In order to prevent unnecessary delays, the use of alternate routes and means of transportation will be permitted whenever the main lines of communi­cation are closed or impassable.
h. Provide such logistic support, including communications and transportation facilities, as may be required by the Military Armistice Commission and the Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission and their Teams
Each construct, operate, and maintain a suitable airfield in their respect ive parts of the Demilitarized Zone in the vicinity of the headquarters of the Military Armistice Commission, for such uses as the Commission may determine
j. Insure that all members and other personnel of the Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission and of the Neutral Nations Repa­triation Commission hereinafter established shall enjoy the freedom and facilities necessary for the proper exercise of their functions, in­cluding privileges, treatment, and immunities equivalent to those ordinarily enjoyed by accredited diplomatic personnel under inter­national usage.
14.
This Armistice Agreement shall apply to all opposing ground forces under the military control of either side, which ground forces shall respect the Demilitarized Zone and the area of Korea under the military control of the opposing side.

15.
This Armistice Agreement shall apply to all opposing naval forces, which naval forces shall respect the waters contiguous to the Demilitarized Zone and to the land area of Korea under the military control of the opposing side, and shall not engage in blockade of any kind of Korea.

16.
This Armistice Agreement shall apply to all opposing air forces, which air forces shall respect the air space over the Demilitarized Zone and over the area of Korea under the military control of the opposing side, and over the waters contiguous to both.

17.
Responsibility for compliance with and enforcement of the terms and provisions of this Armistice Agreement is that of the signa­tories hereto and their successors in command. The Commanders of the opposing sides shall establish within their respective commands all measures and procedures necessary to insure complete compliance with all of the provisions hereof by all elements of their commands. They shall actively cooperate with one another and with the Military Armistice Commission and the Neutral Nations Supervisory Com­mission in requiring observance of both the letter and the spirit of all of the provisions of this Armistice Agreement.

202.
DODD0A-012239
18. The costs of the operations of the Military Armistice Commission and of the Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission and of their Teams shall be shared equally by the two opposing sides.
.
B. Military ArmisticeCommission
1. Composition
19.
A Military Armistice Commission is hereby established.

20.
The Military Armistice Commission shall be composed of ten

(10) senior officers, five (5) of whom shall be appointed by the Com­mander-in-Chief, United Nations Command, and five (5) of whom shall be appointed jointly by the Supreme Commander of the Korean People's Army and the Commander of the Chinese People's Volunteers. Of the ten members, three (3) from each side shall be of general or flag rank. The two (2) remaining members on each side may be major generals, brigadier generals, colonels, or their equivalents.
21.
Members of the Military Armistice Commission shall be per­mitted to use staff assistants as required.

22.
The Military Armistice Commission shall be provided with the necessary administrative personnel to establish a Secretariat charged with assisting the Commission by performing record-keeping, secretarial, interpreting, and such other functions as the Commission may assign to it. Each side shall appoint to the Secretariat a Secre­tary and an Assistant Secretary and such clerical and specialized per­sonnel as required by the Secretariat. Records shall be kept in English, Korean, and Chinese, all of which shall be equally authentic.

23.
a. The Military Armistice Commission shall be initially pro­vided with and assisted by ten (10) Joint Observer Teams, which number may be reduced by agreement of the senior members of both sides on the Military Armistice Commission.

b. Each Joint Observer Team shall be composed of not less than four (4) nor more than six (6) officers of field grade, half of whom shall be appointed by the Commander-in-Chief, United Nations Command, and half of whom shall be appointed jointly by the Supreme Com­mander of the Korean People's Army and the Commander of the Chinese People's Volunteers. Additional personnel such as drivers, clerks and interpreters shall be furnished by each side as required for the functioning of the Joint Observer Teams.
2. Functions and authority
24.
The general mission of the Military Armistice Commission shall be to supervise the implementation of this Armistice Agreement and to settle through negotiations any violations of this Armistice Agree­ment.

25.
The Military Armistice Commission shall:

a. Locate its headquarters in the vicinity of PANMUNJOM(37°57'29" N, 126 °40'00" E). The Military Armistice Commission
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may re-locate its headquarters at another point within the Demilita­rized Zone by agreement of the senior members of both sides on the Commission.
b.
Operate as a joint organization without a chairman.

c.
Adopt such rules of procedure as it may, from time to time, deem necessary.

d.
Supervise the carrying out of the provisions of this Armistice Agreement pertaining to the Demilitarized Zone and to the Han River Estuary.

e.
Direct the operations of the Joint Observer Teams.

f.
Settle through negotiations any violations of this Armistice Agreement.

g.
Transmit immediately to the Commanders of the opposing sides all reports of investigations of violations of this Armistice Agree­ment and all other reports and records of proceedings received from the Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission.

h.
Give general supervision and direction to the activities of the Committee for Repatriation of Prisoners of War and the Committee for Assisting the Return of Displaced Civilians, hereinafter established.

i.
Act as an intermediary in transmitting communications between the Commanders of the opposing sides; provided, however, that the foregoing shall not be construed to preclude the Commanders of both sides from communicating with each other by any other means which they may desire to employ.

j.
Provide credentials and distinctive insignia for its staff and its Joint Observer Teams, and a distinctive marking for all vehicles, aircraft, and vessels, used in the performance of its mission.

26.
The mission of the Joint Observer Teams shall be to assist the Military Armistice Commission in supervising the carrying out of the provisions of this Armistice Agreement pertaining to the Demilitarized Zone and to the Han River Estuary.

27.
The Military Armistice Commission, or the senior member of either side thereof, is authorized to dispatch Joint Observer Teams to investigate violations of this Armistice Agreement reported to have occurred in the Demilitarized Zone or in the Han River Estuary; provided, however, that not more than one half of the Joint Observer Teams which have not been dispatched by the Military Armistice Commission may be dispatched at any one time by the senior member of either side on the Commission.

28.
The Military Armistice Commission, or the senior member of either side thereof, is authorized to request the Neutral Nations Super­visory Commission to conduct special observations and inspections at places outside the Demilitarized Zone where violations of this Armi­stice Agreement have been reported to have occurred.

29.
When the Military Armistice Commission determines that a violation of this Armistice Agreement has occurred, it shall immedi-

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ately report such violation to the Commanders of the opposing sides.
30. When the Military Armistice Commission determines that a violation of this Armistice Agreement has been corrected to its satis­faction, it shall so report to the Commanders of the opposing sides.
8. General
31.
The Military Armistice Commission shall meet daily. Recesses of not to exceed seven (7) days may be agreed upon by the senior members of both sides; provided, that such recesses may be terminated on twenty-four (24) hour notice by the senior member of either side.

32.
Copies of the record of the proceedings of all meetings of the Military Armistice Commission shall be forwarded to the Commanders of the opposing sides as soon as possible after each meeting.

33.
The Joint Observer Teams shall make periodic reports to the Military Armistice Commission as required by the Commission and, in addition, shall make such special reports as may be deemed neces­sary by them, or as may be required by the Commission.

34.
The Military Armistice Commission shall maintain duplicate files of the reports and records of proceedings required by this Armistice Agreement. The Commission is authorized to maintain duplicate files of such other reports, records, etc., as may be necessary in the conduct of its business. Upon eventual dissolution of the Commission, one set of the above files shall be turned over to each side.

35.
The Military Armistice Commission may make recommenda­tions to the Commanders of the opposing sides with respect to amend­ments or additions to this Armistice Agreement. Such recom­mended changes should generally be those designed to insure a more effective armistice.

C. Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission
1. Composition

36.
A Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission is hereby estab­lished.

37.
The Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission shall be com­posed of four (4) senior officers, two (2) of whom shall be appointed by neutral nations nominated by the Commander-in-Chief, United Nations Command, namely, SWEDEN and SWITZERLAND, and two (2) of whom shall be appointed by neutral nations nominated jointly by the Supreme Commander of the Korean People's Army and the Commander of the Chinese People's Volunteers, namely, POLAND and CZECHOSLOVAKIA. The term "neutral nations" as herein used is defined as those nations whose combatant forces have not participated in the hostilities in Korea. Members appointed to the Commission may be from the armed forces of the appointing nations. Each member shall designate an alternate member to attend those

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meetings which for any reason the principal member is unable to attend. Such alternate members shall be of the same nationality as their principals. The Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission may take action whenever the number of members present from the neutral nations nominated by one side is equal to the number of members present from the neutral nations nominated by the other side.
38.
Members of the Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission shall be permitted to use staff assistants furnished by the neutral nations as required. These staff assistants may be appointed as alternate mem­bers of the Commission.

39.
The neutral nations shall be requested to furnish the Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission with the necessary administrative personnel to establish a Secretariat charged with assisting the Com­mission by performing necessary recordkeeping, secretarial, inter­preting, and such other functions as the Commission may assign to it.

40.
a. The Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission shall be ini­tially provided with, and assisted by, twenty (20) Neutral Nations Inspection Teams, which number may be reduced by agreement of the senior members of both sides on the Military Armistice Com­mission. The Neutral Nations Inspection Teams shall be responsible to, shall report to, and shall be subject to the direction of, the Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission only.

b. Each Neutral Nations Inspection Team shall be composed of not less than four (4) officers, preferably of field grade, half of whom shall be from the neutral nations nominated by the Commander-in-Chief, United Nations Command, and half of whom shall be from the neutral nations nominated jointly by the Supreme Commander of the Korean People's Army and the Commander of the Chinese People's Volunteers. Members appointed to the Neutral Nations Inspection Teams may be from the armed forces of the appointing nations. In order to facilitate the functioning of the Teams, sub­teams composed of not less than two (2) members, one of whom shall be from a neutral nation nominated by the Commander-in-Chief, United Nations Command, and one of whom shall be from a neutral nation nominated jointly by the Supreme Commander of the Korean People's Army and the Commander of the Chinese People's Volun­teers, may be formed as circumstances require. Additional personnel such as drivers, clerks, interpreters, and communications personnel, and such equipment as may be required by the Teams to perform their missions, shall be furnished by the Commander of each side, as required, in the Demilitarized Zone and in the territory under his military control. The Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission may provide itself and the Neutral Nations Inspection Teams with such of the above personnel and equipment of its own as it may de­sire; provided, however, that such personnel shall be personnel of the
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same neutral nations of which the Neutral Nations Supervisory Com­mission is composed.
2. Functions and authority
41.
The mission of the Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission shall_ beto carry out the functions of supervision, observation, in­spection, and investigation, as stipulated in Subparagraphs 13c and 13d and Paragraph 28 hereof, and to report the results of such super­vision, observation, inspection, and investigation to the Military Armistice Commission.

42.
The Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission shall:

a.
Locate its headquarters in proximity to the headquarters of the Military Armistice Commission.

b.
Adopt such rules of procedure as it may, from time to time, deem necessary.

c.
Conduct, through its members and its Neutral Nations In­spection Teams, the supervision and inspection provided for in Sub­paragraphs 13c and I3d of this Armistice Agreement at the ports of entry enumerated in Paragraph 43 hereof, and the special observations and inspections provided for in Paragraph 28 hereof at those places where violations of this Armistice Agreement have been reported to have occurred. The inspection of combat aircraft, armored vehicles, weapons, and ammunition by the Neutral Nations Inspection Teams shall be such as to enable them to properly insure that reinforcing combat aircraft, armored vehicles, weapons, and ammunition are not being introduced into Korea; but this shall not be construed as au­thorizing inspections or examinations of any secret designs or charac­teristics of any combat aircraft, armored vehicle, weapon, or am­munition.

d.
Direct and supervise the operations of the Neutral Nations Inspection Teams.

e.
Station five (5) Neutral Nations Inspection Teams at the ports of entry enumerated in Paragraph 43 hereof located in the terri­tory under the military control of the Commander-in-Chief, United Nations Command; and five (5) Neutral Nations Inspection Teams at the ports of entry enumerated in Paragraph 43 hereof located in the territory under the military control of the Supreme Commander of the Korean People's Army and the Commander of the ChinesePeople's Volunteers; and establish initially ten (10) mobile Neutral Nations Inspection Teams in reserve, stationed in the -general vicinity of the headquarters of the Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission, which number may be reduced by agreement of the senior members of both sides on the Military Armistice Commission. Not more than half of the mobile Neutral Nations Inspection Teams shall be dis­patched at any one time in accordance with requests of the senior member of either side on the Military Armistice Commission.

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DODD0A-012244
f.
Subject to the provisions of the preceding Subparagraph, conduct without delay investigations of reported violations of this Armistice Agreement, including such investigations of reported violations of this Armistice Agreement as may be requested by the Military Armistice Commission or by the senior member of either side on the Commission.

g.
Provide credentials and distinctive insignia for its staff and its Neutral Nations Inspection Teams, and a distinctive marking for all vehicles, aircraft, and vessels, used in the performance of its mission.

43. Neutral Nations Inspection Teams shall be stationed at the following ports of entry:
Territory under the military control Territory under the military control of.the.United.Nations.Command of the Korean People's Army and the Chinese People's Volunteers
IN CHON (37°28'N, 126°38'E) SINUIJU (40°06'N, 124°24'E)
TAEGU (35°52'N, 128°36'E) CH 0 N GJIN (41°46'N, 129°49'E)
PUSAN (35°06'N, 129°02'E) HUNGNAM (39°50'N, 127°37'E)
KAN GNUNG (37°45'N, 128°54'E) MANPO (41°09'N, 126°18'E)
KUNSAN (35°59'N, 126°43'E) SINANJU (39°36'N, 125°36'E)

These Neutral Nations Inspection Teams shall be accorded full convenience of movement within the areas and over the routes of communication set forth on the attached map.
3. General
44.
The Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission shall meet daily. Recesses of not to exceed seven (7) days may be agreed upon by the members of the Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission; provided, that such recesses may be terminated on twenty-four (24) hour notice by any member.

45.
Copies of the record of the proceedings of all meetings of the Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission shall be forwarded to the Military Armistice Commission as soon as possible after each meeting. Records shall be kept in English, Korean, and Chinese.

46.
The Neutral Nations Inspection Teams shall make periodic reports concerning the results of their supervision, observations, inspections, and investigations to the Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission as. required by the Commission and, in addition, shall make such special reports as may be deemed necessary by them, or as may be required by the Commission. Reports shall be submitted by a Team as a whole, but may also be submitted by one or more individual members thereof; provided, that the reports submitted by one or more individual members thereof shall be considered as informational only.

47.
Copies of the reports made by the Neutral Nations Inspection Teams shall be forwarded to the Military Armistice Commission by

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DODDOA-012245
the Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission without delay and in the language in which received. They shall not be delayed by the process of translation or evaluation. The Neutral Nations Super­visory Commission shall evaluate such reports at the earliest prac­ticable time and shall forward their findings to the Military Armistice Commission as a matter of priority. The Military Armistice Com­mission shall not take final action with regard to any such report until the evaluation thereof has been received from the Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission. Members of the Neutral Nations Supervi­sory Commission and of its Teams shall be subject to appearance before the Military Armistice Commission, at the request of the senior member of either side on the Military Armistice Commission, for clarification of any report submitted.
48.
The Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission shall maintain duplicate files of the reports and records of proceedings required by this Armistice Agreement. The Commission is authorized to main­tain duplicate files of such other reports, records, etc., as may be necessary in the conduct of its business. Upon eventual dissolution of the Commission, one set of the above files shall be turned over to each side.

49.
The Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission may make recommendations to the Military Armistice Commission with respect to amendments or additions to this Armistice Agreement. Such recommended changes should generally be those designed to insure a more effective armistice.

50.
The Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission, or any member thereof, shall be authorized to communicate with any member of the Military Armistice Commission.

ARTICLE III. ARRANGEMENTS RELATING TO PRISONERS OF WAR
51. The release and repatriation of all prisoners of war held in custody of each side at the time this Armistice Agreement becomes effective shall be effected in conformity with the following provisions agreed upon by both sides prior to the signing of this Armistice Agreement.
a. Within sixty (60) days after this Armistice Agreement becomes effective, each side shall, without offering any hindrance, directly repatriate and hand over in groups all those prisoners of war in its custody who insist on repatriation to the side to which they belonged at the time of capture. Repatriation shall be accomplished in accord­ance with the related provisions of this Article. In order to expedite the repatriation process of such personnel, each side shall, prior to the singing of the Armistice Agreement, exchange the total numbers, by nationalities, of personnel to be directly repatriated. Each group of prisoners of war delivered to the other side shall be accompanied by
209 DODD0A-012246
rosters, prepared by nationality, to include name, rank (if any) and internment or military serial number.
b.
Each side shall release all those remaining prisoners of war, who are not directly repatriated, from its military control and from its custody and hand them over to the Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission for disposition in accordance with 'the provisions in the Annex hereto: "Terms of Reference for Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission."

c.
So that there may be no misunderstanding owing to the equal use of three languages, the act of delivery of a prisoner of war by one side to the other side shall, for the purposes of this Armistice Agree­ment, be called "repatriation" in English, * * * (SONG HIV..A.N) in Korean, and * * * (CH'IEN FAN) in Chinese, notwithstanding the nationality or place of residence of such prisoner of war.

52.
Each side insures that it will not employ in acts of war in the Korean conflict any prisoner of war released and repatriated incident to the coming into effect of this Armistice Agreement.

53.
All the sick and injured prisoners of war who insist upon re­natriation shall be repatriated with priority. Insofar as possible, there shall be captured medical personnel repatriated concurrently with the sick and injured prisoners of war, so as to provide medical care and attendance en route.

54.
The repatriation of all of the prisoners of war required by Sub-paragraph 51a hereof shall be completed within a time limit of sixty (60) days after this Armistice Agreement becomes effective. Within this time limit each side undertakes to complete the repatria­tion of the above-mentioned prisoners of war in its custody at the earliest practicable time.

55.
PANMUNJOM is designated as the place where prisoners of war will be delivered and received by both sides. Additional place(s) of delivery and reception of prisoners of war in the Demilitarized Zone may be designated, if necessary, by the Committee for Repatriation of Prisoners of War.

56.
a. A Committee for Repatriation of Prisoners of War is hereby established. It shall be composed of six (6) officers of field. grade, three (3) of whom shall be appointed by the Commander-in-Chief, United Nations Command, and three (3) of whom shall be appointed jointly by the Supreme Commander of the Korean People's Army and the Commander of the Chinese People's Volunteers. This Committee shall, under the general supervision and direction of the Military Armistice Commission, be responsible for coordinating the specific plans of both sides for the repatriation of prisoners of war and for supervising the execution by both sides of all of the provisions of this Armistice Agreement relating to the repatriation of prisoners of war. It shall be the duty of this Committee to coordinate the timing of the arrival of prisoners of war at the place(s) of delivery and reception of

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DODD0A-012247
prisoners of war from the prisoner of war camps of both sides; to make, when necessary, such special arrangements as may be required with regard to the transportation and welfare of sick and injured prisoners of war; to coordinate the work of the Joint Red Cross teams, estab­lished in Paragraph 57 hereof, in assisting in the repatriation of prison­ers of war; to supervise the implementation of the arrangements for the actual repatriation of prisoners of war stipulated in Paragraphs 53 and 54 hereof; to select, when necessary, additional place(s) of de­livery and reception of prisoners of war; to arrange for security at the place(s) of delivery and reception of prisoners of war; and to carry out such other related functions as are required for the repatriation of prisoners of war.
b.
When unable to reach agreement on any matter relating to its responsibilities, the Committee for Repatriation of Prisoners of War shall immediately refer such matter to the Military Armistice Com­mission for decision. The Committee for Repatriation of Prisoners of War shall maintain its headquarters in proximity to the head­quarters of the Military Armistice Commission.

c.
The Committee for Repatriation of Prisoners of War shall be dissolved by the Military Armistice Commission upon completion of the program of repatriation of prisoners of war.

57. a. Immediately after this Armistice Agreement becomes effec­tive, joint Red Cross teams composed of representatives of the national Red Cross Societies of the countries contributing forces to the United Nations Command on the one hand, and representatives of the Red Cross Society of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea and rep­resentatives of the Red Cross Society of the People's Republic of China on the other hand, shall be established. The joint Red Cross teams shall assist in the execution by both sides of those provisions of this Armistice Agreement relating to the repatriation of all the prisoners of war specified in Sub-paragraph 51a hereof, who insist upon repatriation, by the performance of such humanitarian services as are necessary and desirable for the welfare of the prisoners of war. To accomplish this task, the joint Red. Cross teams shall provide assistance in the delivering and receiving of prisoners of war by both sides at the place(s) of delivery and reception of prisoners of war, and shall visit the prisoner of war camps of both sides to comfort the prisoners of war and to bring in and distribute gift articles for the comfort and welfare of the prisoners of war. The joint Red Cross teams may provide services to prisoners of war while en route from prisoner of war camps to the place(s) of delivery and reception of prisoners of war.
b. The joint Red Cross teams shall be organized as set forthbelow:
(1) One team shall be composed of twenty (20) members, namely, ten (10) representatives from the national Red Cross Societies
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DODD0A-012248
of each side, to assist in the delivering and receiving of prisoners of war by both sides at the place(s) of delivery and reception of prisoners of war. The chairmanship of this team shall alternate daily between representatives from the Red Cross Societies of the two sides. The work and services of this team shall be coordinated by the Committee for Repatriation of Prisoners of War.
(2)
One team shall be composed of sixty (60) members, namely, thirty (30) representatives from the national Red Cross Societies of each side, to visit the prisoner of war camps under the administration of the Korean People's Army and the Chinese People's Volunteers. This team may provide services to prisoners of war while en route from the prisoner of war camps to the place(s) of de­livery and reception of prisoners of war. A representative of the Red Cross Society of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea or of the Red Cross Society of the People's Republic of China shall serve as chairman of this team.

(3)
One team shall be composed of sixty (60) members, namely, thirty (30) representatives from the national Red Cross Societies of each side, to visit the prisoner of war camps under the administration of the United Nations Command. This team may provide services to prisoners of war while en route from the prisoner of war camps to the place (s) of delivery and reception of prisoners of war. A representative of a Red Cross Society of a nation con­tributing forces to the United Nations Command shall serve as chair­man of this team.

(4)
In order to facilitate the functioning of each joint Red Cross team, sub-teams composed of not less than two (2) members from the team, with an equal number of representatives from each side, may be formed as circumstances require.

(5)
Additional personnel such as drivers, clerks, and inter­preters, and such equipment as may be required by the joint Red Cross teams to perform their missions, shall be furnished by the Com­mander of each side to the team operating in the territory under his military control.

(6)
Whenever jointly agreed upon by the representatives of both sides on any joint Red Cross team, the size of such team may be increased or decreased, subject to confirmation by the Committee for Repatriation of Prisoners of War.

c.
The Commander of each side shall cooperate fully with the joint Red Cross teams in the performance of their functions, and undertakes to insure the security of the personnel of the joint Red Cross team in the area under his military control. The Commander of each side shall provide such logistic, administrative, and com­munications facilities as may be required by the team operating in the territory under his military control.

d.
The joint Red Cross teams shall be dissolved upon completion

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DODD0A-012249
of the program of repatriation of all the prisoners of war specified in Sub-paragraph 51a hereof, who insist upon repatriation.
58. a. The Commander of each side shall furnish to the Comman­der of the other side as soon as practicable, but not later than ten (10) days after this Armistice Agreement becomes effective, the following information concerning prisoners of war:
(1)
Complete data pertaining to the prisoners of war who escaped since the effective date of the data last exchanged.

(2)
Insofar as practicable, information regarding name, nationality, rank, and other identification data, date and cause of

,
death, and place of burial, of those prisoners of war who died while in his custody.
b.
If any prisoners of war escape or die after the effective date of the supplementary information specified above, the detaining side shall furnish to the other side, through the Committee for Repatriation of Prisoners of War, the data pertaining thereto in accordance with the provisions of Sub-paragraph 58a hereof. Such data shall be fur­nished at ten-day intervals until the completion of the program of delivery and reception of prisoners of war.

c.
Any escaped prisoner of war who returns to the custody of the detaining side after the completion of the program of delivery and reception of prisoners of war shall be delivered to the Military Armis­tice Commission for disposition.

59. a. All civilians who, at the time this Armistice Agreement becomes effective, are in territory under the military control of the Commander-in-Chief, United Nations Command, and who, on 24 June 1950, resided north of the Military Demarcation Line established in this Armistice Agreement shall, if they desire to return home, be permitted and assisted by the Commander-in-Chief, United Nations Command, to return to the area north of the Military Demarcation Line; and all civilians who, at the time this. Armistice Agreement becomes effective, are in territory under the military control of the Supreme Commander of the Korean People's Army and the Com­mander of the Chinese People's Volunteers, and who, on 24 June 1950, resided south of the Military Demarcation Line established in this Armistice Agreement shall, if they desire to return home, be permitted and assisted by the Supreme Commander of the Korean People's Army and the Commander of the Chinese People's Volun­
teers to return to the area south of the Military Demarcation Line. The Commander of each side shall be responsible for publicizing widely throughout territory under his military control the contents of the provisions of this Sub-paragraph, and for calling upon the appropriate civil authorities to give necessary guidance and assist­ance to all such civilians who desire to return home.
b. All civilians of foreign nationality who, at the time this Armistice Agreement becomes effective, are in territory under the
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DODD0A-012250
military control of the Supreme Commander of the Korean Poeple's Army and the Commander of the Chinese People's Volunteers shall, if they desire to proceed to territory under the military control of tl,e Commander-in-Chief, United Nations Command, be permitted and assisted to do so; all civilians of foreign nationality who, at the time this Armistice Agreement becomes effective, are in territory under the military control of the Commander-in-Chief, United Nations Command, shall, if they desire to proceed to territory under the mili­tary control of the Supreme Commander of the Korean People's Army and the Commander of the Chinese People's Volunteers, be permitted and assisted to do so. The Commander of each side shall be responsible for publicizing widely throughout the territory under his military control the contents of the provisions of this Sub-para­graph, and for calling upon the appropriate civil authorities to give necessary guidance and assistance to all such civilians of foreign nationality who desire to proceed to territory under the military control of the Commander of the other -side.
c.
Measures to assist in the return of civilians provided for in Sub-paragraph 59a hereof and the movement of civilians provided for in Sub-paragraph 59b hereof shall be commenced by both sides as soon as possible after this Armistice Agreement becomes effective.

d.
(1) A Committee for Assisting the Return of Displaced Civilians is hereby established. It shall be composed of four (4) officers of field grade, two (2) of whom shall be appointed by the Commander-in-Chief, United Nations Command, and two (2) of whom shall be appointed jointly by the Supreme Commander of the Korean People's Army and the Commander of the Chinese People's Volunteers. This Committee shall, under the general supervision and direction of the Military Armistice Commission, be responsible for coordinating the specific plans of both sides for assistance to the return of the above-mentioned civilians, and for supervising the execution by both sides of all of the provisions of this Armistice Agreement relating to the return of the above-mentioned civilians. It shall be the duty of this Committee to make necessary arrangements, including those of transportation, for expediting and coordinating the movement of the above-mentioned civilians; to select the crossing point(s) through which the above-mentioned civilians will cross the Military Demarcation Line; to arrange for security at the crossing point(s); and to carry out such other functions as are required to accomplish the return of the above-mentioned civilians.

(2) When unable to reach agreement on any matter relating to its responsibilities, the Committee for Assisting the Return of Displaced Civilians shall immediately refer such matter to the Mili­tary Armistice Commission for decision. The Committee for Assist­ing the Return of Displaced Civilians shall maintain its headquarters
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DODD0A-012251
in proximity to the headquarters of the Military Armistice Com­mission.
(3) The Committee for Assisting the Return of Displaced Civilians shall be dissolved by the Military Armistice Commission upon fulfillment of its mission.
ARTICLE IV. RECOMMENDATION TO THE GOVERNMENTS CONCERNED
ON BOTH SIDES
60. In order to insure the peaceful settlement of the Korean question, the military Commanders of both sides hereby recommend to the governments of the countries concerned on both sides that, within three (3) months after the Armistice Agreement is signed and becomes effective, a political conference of a higher level of both sides be held by representatives appointed respectively to settle through negotiation the questions of the withdrawal of all foreign forces from Korea, the peaceful settlement of the Korean question, etc.
ARTICLE V. MISCELLANEOUS
61.
Amendments and additions to this Armistice Agreement must be mutually agreed to by the Commanders of the opposing sides.

62.
The Articles and Paragraphs of this Armistice Agreement shall remain in effect until expressly superseded either by mutually ac­ceptable amendments and additions or by provision in an appropriate agreement for a peaceful settlement at a political level between both sides.

63.
All of the provisions of this Armistice Agreement, other than Paragraph 12, shall become effective at 2200 hours on 27 July 1953.

Done at Panmunjom, Korea, at 1000 hours on the 27th day ofJuly, 1953, in English, Korean, and Chinese, all texts being equally authentic.
..
KIM IL SUNG PENG TEH-HUAI MARK W. CLARK
.
Marshall, Democratic Commander,..General, United States People's Republic.Chinese People's Army
..
of Korea Volunteers Commander-in-Chief, Supreme Commander,. United Nations
.
Korean People's Army Command
PRESENT
NAM IL WILLIAM K. HARRISON, JR.
General, Korean People's Army Lieutenant General, United States Senior Delegate, Army Delegation of the Korean People's Senior Delegate,
Army and the Chinese People's United Nations Command Delegation Volunteers
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DODD0A-012252
ANNEX
TERMS OF REFERENCE
FOR
NEUTRAL NATIONS REPATRIATION COMMISSION
(See Sub-paragraph 51b)
I. GENERAL
1.
In order to ensure that all prisoners of war have the opportunity to exercise their right to be repatriated following an armistice, Sweden, Switzerland, Poland, Czechoslovakia and India shall each be re­quested by both sides to appoint a member to a Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission which shall be established to take custody in Korea of those prisoners of war who, while in the custody of the detaining powers, have not exercised their right to be repatriated. The Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission shall establish its headquarters within the Demilitarized Zone in the vicinity of Pan­munjom, and shall station subordinate bodies of the same composition as the Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission at those locations at which the Repatriation Commission asssmes custody of prisoners of war. Representatives of both sides shall be permitted to observe the operations of the Repatriation Commission and its subordinate bodies to include explanations and interviews.

2.
Sufficient armed forces and any other operating personnel re­quired to assist the Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission in carrying out its functions and responsibilities shall be provided ex­clusively by India, whose representative shall be the umpire in ac­cordance with the provisions of Article 132 of the Geneva Convention, and shall also be chairman and executive agent of the Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission. Representatives from each of the other four powers shall be allowed staff assistants in equal number not to exceed fifty (50) each. When any of the representatives of the neutral nations is absent for some reason, that representative shall designate an alternate representative of his own nationality to exercise his functions and authority. The arms of all personnel provided for in this Paragraph shall be limited to military police type small arms.

3.
No force or threat of force shall be used against the prisoners of war specified in Paragraph 1 above to prevent or effect their repatria­tion, and no violence to their persons or affront to their dignity or

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DODD0A-012253

self-respect shall be permitted in any manner for any purpose whatso­ever (but see Paragraph 7 below). This duty is enjoined on and entrusted to the Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission. This Commission shall ensure that prisoners of war shall at all times be treated humanely in accordance with the specific provisions of the Geneva Convention, and with the general spirit of that Convention.
II. CUSTODY OF PRISONERS OF WAR
4.
All prisoners of war who have not exercised their right of repatria­tion following the effective date of the Armistice _Agreement shall be released from the military control and from the custody of the detain­ing side as soon as practicable, and, in all cases, within sixty (60) days subsequent to the effective date of the Armistice Agreement to the Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission at locations in Korea to be designated by the detaining side.

5.
At the time the Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission assumes control of the prisoner of war installations, the military forces of the detaining side shall be withdrawn therefrom, so that the locations specified in the preceding Paragraph shall be taken over completely by the armed forces of India.

6.
Notwithstanding the provisions of Paragraph 5 above, the detaining side shall have the responsibility for maintaining and ensuring security and order in the areas around the locations where the prisoners of war are in custody and for preventing and restraining any armed forces (including irregular armed forces) in the area under its control from any acts of disturbance and intrusion against the locations where the prisoners of war are in custody.

7.
Notwithstanding the provisions of Paragraph 3 above, nothing in this agreement shall be construed as derogating from the authority of the Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission to exercise its legitimate functions and responsibilities for the control of the prisoners of war under its temporary jurisdiction.

III. EXPLANATION

8.
The Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission, after having received and taken into custody all those prisoners of war who have not exercised their right to be repatriated, shall immediately make arrangements so that within ninety (90) days after the Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission takes over the custody, the nations to which the prisoners of war belong shall have freedom and facilities to send representatives to the locations where such prisoners of war are in custody to explain to all the prisoners of war depending upon these nations their rights and to inform them of any matters relating to their return to their homelands, particularly of their full freedom to return home to lead a peaceful life, under the following provisions:

217
DODD0A-012254
a.
The number of such explaining representatives shall not exceed seven (7) per thousand prisoners of war held in custody by the Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission; and the minimum authorized shall not be less than a total of five (5);

b.
The hours during which the explaining representatives shall have access to the prisoners shall be as determined by the Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission, and generally in accord with Article 53 of the Geneva Convention Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War;

c.
All explanations and interviews shall be conducted in the presence of a representative of each member nation of the Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission and a representative from the detaining side;

d.
Additional provisions governing the explanation work shall be prescribed by the Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission, and will be designed to employ the principles enumerated in Paragraph 3 above and in this Paragraph;

e.
The explaining representatives, while engaging in their work, shall be allowed -to bring with them necessary facilities and personnel for wireless communications. The number of communications per­sonnel shall be limited to one team per location at which explaining representatives are in residence, except in the event all prisoners of war are concentrated in one location, in which case, two (2) teams shall be permitted. Each team shall consist of not more than six (6) communications personnel.

9. Prisoners of war in its custody shall have freedom and facilities to make representations and communications to the Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission and to representatives and subordinate bodies of the Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission and to inform them of their desires on any matter concerning the prisoners of war themselves, in accordance with arrangements made for the purpose by the Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission.
IV. DISPOSITION OF PRISONERS OF WAR
10. Any prisoner of war who, while in the custody of the Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission, decides to exercise the right of repatriation, shall make an application requesting repatriation to a body consisting of a representative of each member nation of the Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission. Once such an application is made, it shall be considered immediately by the Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission or one of its subordinate bodies so as to determine immediately by majority vote the validity of such applica­tion. Once such an application is made to and validated by the Commission or one of its subordinate bodies, the prisoner of war concerned shall immediately be transferred to and accommodated in
218.
DODDOA-012255
the tents set up for those who are ready to be repatriated. There­after, be shall, while still in the custody of the Neutral Nations Re­patriation Commission, be delivered forthwith to the prisoner of war exchange point at Panmunjom for repatriation under the procedure prescribed in the Armistice Agreement.
11. At the expiration of ninety (90) days after the transfer of custody of the prisoners of war to the Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission, access of representatives to captured personnel as pro­vided for in Paragraph 8 above, shall terminate, and the question of disposition of the prisoners of war who have not exercised their right to be repatriated shall be submitted to the Political Conference recom­mended to be convened in Paragraph 60, Draft Armistice Agreement, which shall endeavor to settle this question within thirty (30) days, during which period the Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission shall continue to retain custody of those prisoners of war. The Neu­tral Nations Repatriation Commission shall declare the relief from the prisoner of war status to civilian status of any prisoners of war who have not exercised their right to be repatriated and for whom no other disposition has been agreed to by the Political Conference within one hundred and twenty (120) days after the Neutral Nations Re­patriation Commission has assumed their custody. Thereafter, according to the application of each individual, those who choose to go to neutral nations shall be assisted by the Neutral Nations Repatria­tion Commission and the Red Cross Society of India. This opera­tion shall be completed within thirty (30) days, and upon its comple­tion, the Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission shall immediately cease its functions and declare its dissolution. After the dissolution of the Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission, whenever and wherever any of those above-mentioned civilians who have been relieved from the prisoner of war status desire to return to their fatherlands, the authorities of the localities where they are shall be responsible for assisting them in returning to their fatherlands.
V. RED CROSS VISITATION
12. Essential Red Cross service for prisoners of war in custody of
the Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission shall be provided by
India in accordance with regulations issued by the Neutral Nations

Repatriation Commission.
VI. PRESS COVERAGE
13. The Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission shall insure freedom of the press and othei news media in observing the entire operation as enumerated herein, in accordance with procedures to be established by the Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission.
219.
DODD0A-012256
VII. LOGISTICAL SUPPORT FOR PRISONERS OF WAR
14.
Each side shall provide logistical support for the prisoners of war in the arc, under its military control, delivering required support to the Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission at an agreed delivery point in the vicinity of each prisoner of war installation.

15.
The cost of repatriating prisoners of war to the exchange point at Panmunjom shall be borne by the detaining side and the cost from the exchange point by the side on which said prisoners depend, in accordance with Article 118 of the Geneva Convention.

16.
The Red Cross Society of India shall be responsible for providing such general service personnel in the prisoner of war installations as required. by the Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission.

17.
The Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission shall provide medical support for the prisoners of war as may be practicable. The detaining side shall provide medical support as practicable upon the request of the Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission and specifi­cally for those cases requiring extensive treatment or hospitalization. The Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission shall maintain custody of prisoners of war during such hospitalization. The detaining side shall facilitate such custody. Upon completion of treatment, prisoners of war shall be returned to a prisoner of war installation as specified in Paragraph 4 above.

18.
The Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission is entitled to obtain from both sides such legitimate assistance as it may require in carrying out its duties and tasks, but both sides shall not under any name and in any form interfere or exert influence.

VIII. LOGISTICAL SUPPORT FOR THE NEUTRAL NATIONS REPATRIATION COMMISSION
19.
Each side shall be responsible for providing logistical support for the personnel of the Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission sta­tioned in the area under its military control, and both sides shall con­tribute on an equal basis to such support within the Demilitarized Zone. The precise arrangements shall be subject to determination between the Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission and the detaining side in each case.

20.
Each of the detaining sides shall be responsible for protecting the explaining representatives from the other side while in transit over lines of communication within its area, as set forth in Paragraph 23 for the Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission, to a place of residence and while in residence in the vicinity of but not within each of the locations where the prisoners of war are in custody. The Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission shall be responsible for the security of such representatives within the actual limits of the locations where the prisoners of war are in custody.

220
DODD0A-012257
21.Each of the detaining sides shall provide transportation, housing, communication, and other agreed logistical support to the explaining representatives of the other side while they are in the area under its military control. Such services shall be provided on a reimbursable basis.
IX PUBLICATION
22. After the Armistice Agreement becomes effective, the terms of this agreement shall be made known to all prisoners of war who, while in the custody of the detaining side, have not exercised their right to be repatriated.
X. MOVEMENT
23. The movement of the personnel of the Neutral Nations Repatri­ation Commission and repatriated prisoners of war shall be over lines of communication as determined by the command(s) of the opposing side and the Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission. A map showing these lines of communication shall be furnished the command of the opposing side and the Neutral Nations Repatriation Com­mission. Movement of such personnel, except within locations as designated in Paragraph 4 above, shall be under the control of, and escorted by, personnel of the side in whose area the travel is being undertaken; however, such movement shall not be subject to any obstruction and coercion.
XI. PROCEDURAL MATTERS
24.
The interpretation of this agreement shall rest with the Neutra Nations Repatriation Commission. The Neutral Nations Repatri­ation Commission, and/or any subordinate bodies to which functions are delegated or assigned by the Neutral Nations Repatriation Com­mission, shall operate on the basis of majority vote.

25.
The Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission shall submit a weekly report to the opposing Commanders on the status of prisoners of war in its custody, indicating the numbers repatriated and remain­ing at the end of each week.

26.
When this agreement has been acceded to by both sides and by the five powers named herein, it shall become effective upon the date the Armistice becomes effective.

Done at Panmunjom, Korea, at 1400 hours on the 8th day of June 1953, in English, Korean, and Chinese, all texts being equally au­thentic.
.
NAM IL WILLIAM K. HARRISON, JR.
.
General, Korean People's Army Lieutenant General, United States Army Senior Delegate,. Senior Delegate, Delegation of the Korean People's Army United Nations Command Delegation
and the Chinese People's Volunteers .
221
DODD0A-012258
TEMPORARY AGREEMENT SUPPLEMENTARY TO THE
ARMISTICE AGREEMENT

In order to meet the requirements of the disposition of the prisoners of war not for direct repatriation in accordance with the provisions of the Terms of Reference for Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission, the Commander-in-Chief, United Nations Command, on the one hand, and the Supreme Commander of the Korean People's Army and the Commander of the Chinese People's Volunteers, on the other hand, in pursuance of the provisions in Paragraph 61, Article V of the Agree­ment concerning a military armistice in Korea, agree to conclude the following Temporary Agreement supplementary to the Armistice Agre ement :
1.
Under the provisions of Paragraphs 4 and 5, Article II of the Terms of Reference for Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission, the United Nations Command has the right to designate the area between the Military Demarcation Line and the eastern and southern boundaries of the Demilitarized Zone between the Imjin River on the south and the road leading south from Okum-ni on the northeast (the main road leading southeast from Panmunjom not included), as the area within which the United Nations Command will turn over the prisoners of war, who are not directly repatriated and whom the United Nations Command has the responsibility for keeping under its custody, to the Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission and the armed forces of India for custody. The United Nations Command shall, prior to the signing of the Armistice Agreement, inform the side of the Korean People's Army and the Chinese People's Volunteers of the approximate figures by nationality of such prisoners of war held in its custody.

2.
If there are prisoners of war under their custody who request not to be directly repatriated, the Korean People's Army and the Chinese People's Volunteers have the right to designate the area in the vicinity of Panmunjom between the Military Demarcation Line and the western and northern boundaries of the Demilitarized Zone, as the area within which such prisoners of war will be turned over to the Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission and the armed forces of India for custody. After knowing that there are prisoners of war under their custody who request not to be directly repatriated, the Korean People's Army and the Chinese People's Volunteers shall inform the United Nations Command side of the approximate figures by nationality of such prisoners of war.

3.
In accordance with Paragraphs 8, 9 and 10, Article I of the Armistice Agreement, the following paragraphs are hereby provided:

a. After the cease-fire comes into effect, unarmed personnel of each side shall be specifically authorized by the Military Armistice Commission to enter the above-mentioned area designated by their
222
DODD0A-012259
own side to perform necessary construction operations. None of such personnel shall remain in the above-mentioned areas upon the com­pletion of the construction operations.
b. A definite number of prisoners of war as decided upon by both sides, who are in the respective custody of both sides and who are not directly repatriated, shall be specifically authorized by the Mili­tary Armistice Commission to be escorted respectively by a certain number of armed forces of the detaining sides to the above-mentioned areas of custody designated respectively by both sides to be turned over to the Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission and the armed forces of India for custody. After the prisoners of war have been taken over, the armed forces of the detaining sides shall be withdrawn immediately from the areas of custody to the area under the control of their own side.
c. The personnel of the Neutral Nations Repatriation Commis­sion and its subordinate bodies, the armed forces of India, the Red Cross Society of India, the explaining representatives and observation representatives of both sides, as well as the required' material and equipment, for exercising the functions provided for in the Terms of Reference for Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission shall be specifically authorized by the Military Armistice Commission to have the complete freedom of movement to, from, and within the above­mentioned areas designated respectively by both sides for the custody of prisoners of war.
4. The provisions of Sub-paragraph 3c of this agreement shall not be construed as derogating from the privileges enjoyed by those personnel mentioned above under Paragraph 11, Article I of the Armistice Agreement.
5. This Agreement shall be abrogated upon the completion of the mission provided for in the Terms of Reference for Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission.
Done at Panmunjom, Korea, at 1000 hours on the 27th day of July, 1953, in English, Korean, and Chinese, all texts being equally
authentic.
KIM IL SUNG PENG TEH-HUAI MARK W. CLARK
Marshal, Democratic Commander, General, United States
People's Republic of Korea Supreme Commander, Chinese People's Volunteers Army Commander-in-Chief, United Nations
Korean People's Army Command
PRESENT

NAM IL WILLIAM K. HARRISON, JR.
General, Korean People's Army Lieutenant General, United States Senior Delegate, Army Delegation of the Korean People's Senior Delegate,
Army and the Chinese People's Vol-United Nations Command Delegation unteers
223
DODDOA-012260
Appendix C

Armistice Agreement Between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States of America on One Hand and Hungary on the Other
Signed 20 January 1945
(59 Stat. 1321; Executive Agreement Series 456)
The Provisional National Oovernment of Hungary, recognizing the fact of the defeat of Hungary in the war against the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the United States of America, and other United Nations, accepts the armistice terms presented by the Governments of the above-mentioned three powers, acting on behalf of all the United Nations which are in a state of war with Hungary.
On the basis of the foregoing the representative of the Allied (Soviet) High Command, Marshal of the Soviet Union K. E. Voroshilov, duly authorized thereto by the Governments of the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America, acting on behalf of all the United Nations which are at war with Hungary, on the one hand and the representatives of the Provisional National Government of Hungary, Minister of Foreign Affairs Mister Gy6ngy6si Janos, Minister of Defense Colonel General V6r6s Janos and State Secretary of the , Cabinet of Ministers Mister Balogh Istvan, on the other, holding proper full powers, have signed the following conditions:
1. (a) Hungary has withdrawn from the war against the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and other United Nations, including Czechoslovakia, has severed all relations with Germany, and has declared war on Germany.
(b) The Government of Hungary undertakes to disarm German armed forces in Hungary and to hand them over as prisoners of war.
The Government of Hungary also undertakes to intern nationals of Germany.
(c) The Government of Hungary undertakes to maintain and make available such land, sea and air forces as may be specified for serviceunder the general direction of the Allied (Soviet) High Command. In this connection Hungary will provide not less than eight infantry
224
DODD0A-012261

divisions with corps troops. These forces must not be used on allied territory except with the prior consent of the allied government con­cerned.
(d) On the conclusion of hostilities against Germany, the Hungar­ian armed forces must be demobilized and put on a peace footing under the supervision of the Allied Control Commission. (See Annex to
Article I.)
2. Hungary has accepted the obligation to evacuate all Hungarian troops and officials from the territory of Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, and Rumania occupied by her within the limits of the frontiers of Hungary existing on December 31, 1937, and also to repeal all legisla­tive and administrative provisions relating to the annexation or incorporation into Hungary of Czechslovak, Yugoslav and Rumanian territory.
3. The Government and High Command of Hungary will ensure to the Soviet and other allied forces facilities for free movement on Hungarian territory in any direction if, in the opinion of the Allied (Soviet) High Command, the military situation requires this, the Government and High Command of Hungary giving such movement every possible assistance with their own means of communication and at their own expense on land, on water and in the air. (See Annex to
Article 3.)
4.
The Government of Hungary will immediately release all allied prisoners of war and internees. Pending further instructions the Government of Hungary will at its own expense provide all allied prisoners of war and internees, displaced persons and refugees, in­cluding nationals of Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia, with adequate food, clothing, medical services, and sanitary and hygienic require­ments, and also with means of transportation for the return of any such persons to their own country.

5.
The Government of Hungary will immediately release, regard­less of citizenship and nationality, all persons held in confinement in connection with their activities in favor of the United Nations or

because of their sympathies with the United Nations' cause or for racial or religious reasons, and will repeal all discriminatory legislation and disabilities arising therefrom.
The Government of Hungary will take all necessary measures to ensure that all displaced persons or refugees within the limits of Hungarian territory, including Jews and stateless persons, are accorded at least the same measure of protection and security as its-own na­tionals.
6. The Government of Hungary undertakes to return to the Soviet Union, and also to Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia and to the other United Nations, by the dates specified by the Allied Control Commission, and in complete good order, all valuables and materials
225
DODD0A-012262
removed during the war to Hungary from United Nations' territory and belonging to state, public or cooperative organizations, enter­prises, institutions or individual citizens, such as factory and works equipment, locomotives, rolling stock, tractors, motor vehicles, his­toric monuments, museum treasures and any other property.
7.
The Government and High Command of Hungary undertake to hand over as booty into the hands of the Allied (Soviet) High Com­mand all German war material located on Hungarian territory, in­cluding vessels of the fleet of Germany.

8.
The Government and High Command of Hungary undertake not to permit, without the authorization of the Allied Control Com­mission, the export or expropriation of any form of property (includ­ing valuables and currency) belonging to Germany or her nationals or

to persons resident in German territory or in territories occupied by Germany. They will safeguard such property in the manner specified by the Allied Control Commission. •
9. The Government and High Command of Hungary undertake to hand over to the Allied (Soviet) High Command all vessels belonging or having belonged to the United Nations which are located in Hun­garian Danubian ports, no matter at whose disposal these vessels may be, for use during the period of the war against Germany by the
Allied (Soviet) High Command in the general interests of the Allies, these vessels subsequently to be returned to their owners.
The Government of Hungary will bear full material responsibility for any damage or destruction of the aforementioned property until the moment of its transfer to the Allied (Soviet) High Command.
10. Hungarian merchant vessels, whether in Hungarian or foreign waters, shall be subject to the operational control of the Allied (Soviet) High Command for use in the general interests of the Allies.
11. The Government of Hungary will make regular payments in Hungarian currency and provide commodities (fuel, foodstuffs, et cetera), facilities and services as may be required by the Allied (Soviet) High Command for the fulfillment of its functions as well as for the needs of missions and representatives of the allied states connected with the Allied Control Commission.
The Government of Hungary will also assure, in case of need, the use and regulation of the work of industrial and transport enterprises, means of communication, power stations, enterprises and installations of public utility, stores of fuel and other material, in accordance with instructions issued during the armistice by the Allied (Soviet) High Command or the Allied Control Commission. (See Annex to Article 11.)
12. Losses caused to the Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia and Yugo­slavia by military operations and by the occupation by Hungary of the territories of these states will be made good by Hungary to the Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia, but taking into con-
226.
DODD0A-012263
sideration that Hungary has not only withdrawn from the war against the United Nations but has declared war against Germany, the parties agree that compensation for the indicated losses will be made by Hungary not in full but only in part; namely, to the amount of 300 million American dollars payable over six years in commodities
(machine equipment, river craft, grain, livestock, et cetera), the sum to be paid to the Soviet Union to amount to 200 million American dollars and the sum to be paid to Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia to amount to 100 million American dollars.
Compensation will be paid by Hungary for loss and damage caused by the war to other allied states and their nationals, the amount of compensation to be fixed at a later date. (See Annex to Article 12.)
13.
The Government of Hungary undertakes to restore all legal rights and interests of the United Nations and their nationals on Hungarian territory as they existed before the war and also to return their property in complete good order.

14.
Hungary will cooperate in the apprehension and trial, as well as the surrender to the governments concerned, of persons accused of war crimes.

15.
The Government of Hungary undertakes to dissolV'e imme­diately all pro-Hitler or other fascist political, military, para-military and other organizations on Hungarian territory conducting propa­ganda hostile to the United Nations and not to tolerate the existence of such organizations in future.

16.
The publication, introduction and distribution in Hungary of periodical or non-periodical literature, the presentation of theatrical performances or films, the operation of wireless stations, post, tele­graph and telephone services will take place in agreement with the Allied (Soviet) High Command. (See Annex to Article 16.)

17.
Hungarian civil administration will be restored in the whole area of Hungary separated by not less than 50-100 kilometres (de­pending upon conditions of terrain) from the front line, Hungarian administrative bodies undertaking to carry out, in the interests of the reestablishment of peace and security, instructions and orders of the Allied (Soviet) High Command or Allied Control Commission issued by them for the purpose of securing the execution of these armistice

terms.
18. For the whole period of tha armistice there will be established in Hungary an Allied Control Commission which will regulate and supervise the execution of the armistice terms under the chairmanship of the representative of the Allied (Soviet) High Command and with the participation of representatives of the United Kingdom and the United States.
During the period between the coming into force of the armistice and the conclusion of hostilities against Germany, the Allied Control
227

DODD0A-012264
_.
_
Commission will be under the general direction of the Allied (Soviet) High Command. (See Annex to Article 18.)
19.
The Vienna Arbitration Award of November 2, 1938 and the Vienna Award of August 30, 1940 are hereby declared to be null and void.

20.
The present terms come into force at the moment of their signing.

Done in Moscow 20 January, 1945, in one copy which will be en-trusted to the safekeeping of the Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, in the Russian, English and Hungarian languages, the Russian and English texts being authentic.
Certified copies of the present agreement, with annexes, will be transmitted by the Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics to each of the other governments on whose behalf the present agreement is being signed.
FOR. FOR
THE GOVERNMENTS OF THE THE PROVISIONAL NATIONAL UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST GOVERNMENT OF HUNGARY REPUBLICS, THE UNITED GYONGYOSI JANOS KINGDOM AND THE UNITED.VOROS JANOS STATES OF AMERICA. BALOGH ISTVAN
K. BOPOIIIUJIOB.. /M.II./ /M.II./
228.
DODDOA-012265
ANNEX TO

"AGREEMENT CONCERNING AN ARMISTICE BETWEEN THE UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS, THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND, AND THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA ON ONE HAND AND HUNGARY ON THE OTHER", SIGNED IN MOSCOW 20 JANUARY, 1945.
A. ANNEX TO ARTICLE 1.
The Hungarian Military Command shall hand over to the Allied (Soviet) High Command *within a period fixed by the latter all the information at its disposal regarding the German armed forces and the plans of the German Military Command for the development of mili­tary operations against the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the other United Nations, and also the charts and maps and all opera­tional documents relating to the military operations of the German armed forces.
The measures provided for in Article 1 of the Agreement regarding the internment of nationals of Germany now in Hungarian territory do not apply to nationals of that country of Jewish origin.
B. ANNEX TO ARTICLE 3. The assistance specified in Article 3 of the Agreement shall be taken to mean that the Government and High Command of Hungary will place at the disposal of the Allied (Soviet) High Command, for use at its discretion during the armistice, in complete good order and with the personnel required -for their maintenance, all Hungarian military, air and river fleet installations and buildings, ports, barracks, ware­
houses, airfields, means of communication and meteorological stations which might be required for military needs.
C. ANNEX TO ARTICLE 11.
The Government of Hungary will withdraw and redeem within such time limits and on such terms as the Allied (Soviet) High Com­mand may specify, all holdings in Hungarian territory of currencies issued by the Allied (Soviet) High Command, and will hand over currency so withdrawn free of cost to the Allied (Soviet) High Command.
The Government of Hungary will not permit the disposal of external Hungarian assets or the disposal of internal Hungarian assets to foreign
229
DODD0A-012266

governments or foreign nationals without the permission of the Allied
(Soviet) High Command or Allied Control Commission.

D. ANNEX TO ARTICLE 12.
The precise nomenclature and varieties of commodities to be delivered by Hungary to the Soviet Union, Czechslovakia and Yugoslavia in accordance with Article 12 of the Agreement and also the more precise periods for making these deliveries each year shall be defined in special agreements between the respective governments. These deliveries will be calculated at 1938 prices with an increase of fifteen percent for industrial equipment and ten percent for other goods.
As the basis of calculation for payment of the indemnity foreseen in
Article 12 of the Agreement, the American dollar is to be used at its
gold parity on the day of signing of the agreement, i. e. thirty-five
dollars to one ounce of gold.
In connection with Article 12 it is understood that the Government of Hungary will immediately make available certain food and other supplies required for relief and rehabilitation of the population of those Czechoslovak and Yugoslav territories which have suffered as a result of Hungarian aggression. The quantities of the products to be delivered will be determined by agreement between the three govern­ments and will be considered as part of the reparation by Hungary for the loss and damages sustained by Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia:
E. ANNEX TO ARTICLE 16.
The Government of Hungary will ensure that wireless communica­tion, telegraphic and postal correspondence, and correspondence in cipher and by courier, as well as telephonic communication with foreign countries, of embassies, legations and consulates situated in Hungary will be conducted in the manner laid down by the Allied (Soviet) High Command.
F. ANNEX TO ARTICLE 18.
Control over the exact execution of the armistice terms will be entrusted to the Allied Control Commission to be established in conformity with Article 18 of the Armistice Agreement.
The Government of Hungary and its organs shall fulfill all instruc­tions of the Allied Control Commission arising out of the armistice agreement.
The Allied Control Commission will set up special organs or sec­tions, entrusting them respectively with the execution of various functions. In addition, the Allied Control Commission may have its officers in various parts of Hungary.
The Allied Control Commission will have its seat in the city of Budapest. .
Moscow, 20 January, 1945.
230
DOEMOA-012267
PROTOCOL
TO THE ARMISTICE AGREEMENT WITH HUNGARY.

In signing the Armistice Agreement with the Government of Hun­gary, the Allied Governments signatory thereto have agreed as follows:
1.
The term "war material" used in Article 7 shall be deemed to include all Material or equipment belonging to, used by, or intended for use by the military or para-military formations of the enemy or members thereof.

2.
The use by the Allied (Soviet) High Command of allied vessels handed over by the Government of Hungary in accordance with Article 9 of the Armistice Agreement and the date of their return to their owners will be the subject of discussion and settlement between the Government of the Soviet Union and the Allied Governments concerned.

Done in Moscow in three copies, each in the Russian and English languages, the Russian and English texts being authentic.
January 20, 1945.
BY AUTHORITY OF FOR THE GOVERN-FOR THE GOVERN-THE GOVERNMENT MENT OF THE MENT OF THE OF THE UNION OF UNITED STATES OF UNITED KINGDOM. SOVIET SOCIALIST AMERICA. REPUBLICS.

B. 2IFRAH030B W. A. HARRIMAN JOHN BALFOUR.

[SEAL) [SEAL) [SEAL)
The American Ambassador to the Soviet People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs
EMBASSY OF THE
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Moscow, January 17, 1945. EXCELLENCY:
I have the honor to state that the United States Government hereby authorizes Marshal of the Soviet Union K. E. Voroshilov to sign on its behalf the armistice to be concluded in Moscow with the Provisional National Government of Hungary.
Accept, Excellency, the assurances of my most distinguished consideration.
W. A. HARRIMAN His Excellency
V. M. MOLOTOV,
People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs,
Moscow.

DODD0A-012268
231
Appendix D
Unconditional Surrender of German Forces at Rheims
Signed 8 May 1945
(59 Stat. 1857; Executive Agreement Series 502)
1.
We, the undersigned. acting by authority of the German High Command, hereby surrender unconditionally to the Supreme Com­mander, Allied Expeditionary Force, and simultaneously to the Soviet High Command, all forces on land, sea, and in the air who are at this date under German control.

2.
The German High Command will at once issue orders to all German military, naval, and air authorities and to all forces under German control to cease active operations at 2301 hours Central European Time on 8 May and to remain in the positions occupied at that time. No ship, vessel or aircraft is to be scuttled, or any damage done to their hull, machinery or equipment.

3.
The German High Command will at once issue to the appropriate commanders and ensure the carrying out of any further orders issued by the Supreme Commander, Allied Expeditionary Force, and by the Soviet High Command.

4.
This Act of Military Surrender is without prejudice to, and will be superseded by, any general instrument of- surrender imposed by, or on behalf of, the United Nations and applicable to Germany and the German Armed Forces as a whole.

5.
In the event of the German High Command or any of the forces under their control failing to act in accordance with this Act of Surrender the Supreme Commander, Allied Expeditionary Force, and the Soviet High Command will take such punitive or other action as they deem appropriate.

Signed at Rheims, France, at 0241 hours on 7 May, 1945.
On behalf of the German High Command—Jodl
In the presence of:
On behalf of the Supreme Commander, Allied
Expeditionary Force—W. B. Smith
On behalf of the Soviet High Command—Ivan
Susloparoff
On behalf of the French—F. Sevez.

232

DODD0A-012269

Appendix E

Instrument of Local Surrender of German and Other Forces Under the Command or Control of the German Com­mander-in-Chief Southwest
Signed 29 April 1945
(Department of State Pub. 2669, European Series 17 at pp. 128-140)
1.
The German Commander-in-Chief Southwest hereby surrenders unconditionally all the forces under his command or control on land, at sea and in the air and places himself and these forces uncondition­ally at the disposal of the Supreme Allied Commander, Mediterranean Theatre of Operations.

2.
All armed forces under the command or control of the German Commander-in-Chief Southwest will cease all hostilities on land, at sea and in the air at 1200 hours (Greenwich mean time) on 2 May 1945. The German Commander-in-Chief Southwest undertakes to arrange accordingly.

3.
The German Commander-in-Chief Southwest undertakes to carry out the orders set out in Appendices "A", "B" and "C" and any further orders of the Supreme Allied Commander, Mediterranean Theater of Operations. Disobedience of such orders or failure to comply with them will be dealt with in accordance with the accepted laws and usages of war.

4.
This instrument will enter into force immediately on signature, and the orders in Appendices "A", "B" and "C" will become effective on the date and at the time specified in paragraph 2 above.

5.
This instrument and accompanying orders are drawn up in the English and German languages. The English version is the authentic text. If any doubt as to meaning or interpretation arises, the decision of the Supreme Allied Commander is final.

6.
This instrument is independent of, without prejudice to, and shall be superseded by any general instrument of surrender imposed

233

DODDOA-012270

by or on behalf of the United Nations and applicable to Germany and the German armed forces as a. whole.
(sgd) SCHWEINITZ (sgd) MORGAN Victor von Schweinitz, W. D. Morgan, Lieutenant Colonel in the General Staff Lieutenant General, Chief of Staff, of Army Group C, for Field Marshall The Ilonourable Sir for Colonel General von Vietinghoff-Harold R. L. G. Alexander, Scheel, Supreme Allied Commander of the Med-Commander-in-Chief Southwest and iterranean Theatre of Operations. Commander-in-Chief of Army Group
C.
(sgd) WENNER Eugen Wenner, SS-Sturmbannfuhrer and Major in the Waffen-SS, for SS-Obergruppenfuhrer and General of the Waffen-SS Wolff, Supreme Commander of SS and Police and plenipotentiary General of the German Wehrmacht in Italy.
Signed at CASERTA, Italy.
29th April 1945
1400 Hours

APPENDIX "A"
Orders for German Land Forces
1.
The term "German Land Forces" wherever used in these orders shall be deemed to include all German and Italian Republican military or para military forces or organisations, under the command or control of the German Commander-in-Chief Southwest, who is hereafter referred to as "the German Authority."

2.
The Term "Supreme Allied Commander" will be deemed to in­clude all subordinate Allied Commanders.

3.
The German Authority will send to HQ 15 Army Group, as soon as possible after the signing of the instrument of surrender, senior representatives with full executive powers to carry out the following orders and such further orders as the Commanding General, 15 Army Group, may issue for compliance by the German Land Forces.

"STAY-PUT" ORDER
4. All formations, units and sub-units of the German Land Forces, wherever they may be, will remain in their present positions and in their existing formations pending further orders from the Supreme Allied Commander. Only such local movement is permitted as is essential for the transmission of orders, the supply of food, water,
234
DODD0A-012271
forage and petrol and the treatment of sick and wounded. (See also paragraph 7.)
5. In particular, all large scale road and rail movement between ITALY and any point outside ITALY is absolutely prohibited. Any movement east of the IsoNzo River will be liable to air attack without
warning.
DISARMAMENT OF GERMAN LAND FORCES
6. All German Land Forces will be completely disarmed. They will hand over their arms, ammunition, equipment and all war-like stores at places and times and in a manner to be further ordered by the Commanding General, 15 Army Group, or any of his subordinate Commanders.
MAINTENANCE OF GERMAN LAND FORCES
7. The German Authority will, pending further orders from the Supreme Allied Commander, maintain its own forces from its own resources. Purchase or requisition from local sources is forbidden.
STATUS OF SURRENDERED PERSONNEL
8. All personnel of the German Armed Forces shall be subject to such conditions and directions as may be prescribed by the Supreme Allied Commander. At the Supreme Allied Commander's discretion, some or all of such personnel may be declared to be prisoners of war.
PROHIBITION OF DESTRUCTION AND DAMAGE
9. The German Authority will prevent the removal, destruction of or damage to, and will safeguard in good condition at the disposal of the Supreme Allied Commander:
a. All arms, ammunition, explosives and war like stores, equip-
-
ment, vehicles, material of all kinds, fuel and oil stocks, and any items of supply used by or for members of the German Land Forces.
b.
All military installations and establishments, including perma­nent and temporary land fortifications, fortresses and fortified areas together with all plans and drawings of the same.

c.
All transportation and communications facilities and equipment, including all ports and port facilities and equipment, roads, railways, waterways, bridges, tunnels and telecommunications systems.

d.
All civil and industrial factories, installations and plant work­shops, laboratories, experimental stations, stores, equipment, supplies, raw materials and finished products, buildings and civil property.

e.
All cryptographic methods and equipment, cyphers, codes and call-sign systems, whether military, diplomatic or civilian.

f.
All military, para military and civil documents, records and archives.

235
DODD0A012272
-
PROVISION OF INFORMATION AND FACILITIES
10. The German Authority will forthwith furnish to the Supreme Allied Commander:
a.
Complete information regarding the German Land Forces and in particular such details as the Supreme Allied Commander may require concerning the numbers, locations, dispositions, stores and equipment of the German Land Forces wherever located.

b.
Complete information concerning mines, minefields and other obstacles to movement and the safety lanes in connection therewith.

c.
Such military, para military and civil documents, records and archives as the Supreme Allied Commander may require.

11. The German Authority will:
a.
Maintain in operation all public utility and essential civilian services.

b.
Clearly mark and maintain safety lanes through all minefields and other obstacles to movement.

c.
Remove or render safe all demolition charges and all booby-traps.

d.
Make available for the Supreme Allied Commander such military personnel with the necessary equipment, as he may require, for the clearance of mines, minefields and other obstacles to movement; and such labour as he may require for any purpose.

DISPOSAL OF PRISONERS OF WAR AND OF PERSONS IN CUSTODY
12.
The German Authority will release in accordance with the instructions of the Supreme Allied Commander all prisoners of war (naval, military or air) at present in their power and will furnish forthwith complete lists of these persons with the places of their detention. Pending release of such prisoners of war, the German Authority will continue to protect them in their persons and property, and accord them such treatment and facilities as are prescribed under the Geneva Convention.

13.
The provisions of paragraph 12 preceding will be applied by the German Authority equally to all other persons who are confined, interned or otherwise under restraint for political reasons or as the result of any action, law or regulation originating from discrimina­tion on grounds of nationality, race, colour, creed or political belief. Such persons as are not entitled to treatment in accordance with the Geneva Convention will be afforded comparable rights and amenities in accordance with their rank or official position.

14.
Without prejudice to any other provisions in these orders, the
German Authority will hand over to the Supreme Allied Commander
the control of all places of detention.

236
DOEMOA-012273
RADIO AND TELE-COMMUNICATIONS
15. The use of military and civil radio and land line communication systems is permitted with the provisos that:
a.
All messages and signals will be made in clear.

b.
All forms of scrambling and secrecy equipment will be discon­nected and safeguarded intact.

MAINTENANCE OF DISCIPLINE
16. The German Authority will remain responsible for the mainte­nance of discipline throughout the German Land Forces as defined in paragraph 1 above.*
TREATMENT OF ALLIED LIAISON OFFICERS AND ITALIAN GOVERNMENT
FORCES IN GERMAN-OCCUPIED ITALY
17.
Italian Government forces in Northern ITALY comprise all partisan formations and organisations owing allegiance to the CLNAI, which is the recognised delegate in German-occupied ITALY of the Italian Government. Immediate control of these groups is exercised through Allied and Co-belligerent officers operating in conjunction with these forces in the field: Such officers are being instructed immediately to get in touch with local German commanders.

18.
The German Commander-in-Chief Southwest and all German subordinate commanders will receive and afford all facilities to these Allied or Co-belligerent officers together with representatives of the CLNAI for the purposes of establishing and maintaining pending arrival of Allied forces, liaison with the following objects:

a.
The general maintenance of law and order.

b.
The maintenance of all essential civilian services.

c.
The provision of communications and transport which may be necessary for the adequate distribution of supplies and the continuance of local administration.

19. For the execution of the above functions all Allied Liaison of­ficers will be considered as the representatives of the Supreme Allied' Commander. They will be afforded complete freedom of communi­cation by any means.
APPENDIX "B"
Orders for German and German Controlled Naval Forces and
Merchant Shipping

1. a. The term "German Naval Forces" wherever used in these orders will be deemed to include all German and Italian Republican naval or para naval forces or organisations under the command or
•Until such time as this responsibility is taken over by Allied troops, e. g., until German troops become prisoners of war, German commissioned officers and military police (Fe/der gendarmerie. and Geheim lad polizei) will retain their hand weapons.
237
DODD0A-012274
control of the German Naval Commander South or the German Commander-in-Chief Southwest.
b. The term "German Authority" wherever used in these orders will mean the German Naval Commander South and the German Commander-in-Chief Southwest, both severally and jointly.
2.
The term "Supreme Allied Commander" will be deemed to include all his subordinate commanders.

3.
The German Authority will cause:

a.
All such surface warships, auxiliaries and merchant vessels as are under his command or control, at sea at the time and date of surrender, wherever they may be, to return to their normal port or base. Armaments of these ships are to be trained fore and aft.

b.
All ocean going U-boats at sea to surface and fly a black flag or black pendant by day and to remain undarkened by night and show navigation lights. All ocean going U-boats at sea to be ordered to proceed to GIBRALTAR, reporting on 500 Kilocycles to the nearest Allied Wireless Station their estimated time of arrival at EUROPA point. Small enemy submarines at sea in the ADRIATIC or LIGURIAN Seas are to be ordered to return to POLA or GENOA respectively.

c.
All such warships, including submarines of all types, auxiliaries, and merchant vessels as are under his command or control, which are in harbour, to remain there.

d.
All ships and vessels of the United Nations, whether or not title has been transferred as the result of prize court or other proceedings, which are at the disposal of or under German control at the time of surrender, to proceed at the dates and to the ports or bases specified by the Supreme Allied Commander's representatives.

4. The German Authority will at once cause all such warships, surface or submarine, auxiliaries, merchant ships and other craft in harbour, as are under his command or control, to comply with the following orders:
a.
No ship, vessel or craft of any description including harbour craft, whether afloat, under repair or construction, built or building, is to be damaged or scuttled, nor is any damage to be done to its hull, machinery or equipment.

b.
Ammunition is to be retained on board until further orders.

c. Armaments are to be rendered inoperative by removal of essen­tial portions of the firing mechanisms, but such mechanisms, and the armament in general are not to be damaged or destroyed. Fire control equipment is to be maintained on board fully efficient. All weapons are to be trained fore and aft.
d.
All small arms are to be landed, and safeguarded.

e.
Ships are to remain undarkened by night.

J. Colours are to be struck and not rehoisted.
g. With the exception of minesweepers and harbour tugs and vessels, all warships, surface and submarine, and a.u_xiliaries, are to be reduced
238
DOEM0A-012275
to 20% of their complement of officers and men, except such ships oz craft as are required to remain in operation to comply with the instruc­tions in paragraph 7h (1). The officers and men removed are to be placed in shore barracks where they are to remain under naval dis­cipline. The crews of merchant vessels are to remain on board their ships.
h.
Minesweepers are to be subjected to the degree of disarmament prescribed in subparagraph c above, but are to be prepared immediately for minesweeping service under the orders of the Supreme Allied Commander's representatives, and are to be complete with fuel.

i.
Wireless transmitting apparatus is to be rendered inoperative by removal of essential parts, but no wireless apparatus is to be damaged or destroyed.

j.
All callsig,m, code and cypher systems, including books, docu­ments, files and cryptographic machinery, are to be removed from ships and placed under guard ashore. International code and callsigns are to be retained on board.

5.
The German Authority will cause all such warships, surface or submarine, auxiliaries, merchant ships and other craft at sea as are under his command or control to be instructed to comply with the orders in paragraph 4 above immediately on return to harbour.

6.
The German Authority will immediately ensure that German naval aircraft under his command or control:

a.
Do not leave the ground or base or ship until further orders are received from the Supreme Allied Commander's representatives.

b.
Already in the air, land or alight forthwith.

7. The German Authority will immediately take action to ensure compliance with the following orders:
a. No demolitions are to be carried out to harbour or port facilities of whatever nature; to naval establishments ashore; to scientific or experimental centres or laboratories; to telecommunication and radar stations; to -power and water installations; to stores and industrial equipment; to documents, records and archives of naval interest; which are to be preserved and kept free from damage or destruction pending receipt of further orders from the Supreme Allied Com­mander's representatives. All necessary steps are to be taken, and orders issued, to prohibit any act of sabotage, scuttling or con­
tamination of fuels.
b.
All boom defences at all ports and harbours are to be opened andkept open at all times. Where possible, they are to be removed.

c.
All controlled minefields at all ports and harbours are to be disconnected and rendered ineffective.

d.
All demolition charges in all ports and harbour works are to be removed or rendered ineffective, and their presence indicated by appropriate signs.

e.
The existing wartime system of navigational lighting is to be

239
DODD0A-012276
maintained except that all dimmed lights are to be shown at full bril­liancy, and lights shown only by special arrangement are to be ex­hibited continuously. Navigational lights which have been extin­guished are to be exhibited as soon as possible with their former
characteristics if possible.

f.
All pilotage services are to continue to operate and all pilots are
to be held at their normal stations ready for service and equipped
with charts.

g.
All small arms, explosives, and war-like stores, in naval barracks
and shore establishments, are to be placed in magazines, under guard.

h.
(1) German naval and other personnel concerned in the opera­tion of ports and administrative services in ports are to remain at their
stations and to continue to carry- out their routine duties.

(2). German and German controlled naval personnel employed on
seaward defence are to comply with the instructions given by the
Supreme Allied Commander.

(3)
A general order is to be given to all German and German con­trolled naval and para naval personnel that they are to carry out all orders and instructions given them by the Supreme Allied Commander. All personnel are to be unarmed at all times.

i.
A certificate that the action required under subparagraphs c, d, and e above has been carried out, is to be rendered by the German Authority to the Supreme Allied Commander's representatives.

8. a. Sufficient information is required immediately to enable rapid entry to be made into the ports of VENICE and CHIOGGIA. This infor­mation is to be delivered by the German Authority to the Allied Naval Authorities at the date and time at which the surrender be­comes effective and by means which will be decided at the meeting held prior to the signing of the Instrument of Surrender.
b. For each of the above ports the following details are therefore required:
(1)
Limits, types and laid depths of all minefields in the ap­proaches, and the positions, types and laid depths of all mines in the harbours themselves.

(2)
Positions of obstructions dangerous to navigation inside the harbours and in their approaches.

(3)
The safe routes, if any, leading into these harbours. If no safe routes exist to the harbours themselves, then details of the routes to the nearest suitable beach in each case are required.

9. The G-.4 ..pan Authority is forthwith to furnish the Allied Naval Commander-in-Chief with certain information in respect of the un­dermentioned two special areas and subsequently of the whole of the Mediterranean and the Straits of GIBRALTAR. This information is to be delivered to the Allied Naval Authorities by means which will be decided at the meeting held prior to the signing of the Instrument of Surrender. The two special areas concerned are:
240 DODDOA-012277
LIGURIAN SEA—Area bounded on the west by meridian of 8° E. South by parallel of 43°30' N. East and north by the coast of ITALY.
ADRIATIC SEA—Area bounded on the north, east and west by the coasts of ITALY, ISTRIA and JUGOSLAVIA. On the south by parallel of 44° N.
The information concerned is:
a. Positions of all minefields, bdth moored and ground mines, inde­pendent and controlled, laid by the Italians or Germans, by all types of minelaying craft including aircraft.
Details of each mine or group of mines laid is to include:
(1)
Type of mine.

(2)
Number of mines laid.

(3)
Spaces between mines.

(4)
Depth setting.

(5)
Date laid.

-
(6)
Number and type of antisweeping devices laid.

(7)
Types of antisweeping devices, if any, including chain moor­ings, fitted to the mines themselves.

(8)
If snag lines have been fitted to mines.

(9)
Polarity, delay, and number of actuations set on all ground mines.

(10)
Details of the mines themselves, including drawings and photographs of all types of mines and minefittings.

b.
Details of convoy routes, searched channels and approach chan­nels.

c.
Details of,

(1)
Navigational lights which have been destroyed.

(2)
Navigational lights which are in operation, giving details of operation, and by whom controlled.

(3)
Navigational lights which can be put into operation at short notice and their characteristics.

d.
Details of buoys, indicating:

(1)
Buoys remaining in place. If light buoys whether light is working and its characteristics.

(2)
Additional buoys laid, with reason for laying and details including lights, if any.

(3)
Buoys removed.

e.
Details of booms and obstructions, including wrecks dangerous to navigation.

f.
Details of all radio and radar navigational aids including all shore radar stations which could be used for this purpose.

g.
A complete and up-to-date set of charts corrected to the latest information available, and showing all minefields, convoy routes, searched channels, approach channels, buoys, lights, navigational aids, booms, wrecks, obstructions and radar stations.

241.
DODD0A-012278
h. A complete and up-to-date set of navigational publications cor­rected to the latest information available.
10.
Pilots equipped as in paragraph 7f, and in addition, provided with the information required by paragraph 8b, are to be stationed at suitable rendezvous, at the time and date at which surrender be­comes effective, in readiness to meet and lead-in Allied warships to the ports of TRIESTE, VENICE, and POLA. These rendezvous are to be Communicated to the Allied Naval Authorities by means which will be decided at the meeting held prior to the signing of the Instrument Of Surrender.

11.
The German Authority is to send to the Headquarters of the Commander-in-Chief, Mediterranean, at CASERTA, forthwith upon the surrender becoming effective, a Senior German Naval Officer from his staff. This officer is to be granted full executive powers by the German Authority to act on his behalf in conformity with any orders and instructions given him by the Commander-inChief,

-
Mediterranean, or his representatives.
The route and method by which this officer is to present himself at the Headquarters of the Commander-in-Chief, Mediterranean, will be notified to the German Authority at the meeting held prior to the signing of the Instrument of Surrender.
12. The German Authority is to furnish forthwith, exact informa­tion with regard to the disposition of German and German controlled naval formations and units under his command. Such information is to include the following:
a.
Present locations of all Naval Staffs and Headquarters.

b.
Full details of organisation of German Naval Command in the Mediterranean.

c.
Disposition, state of readiness, and crew lists of all warships, auxiliaries and merchant shipping.

d.
Details of defence plans, including plans and drawings of all naval fortifications, installations and establishments.

c.
Detailed lists of fuel stocks including furnace, diesel, petrol and coal.

13. The German Authority will cause all Naval Shore Wireless Stations under his command to comply with the following orders:
a.
All wireless transmitting apparatus is to be rendered inoperative by removal of essential parts, but no wireless apparatus or shore sta­tion equipment is to be damaged or destroyed.

b.
All callsign, code and cypher systems, including books, docu­ments, files and cryptographic machinery, are to be safely stored and guarded.

14.
Detailed directions as to how and where the information re­quired by the foregoing paragraphs 8, 9, and 10 is to be delivered to the Allied Naval Authorities will be notified separately to the German Authority.

15.
The German Authority will, pending further orders from the

DODD0A-012279
Supreme Allied Commander, maintain his own forces from his own resources.
APPENDIX "C"
Orders jor the German and German Controlled Air Forces
1.
The German Commander in Chief Southwest, hereinafter re­ferred to as the "German Authority," is hereby held responsible for the execution of the following orders.

2.
The German Authority will forthwith cause all aircraft of any kind or nationality whether military, naval, or civil, under the con­trol of the German Authority, or operating in or over the area he controls, to alight at once and remain on the ground, on the water, or aboard ship pending further instructions from the Supreme Allied Commander. The term aircraft includes gliders and balloons.

3.
All German or German controlled aircraft in the air will be treated as hostile.

4.
The German Authority Will prevent sabotage or destruction of any equipment or installations, and will maintain all airfields in readiness for instant use by the Allied Air Forces.

5.
All aircraft will be cleared off runways and parked in recognised dispersal areas.

6.
All aircraft will be disarmed and all wireless equipment rendered inoperative without damage. The guns, bombs, pyrOtechnics, am­munition and wireless equipment will be stored under guard in the appropriate storehouses or hangars.

7.
All aircraft will be immobilized by removing the elevators, disconnecting the fuel and oil supply (to each engine, in the case of twin or multi-engined aircraft) and draining all fuel and oil tanks into suitable containers.

8.
All aircraft together with the removed elevators, fuel and oil, spare parts, hangars, storehouses, airfield administrative and living accommodation, general airfield equipment, including lighting installa­tions will be safeguarded intact.

9.
The German Authority will,send forthwith upon the surrender becoming effective, to the Headquarters of the Air Commander in Chief, MAAF, at CASERTA, a Senior German Air Force officer from his staff. This officer will be granted full executive powers by the German Authority to act on his behalf in conformity with any orders and instructions given him by the Air Commander in Chief, MAAF, or his representatives.

The route and method by which this officer is to present' himself at the Headquarters of the Air Commander in Chief, MAAF, is to be notified to the German Authority at the meeting held prior to the signing of the Instrument of Surrender.
243 DODDOA-012280
10. The German Authority will forthwith furnish to the Supreme Allied Commander complete information regarding German and German controlled Air Forces and in particular such details as the Supreme Allied Commander may require concerning the numbers, units, locations, dispositions, stores and equipment of the German and German controlled Air Forces wherever located.
11. Balloons
All balloons will be hauled down, deflated, packed and safeguarded intact. Fuel pumps and carburetors will be removed from all winch motors and safeguarded.
12. Explosives
Information concerning all booby-traps, mines and other explosive devices on and in the vicinity of the airfields will be furnished im­mediately on demand to the responsible local Allied authorities. All explosives, including bombs, will be rendered safe by the removal of fuzes and detonators.
13. All self-destroying devices, whether in aircraft, signals equip­ment or in any Luftwaffe equipment or installation will be removed.
14. Personnel
All personnel of the Luftwaffe and associated air forces will be disarmed and will remain in their camps or at assigned sites until directed otherwise by the representatives of the local Allied Com­mander. The orders or instructions of any representative of the local Allied Commander will be obeyed.
15. Motor Transport
All transport tracked or wheeled will be collected together and main­tained in good condition in recognised MT parking areas under guard.
16. Fuel and Oil
Fuel and oil supplies and installations of all types will be safe­guarded and handed over to the local Allied Authorities without contamination.
17. Anti -Aircraft
All anti-aircraft guns, heavy and light, under control of the Luft­waffe will be rendered inoperative by the removal of an essential part of the firing mechanism. The whole equipment will be safeguarded intact.
18. All parts removed from AA under paragraph 17 above, will be properly prepared for storage, labelled with the number of the appro­priate gun, segregated from guns, and safeguarded intact.
Any spare parts for AA guns held at Luftwaffe units will be segre­gated from guns and safeguarded intact.
19. Fire Control Equipment
Instruments, directors and computors including radar and all fire control equipment will be concentrated and stored intact.
20. Searchlights
All carbon rods will be removed from the projectors. The fuel
244
DODD0A-012281
pumps will be removed from the generators. The carbon and fuel pumps together with all carbon and fuel pump spares will be stored and safeguarded intact.
21.
Small Arms
All small arms will be collected and safeguarded intact.

22.
Gas Bombs and Equipment
Normal precautions will be taken against leakage of gas from any
gas bombs.
All gas equipment and decontamination material will be preserved
and handed over to the Allied representatives on demand.

Gas spray containers will be collected and guarded, and where such containers are filled with gas, the normal precautions will be taken against leakage.
23. Flying Bombs
All stocks of flying bombs will be immobilized by the removal of fuzes, detonators, and fuel pumps. The items so removed will be segregated from flying bombs, concentrated and safeguarded intact, and all flying bombs and their equipment, spares and launching sites and facilities will be safeguarded intact.
24. Rocket-Propelled Weapons
All weapons and projectiles propelled by rockets or similar devices will be immobilized by the removal and segregation of essential parts of the mechanism. The parts so removed will be segregated from such weapons and projectiles, concentrated; and guarded, and the weapons and projectiles, their equipment, spares, launching sites and facilities will be safeguarded intact.
25. Signals Equipment
a. In addition to the requirements of paragraph 6 above, all com­munications equipment used for code, voice, teletype or other elec­trical transmission will be rendered inoperative without damage and
safeguarded.
b. All ground and airborne electronic transmitters and receivers of whatever nature or.design, whether used for air warning, tracking, identification or flying control will be rendered inoperative without damage and safeguarded.
26. Call and Code Signs
All call and code sign systems used by Germany and/or her Alliesin operating Luftwaffe telecommunication systems will be withdrawn from use, and all documents and/or associated coding devices will be stored and safeguarded intact.
27. Code and Cyphers
All code and cyphers systems, including books, documents and

.
cypher machinery, employed by the Luftwaffe will be withdrawn from use, stored and safeguarded intact.
28. Secrecy Equipment
All forms of scrambling and secrecy equipment in use on any

245
DODD0A-012282
Luftwaffe tele-communication system will be disconnected and safe­guarded intact.
29. All other Luftwaffe equipment, including that in experimental stations and laboratories, military or civilian, photographic equip­ment, furniture, will be preserved intact and maintained in good condition. Special care will be taken to ensure the preservation of all documents, including technical manuals, files, plans, maps, card in­dices, identity documents.
30. Maintenance of Luftwaffe
The German Authority will, pending further orders from the Supreme Allied Commander, maintain its own forces from its own resources.
246

DODD0A-012283

INDEX*

Articles Pap
Accounts: Internees . GC, 98 167 Prisoners of war GPW, 18, 58-66 74, 77 Aerial bombardment HR, 26 13 Aid societies (see also Red Cross): Neutral countries_ GWS, 27 33 Neutrals, return of personnel GWS, 32 35 Personnel protected GWS, 26; GWS 33, 53 Sea 14 Prisoners of war HR, 15; GWS, 26; 11,33,92,113 GPW 72-75, 125 Property of GWS, 34 36 Aircraft: Bombardment HR, 25, 26 13 Forced landing at sea GWS Sea, 12 52 Medical uses GWS, 36; GC, 22 36, 142 Alien. GC, 35-46 146 Assigned residence GC, 41-43 148 Confinement GC, 37 147 Control: Measures of GC, 41, 42, 44 148, 149 Employment (see also Labor under In-ternees; Prisoners of war; Occupied territory) GC, 40 148 Enemy, status as GC, 35, 42, 45 146, 148, 149 Expulsion GC, 41-45 148 Extradition GC, 45 149 Humane treatment (see also Internees— humane treatment) GC, 5, 38 137, 147 Internment (see also Internees) GC, 41-43 148 Nonrepatriated persons—generally GC, 38-46 147 Refugees GC, 41 148 Religious freedom GC, 38 147 Restrictions other than internment: Du-ration and termination of GC, 39, 46 147, 149
•The following abbreviations are used in this index:
OWS Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field, 12 August 1949. GWS Sea Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea, 12 August 1949. GPW Geneva Convention Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War, 12 August 1949.. OC Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, 12 August 1949.
H. III Hague Convention No. III Relative to the Opening of Hostilities, 18 October 1907.
H. I V_ Hague Convention No. IV Respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land, 18 October 1907. H R Annex to Hague Convention No. IV, 18 October• 1907, embodying the RegulationsRespecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land.
H. V Hague Convention No. V Respecting the Rights Auad Duties of Neutral Powers and Persons in Case of War on Land, 18 October 1907.
247
DODD0A-012284

Aliens—Continued
Rights of: Exit from territory Means of existence guaranteed Protected rights of action in occu-
pied territory
Wartime rights Security measures Status in territory of party to conflict_ Transfer to another Power_ Women, special mention (see also Civil-
ians; Internees) American National Red Cross. (See Red
Cross.) Annexation (see also Occupied Territory) _ _ Armed forces (see also Land Forces):
Applicability of Geneva Conventions to Combatants and noncombatants
Qualifications for recognition as lawful combatants (see also Prisoners of War)
Responsibility of belligerents for acts committed by members of Soldiers penetrating enemy zone to ob-tain information, when not spies Armistice
Activities authorized and prohibited during... Communications during Defined Denunciation Duration Effect Forms of General armistice, defined Hostilities:
Cessation of
Resumption of Inhabitants, effect on Intercourse in theater of operations Korean Armistice Agreement Local armistice, defined Notification Prisoners of war:
Repatriation of
Purpose
Stipulations

Supervision
Termination
Types
Violations:

Effects of Individuals, violations by
248
.
Article" Pape
GC, 35, 36 146 GC, 39 147
HR, 23 12 GC, 38 147 GC, 5, 27, 39-43 137, 144, 147 GC, 35 146 GC, 45 149
GC, 38 147
GC, 47 150
ER, 3, GPW 4,5 8, 68, 69
HR, 3 8
HR, 3 8
HR, 29 13 HR, 36-41; GPW, 14, 109
118 HR, 36, 39, 41 14, 15 HR, 39 15 HR, 37 15 ER, 40, 41 15 ER, 36 14 HR, 36 14 HR, 37 15 ER, 37 15
HR, 38 15 HR, 36, 40 14, 15 HR, 39 15 ER, 39 15 App. B 197 ER, 37 15 HR, 38 15
GPW, 118 109 ER, 36 14 ER, 36-41; GPW, 14, 109
118 HR, 36-41; GPW, 14, 109
118 ER, 40 15 ER, 37 15
HR, 40, 41 15 HR, 41 15
r
DODDOA-012285
Arms. (See Weapons.)
Army of occupation. (See Occupied Terri­
tory.) Art, buildings devoted to, protection of Assassination and outlawry Assaults, bombardments, and sieges (see Bom-
bardments, assaults, and sieges) Assigned residence Atomic weapons. (See Weapons.)
Bacteriological warfare. (See Weapons.) Balloons Belligerents (see also Hostilities; Prohibited
acts). Aid societies, relief from. (See Aid Soci­eties.) Agreements. (See Armistice.) Capitulation Armed forces of, who may generally com-prise Commencement of hostilities. (See Hos-tilities—commencement.) Communications: Neutral territory, communications in
Parlementaires General rules of conduct Intercourse or negotiations between
White flag, rules relating to. (See White Flag.) Neutrals, relations with (see also Neutral Powers): Belligerent acts committed by neu-
tral persons Belligerents in neutral territcry Communications in neutral terri­
tory Equipment of belligerents: Movement of supplies across neutral territory Railroad equipment in neutral territory Internment of belligerents by neu-
trals Parole of belligerents by Recruitment in neutral territory for-
bidden
Nonhostile agreements. (See Armistices; Capitulations; Cartels; Suspension of Arms; Surrender.)
Nonhostile relations (see also Armistices;
• Capitulation; Cartels; Surrender): Flags of truce Parlementaires. (See Parlemen-
taires.) White flag (see also White Flag)._
249
Articles
HR, 27, 56
HR, 23

HR, 25, 26, 28
GC, 78

HR, 29.
HR, 35
HR, 2

H. V, 3, 8, 9
HR, 32

H. IV, Preamble
HR, 32-34

H. V, 17, 18
H. V, 11-15; GPW 4
H. V, 3,43, 9
H. V,2
H. V, 19
H. V, 11, 12
H. V, 11
H. V,4
HR, 23, 32
HR, 32-34

Page
13, 17 12
13 159
13
14 8
18, 19 14 5 14
20, 21 19, 68
18, 19
18 21 19, 20 19 19
12, 14
14
DODD0A-012286

Belligerents—Continued Nonintercourse between Notification to neutrals (see also Pro­
tecting Powers, notification)
Recognition as to each other, qualifica­tions for. (See Prisoners of War— recognition.)
Red Cross. (See Red Cross; Wounded and Sick.) Relief Societies, aid from. (See Aid Societies.)
Besieged places Buildings and areas protected Communication Entry and exit Inhabitants, treatment of Medical and religious personnel Pillage, forbidden Wounded and sick. (See Wounded, sick,
or shipwrecked.)
Bombardments, assaults, and sieges Aerial bombardment Assaults and sieges Buildings and areas protected
Sea bombardments Undefended places Warning required
Booty of war (see also Pillage)
Brassards. (See Distinctive emblem.)
Buildings and monuments to be spared from

bombardment (see also Property; Public Information Bureau)
Bullets. (See Weapons.) Bureau of Information for Prisoners of War. (See Prisoners of war.) Burial. (See Dead.)
Cables, submarine. (See Submarine cables.) Camp followers, treatment as prisoners of war. (See Prisoners of war.) Camps and depots. (See Prisoners of war, camps.) Canteens, prisoners of war. (See Prisoners of war—canteens.) Capitulation (see also Armistice) LocalSurrender of German Commander-
.
in-Chief, Southwest
Military honor
Observance

Captives. (See Prisoners of war.)
Captivity. (See Prisoners of war—captivity.)
Capture cards. (See Prisoners of war.)

Articles
HR, 39
GC 17, 23 HR, 27 GC 17, 23 GC, 17, 23 GC, 17, 23 GWS Sea, 18 HR, 28; GC 33
HR, 25-27 HR, 25-27 ER, 25-27 HR, 25-27; GWS
Sea, 23; GC, 18, 19 GWS Sea, 23 HR, 25 HR, 26 HR, 23, 46, 53, 56
HR, 25, 27, GC, 18, 19
HR, 35
App. E ER, 35 ER, 35
Pape
15 2
141, 143
13 141, 143 141, 143 141, 143
54 13, 146
6 6 6 13, 56, 141
56 13 13 12, 16, 17
13, 141
14
233 14 14
250
DODDOA-012287
Censorship: Articles Internees correspondence GC, 112 Prisoners of war correspondence GPW, 76
Central Prisoners of War Information Agency.. GPW, 123 Cessation of arms. (See Armistice; Suspen­sion of Arms.)
Chaplains: Prisoner of War, not to be considered as__ GPW, 33, 136 Protection GWS, 24, 28 Retention GWS, 28; GPW, 33 Rights and duties, with respect to pris-
oners of war GPW, 35
Weapons, right to carry GWS, 22

Charity, protection of buildings devoted to (see also Aid Societies; Red Cross; Prop-erty) HR, 27, 56; GC
18, 19 Chemicals, use of. (See Weapons.)
Children: Aliens, rights GC, 38 Besieged areas, evacuation from GC, 17 Identification discs GC, 24 Occupied areas, rights in GC, 50 Orphans GC, 24, 50 Safety zones, protection in GC, 14 Welfare of GC, 23, 24
Churches, protection HR, 27, 56 Civil capacity of prisoners of war. (See Pris­oners of war.)
Civilians (see also Aliens; Internees; Medical Personnel; Neutral Persons; Protected Per-sons; Occupied Territory; Espionage):
Application of 1949 Geneva Conventions
to GC, 4, 13 Assigned residence GC, 41-43 Children G C, 24 Civil capacity as internees GC, 80 Coercion prohibited GC, 31 Collective punishment prohibited GC, 33 Confinement. (See Internees.) Correspondence permitted (see also Cen-
sorship) GC, 25, 26 Discriminations prohibited G C, 13 Dispersed families GC, 26 Employment of (see also Aliens) _____ GC, 39 Evacuation of wounded and sick. (See
Wounded, Sick or Shipwrecked.)
Free passage of medical and religious sup-

plies to G C, 23
Guides, impression of GC, 31
Hospitals for (see also Medical Personnel;

Medical Units) GC, 14, 18-20 Hostages GC, 34 Hostile acts GC, 53 Humane treatment GC, 27,32
251
Pc*
172 94 113
79, 116 33, 34 34, 79
81 32
13, 17, 141
147 141 143 151 143, 151 140 143 13, 17
136, 140 148 143 160 145
146.
144 140 144 147
143 145
140, 141 146 159
144, 145
DODD0A-012288

Civilians—Continued Information Bureaus. (See Information
Bureaus.) Internees. (See Internees; Internment.) Interrogation, coercion prohibited Medical personnel, civilian Medical supplies, food, and clothing_ _ _ _ Neutralized zones, protection in Pillage prohibited. (See Pillage.) Prisoner of war, status as Prohibited acts towards Protected persons, status as (see also Pro­
tected persons) Protecting Powers, relations with_ Protection
Duration of
Responsibility for Punishment of Re-establishment Relief organizations for (see also Aid So-
cieties; Red Cross) Relief shipments for Renunciation of rights prohibited Repatriation Reprisals prohibited Rights, generally
Derogations Exit from territory involved in con-
flict Safety zones Security measures by occupying power Special agreements with regard to Torture and corporal • punishment pro­
hibited Treatment, responsibility for Use to immunize certain places pro-
hibited Women, special mention (see also Aliens; Occupied territory)
Wounded and sick:
Evacuation
Medical supplies for
Protection generally
Transportation
Treatment of

Clothing. (See Internees; Prisoners of war,
etc.) Coastal rescue craft Coercion prohibited. (See Civilians; Intern­
ees; Prisoners of war, etc.)
.
Artides
Page
GC, 31 145 GWS, 35; GC, 20 36, 142 GC, 23, 55 143, 152 GC, 15 140
GPW, 4 68 GC, 27, 32 144, 145
GC, 4, 13 136, 140 GC, 30 145 GC, 4, 13 136, 140 GC, 6 137 GC, 29 145 GC, 5 137 GC, 6 • 137
GC, 30 145 GC, 6043 153 GC, 8 145 GC, 35, 36 146 GC, 33 146 GC, 27 144 GC, 5 137
GC, 35, 36 146 GC, 14 140 GC, 5 137 GC, 7 137
GC, 32 145 GC, 29 145
GC, 28 145
GC, 14, 17, 23, 27 140, 141, 143, 144
.
GC, 17 141 GC, 23 143 GC, 16 141 GC, 21, 22 142 GWS, 18; GC, 16 31, 141
56GWS Sea, 27
252
DODD0A-012289
Collective punishment prohibited. (See Civil­ians; Internees; Prisoners of war; Occupied territory, etc.)
Combatants, status as prisoners of war Commanding officers:
Contributions to be levied on occupied country only on responsibility of a commander-in-chief
Not obliged to receive flag of truce; pre­vention of abuse Prisoner of war, status as (see also Pris­oners of war)
Requisitions on municipalities or inhabi­tants of occupied territory, authority for
Responsibility for subordinates Unforeseen cases not to be left to arbi-trary judgment of Warning authorities before 'commencing bombardment
Commerce: Neutrals, transactions of private persons_ Occupied territory
Communications (see also Correspondence):
Between:
Belligerents
Besieged and outside areas

During armistice
Means:
In neutral territory
On hospital ships
Use of the white flag

Compensation (see also Internees; Prisoners of war): Losses sustained in violation of an armi-stice Payments by belligerents, for violation of laws and customs of war on land Private property taken possession of by army of occupation Railway material retained by belligerent or neutral Submarine cables seized or destroyed
Complaints of: Internees Prisoners of war Protected persons
Conciliation procedures
Confinement. (See Internees; Prisoners of
war., etc.) Confiscation of enemy property prohibited_L_ Contractors, prisoner of war status Contributions in occupied territory
Articles
HR, 3; GPW, 4
HR, 51
HR, 33
GPW, 4
HR, 52 HR, 1
H. IV, Preamble
HR, 26
H. V,7
GC, 48
HR, 39 GC, 17, 23 HR, 39
H. V, 3, 5, 8, 9 GWS Sea, 31 HR, 23, 32-34
HR, 41
H. IV, 3
HR, 53
HR, 19 HR, 54
GC, 101 GPW, 78 GC, 30, 101 GWS, GWS Sea,
GPW, 11; GC,
HR, 46 HR, 13, GPW, 4 HR, 49, 51, 52
Page
8, 68
16
14
68
17 8
5
13
19 150
15
141, 143 15
18, 19 57 12, 14
15
6
17
12 17
168 95 145, 168 27, 51, 72, 12 139
16 10, 68 16, 17
253
DODD0A-012290
Articles
Convoys: Munitions through neutral territory H. V, 2, 5 Wounded and sick through neutral terri-
tory H. V, 14; GWS,

GWS Sea, 17
Correspondence. (See Civilians; Intern ees,
Prisoners of war, etc.)
Courts (see also Courts-Martial; Military
Commissions):
In occupied territory GC, 54, 66
Prisoners of war GPW, 5, 84, 102
War Crimes courts_ GPW, 85
Crimes. (See War crimes.) (See also In-

ternees; Prisoners of war, etc.) Cruelty, types prohibited. (See
Acts.) Cultural buildings and property Customary laws of war
Danger zones Dead: Burials
Cremation
Death certificates
Examination of bodies
Grave
Graves registration service
Identification tags Information with respect to
Inquiry Internees Neutral powers, duties toward Personal effects, disposition Policing of battlefields, etc
GPW, 82-108 Prohibited
HR, 27, 56
H. IV, Preamble; GWS, 63; GWS Sea, 62; GPW, 142; GC, 158.
GC, 28
HR, 19; GWS, 17; GPW, 120; GC, 130
HR, 19; GWS, 17; GPW, 120; GC, 130
HR, 19. ; GWS, 17; GPW, 120; GC, 129
HR, 23; GWS, 17; GPW, 120; GC, 129
HR, 23; GWS, 17; GPW, 120; GC, 129, 130
HR, 23; GWS, 17; GPW, 120; GC, 129, 130
GPW, 120
HR,14;GPW, 120, 10,110,111, 121; GC, 129, 130 177, 178
GPW, 121; GC, 131 GC, 129-131 GWS Sea, 5 GPW, 120; GC, 129; GWS, 15
Prisoners of war. (See Prisoners of War.) Robbery and ill-treatment, protected from Search of battlefield Security measures GWS, 17 GWS, 15 GC, 5, 27
254

Pao
18, 19 20, 30, 54
152, 155 98 97
13, 17 8, 44, 65, 117, 185
145
12, 30,110 178
12,30,110, 178
12,30,110, 177
12,30,11.0, 177
12, 30, 110, 177, 178
12, 30, 110, 177, 178
111, 178 177 49 110, 177 29
30 29 137, 144
DODDOA-012291
.
Dead—Continued Treatment of bodies .
Wills.
Death penalty. (See Internees; Prisoners of
war; Occupied territory.) Deception. (See Ruses of war.) Declarations of war:
Necessity of .Notification . to neutrals.
Articles.Paw GWS, 17; GPW,.30, 111, 178 121; GC, 130 GPW, 121; GC,.111, 172, 113, 129. 177
H. III, 1 2
H. III, 2 2
Parlementaries .Spies (see also Espionage, sabotage, and treason) .
Denunciation of: Armistice.Geneva Conventions of 1949.
Hague Convention Ii(o. III of 1907 (Opening of Hostilities) .Hague Convention No. IV of 1907 (Laws
Defended place and undefended places .HR, 25 13 Definitions:
.
General and local armistice .HR, 37 15
.
Neutrals .H. V, 16 20
.
Occupied territory . HR, 42 15
.
and Customs of War on Land) .H. IV, 8. 7
Hague Convention No. V of 1907 (Rights and Duties of Neutral. Powers and Persons) H. V, 24 22
Deployment of prisoners of war. (See Pris-oners of war.) Destruction of property. (See Property; see also Devastation.) Detaining power. (See Prisoners of war; Detaining Power.) Devastation:
.
In occupied'areas, restricted .GC, 53 152 Wanton, prohibited. HR, 23; GC, 53,..12, 152,
Discipline. (See Internees; Prisoners of war.) Discrimination. (See Civilians; Internees;
Prisoners of war, etc.) Dispersed families . Dissemination of the 1949 Geneva Conven­
tions.
Distinctive emblems: Must be recognizable at a distance_ _ _ _ Improper use forbidden .
255
HR, 32 14
HR, 29. 13
HR, 40. 15

GWS, 63; GWS Sea,.44, 65, 62; GPW, 142;.117, 185 .
GC, 158
H. III, 7. 3
147
GC, 26
GWS, 47; GWS Sea, 48; GPW, 127; GC, 144
HR, 1 HR, 23; GWS, 53, 54; GWS Sea, 45
183
144
40, 62, 114, 182
8 12, 41, 42, 62
DODD0A-012292
162-168 0 — 94 — 9
.
Articles Page
Distinctive emblems—Continued Insignia of rank, prisoners of war. (See Prisoners of war.) Red Cross, etc. (See Red Cross Em­blem.)
.
Education, internees . GC, 94 165 Emblem (see also Distinctive emblems; Pris­
.
81
oners of war; Red Cross—emblem) .GPW, 38
Enemy: Aliens, effect of hostilities on. (See
Aliens.) Courts of law, rights in . Flags, misuse of, forbidden . Forced participation in hostilities, for-
bidden . Insignia, misuse forbidden . Population, status . Property. (See Property.) Territory. (See Occupied territory.) Uniform, misuse forbidden .
Escape: Internees . Prisoner of war.
Espionage, Sabotage, and Treason (Spies):
Espionage (Spies): Civilians committing . Definitions.
Immunity upon rejoining own
forces . Lawful to use . Prisoner of war, status as . Protected persons .Punishment Trial of .
Use of .Sabotage: Prisoner of war, status of saboteurs
at3 .
Protected persons, status of sabo-teurs as . Punishment .
Spies. (See Espionage, above.) Evacuation of prisoners of war . Executions, summary, prohibited .
.
HR, 23 12
.
HR, 23 12
.
HR, 23 12
.
HR, 23 12
.
GPW, 4; GC, 4 68, 136
.
HR, 23 12
.
GC, 120, 121 174
.
GPW, 91-94 100
GC, 4, 5. 136, 137
HR, 24, 29-31. 13

HR, 30, 31. 14 HR, 24, 29. 13 GPW, 4. 68 GC, 4, 5. 136, 137 HR, 30, 31; GC, 5.14, 137 HR, 29, 30, 31;.13, 14, 137
Expulsion of enemy nationals from localities .GC, 41-45
GC, 5 HR, 24, 29.
.
GPW, 4, 5
.

GC, 4, 5
.
GC, 5 .
GPW, 19, 20
.
GPW, 101
.
Finances: Prisoners of war (see also Prisoners of war): Adjustments between parties to the
conflict . Financial resources . Repatriation costs .
.
GPW, 67
.
GPW, 58-68
.
GPW, 116
13
68, 69
136, 137 137
75 110 148
91-77 109
.
256 DODD0A-012293
.
Articles Pare
Flags: .Hospital ships, detained by enemy .GWS Sea, 43 61
.
Proper •and improper use. HR, 23 12 Red Cross emblem. (See Red Cross, emblem.)
.
Truce flag, misuse . HR, 23, 32-34 12, 14
Food:
.
Free passage for certain purposes .GC, 23, 59 143, 153
.
Internees .
Occupied territories .
Prisoners of war .
Forbidden conduct. (See Prohibited acts.)
Forms of: Passports, safe conducts, and safe­guards .
Geneva Conventions of 1864, 1906 and 1929: Supersession by Geneva Conventions of 1949
Geneva Conventions of 1949. (See also ap­propriate subject headings.) Civilian Persons, Convention Relative to the Protection of: Accessions . Denunciation . Dissemination . Effective date . Execution . Grave Breaches . Interpretation . Ratification .
Respect . Violations . Prisoners of War, Convention Relative to
Treatment of: Accessions . Denunciation . Dissemination . Effective date . Execution . Grave Breaches . Interpretation . Ratification .
Respect for .
Violations .
Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field, Convention for the Amelio­ration of the Condition of:
Accessions. Denunciations. Dissemination. Effective date .
257
GC, 89 162 HR, 52; GC. 50,..151, 152, 55, 59 153
.
GPW, 26 77
.
App. A 195
GWS, 59; GWS Sea,.43, 64,
58; GPW, 134
GC, 155-157, 159 GC, 158 GC, 144 GC, 153, 156, 157 GC, 145, 151 GC, 146-148 GC, 12, 150 GC, 152, 153, 157,
159 GC, 1 GC, 149
GPW, 139-141, 143 GPW, 142 GPW, 127 GPW, 138, 140, 141 GPW, 128 GPW, 129-131 GPW, 11, 133 GPW, 137, 138,
141, 143 GPW, 1 GPW, 132
GWS, 60-62, 64 GWS, 63 GWS, 47 GWS, 58, 61, 62
116
185, 186 185 182 184, 185 183, 184 183 139, 184 184, 185, 186 135 184
117, 118 117 114 117 115 115 72, 116 116, 117, 118 67 118
43, 44 44 40
43, 44
DODDOA-012294

Geneva Conventions of 1949—Continued Arisela . Page
Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in
the Field—Continued
Execution . GWS, 45, 48 40
Grave breaches. GWS, 49-51 40
Interpretation . GWS, 11, 55 27, 43
Ratification . GWS, 57, 58, 62, 64 43, 44
Respect . G WS, 1 24
Violations . GWS, 49-54 40
Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Mem­
bers of Armed Forces at Sea, Conven­
tion for the Amelioration of the Con­
dition of:
Accessions . GWS Sea, 59-61, 63.64, 65
Denunciation . GWS Sea, 62. 65
Dissemination GWS Sea, 48. 62
Effective date . GWS Sea, 57, 60, 61.64, 65

Execution . GWS Sea, 46, 49.62 Grave breaches GWS Sea, 50-52.63 Interpretation . GWS Sea, 11, 54.51, 64 Ratification . GWS Sea, 56, 57, 60,.64, 65
63 Respect . GWS Sea, 1. 48 Violations . GWS Sea, 50-53.63
Geneva Cross. (See Red Cross.) Germany: Local Surrender of German Commander-in-Chief Southwest . App. E. 233 Unconditional Surrender of German Forces at Rheims_ . App. D. 232 Government officials. (See Officials under Occupied territory; Officers.) Government, military. (See Military gov­ernment.)
Grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions (see also Geneva Conventions, grave breaches of).
Grave Registration Service. (See Dead.)
Graves service. (See Dead.)
Graves. (See Dead.)
Guerillas:

Prisoner of war status .GPW, 4 68 Protection .GC, 5 137 Guides, impression of enemy nationals for-bidden . GC, 31. 145
Hague Conventions of: 1899, extent to which superseded by those of 1907 . H. IV, 4.
6 1899 and 1907, effect of Geneva Conven-tions of 1949 .GWS Sea, 58; GPW, 64, 116, 135; GC 154 185 1907, extent to which binding on bellig-erents . H. III, 3; H. IV, 2;.2,6,21
H. V, 20
258.
DODD0A-012295
Hague Conventions of—Continued . Articles . Paps
1907, No. III (Opening of Hostilities),
text of. Ratification . H. III, 4, 6, 8. 2 3, 4

1907, No. IV (Laws and Customs of War on. Land), text of . Ratification . H. IV, 5, 7, 9 1907, No. V (Rights and Duties of Neu-tral Powers and Persons), text of .
Ratification . Hospitals. (See Medical units; see also Medi­cal Personnel; Medical stores and supplies.) Hospital zones . Model agreement .
Hostages, use as means of reprisals prohibited_
Hostile acts. (See Hostilities; Prohibited acts.)
Hostilities: Belligerents. (See Belligerents.) Cessation. (See Cartels, Capitulation,
Armistice.)
Commencement: Appoint mixed medical commissions.. Agreements of belligerents on money
H. V, 21, 22, 25 21, 22
.
GWS, 23; GC, 14 32, 140 GWS, Annex 1; GC,.45, 187 Annex 1
GWS, GWS Sea,.24, 48, 67, GPW, 3; GC, 3,.135, 146 34
.
GPW, 112 107
.
5
.
6, 7 18
.
to be retained by prisoners .GPW, 58 87
.
Declaration of War required .H. III, 1 2 Effect on enemy nationals .HR, 23; GC, 35,..12, 146, 41-45 148
Establishment of information bu­reaus . GPW, 122; GC,.111, 180 136-143
.
Exchange of titles and ranks .GPW, 43 83
.
Hague Convention, No. III .H. III, 3-7 2
Notification to: Neutrals . Protecting Powers. (See Pro-
tecting Powers.) Organization of Graves Registration Service . Conduct of (see also Prohibited acts;
Weapons) : Armistice, resumption after . Arms, etc., causing unnecessary in­
jury. (See Weapons.) Assassination and outlawry forbid-den. (See Prohibited acts.) Assaults. (See Bombardments, As-
saults, and sieges.) Atomic weapons. (See Weapons.) Attack restricted to defended places.
(See Prohibited acts.)
H. III, 2. 2
GWS, 17 . 30
HR, 36, 40. 14, 15

.
259 DODDOA-012296
Hostilities—Continued Artides Conduct of—Continued Bacteriological warfare. (See
Weapons.) Battlefield, search of . GWS, 15 Bombardments, assaults, and sieges.
(See Assaults, bombardment and sieges.) Bullets, use of certain kinds for­bidden. (See Weapons.) Compelling nationals to fight against own country . HR, 23 Confiscation of private property. (See Property.) Contamination of water sources. (See Prohibited acts.) Cruelty prohibited. (See Prohibited
acts.) Dead. (See Dead.) Deception . ER, 23 Defended place defined .HR, 22, 23 Destruction. (See Destruction.) Enemy nationals not to be compelled
to take part against own country .HR, 23, 52 Enemy territory. (See Occupied ter-ritory.)
Executions, summary, forbidden.
(See Prohibited acts.).-
Flags, misuse of, forbidden. (See

Prohibited acts.)
Forbidden conduct. (See Prohibited
acts.)
Gases and chemicals, use of. (See

Weapons.) Grenades. (See Weapons.) Information, coercion prohibited_ _ _ GPW, 17; GC, 31 Injuring enemy, means limited.
(See Prohibited acts.)
Insignia, enemy, misuse of for-
bidden. ( See Prohibited acts.)
Killing or wounding captives for-
bidden. (See Prohibited acts.)
Offenders against the laws of war,

treatment of. (See War Crimes.)
Perfidy, prohibited. (See Prohib-
ited acts.)

Pillage of towns and places for-
bidden. (See Prohibited acts.)
Prisoners of war, not to be used in

connection with . HR, 6 Quarters, refusal of. (See Prohibited acts.) Requisition of supplies. (See Requi­sitions.)
PaPe
29
12
12 12
12, 17
73, 145
9

260
DODDOA-012297
Hostilities—Continued Conduct of—Continued Surrender, injuries after. (See Pro­hibited acts.)
Termination, effects of. (See Armi­stice; Capitulation; Suspension of Arms; Surrender.)
Humane treatment. (See Aliens; Civilians; Internees; Prisoners of war; Wounded and sick.)
Humanity, principles of, defined .
Hungary, Peace Treaty with . Hygiene. (See Internees; Occupied terri­tory; Prisoners of war.)
Identification cards, discs, etc. (See Children; Civilians; Dead; Internees; Prisoners of war; Medical personnel, Wounded, sick, or shipwrecked.)
Information: Coercion prohibited (see also Prisoners of war; Civilians) .
Obtaining by Parlementaire improperly__ Information Bureau (see also Aid Societies; Red Cross; Prisoners of war) .
Central Bureau .
Exemption from postal changes . National Bureau .
Inhabitants:
Communications between inhabitants of belligerent states during an armistice_ _ Occupied territory. (See Occupied terri-
tory-inhabitants.) Spontaneous resistance to invading
troops . Injuries after surrender . Insignia. (See Distinctive emblems.) Institutions. (See Religion, Charity, etc.) Intercourse between belligerents. (See Bel-
ligerents—intercourse or negotiations be-tween.) International Committee of the Red Cross. (See Red Cross.)
Articks Pape
H. IV, Preamble; 5, 44, 65,
GWS, 63; GWS 117, 185
Sea, 62; GPW,
142; GC, 158
App. C 224

HR 44; GPW, 17;.16, 73, GC, 31. 145 HR, 33. 14
GWS Sea, 19; GPW,.54, 111, 122-124; GC, 136-.180 141
GPW, 122, 123, 124;.111, 113, GC, 137, 139, 140,.180, 181 141
GPW, 124; GC, 141.113, 181 GPW, 122, 124; GC,.111, 113, 136-139, 141.180, 181
HR, 39. 15
.
HR, 2; GPW, 4 8, 68
.
HR, 23 12
261.
DODD0A-012298
International law:
Customary law .

Geneva Conventions. (See Geneva Con­ventions.) Responsibility of nations for punishment of crimes .
Treaty law, force of .
War Crimes. (See War crimes.) Internees . Accommodations (see also camps, below;
and see Internment): Generally . In neutral countries .
Accounts . Air raid shelters . Allowances . Burial and cremation . Camps:
Administration of . 1949 Geneva Conventions to be posted _ 'Inspection of . Location .
Regulations, orders, etc., to be
posted .
Canteens .
Censorship .
Civil capacity .
Clothing .
Coercion

Collective punishment prohibited Collective relief -shipments. (See below,
under relief shipments.)
Compensation .
Complaints .
Confinement .
Correspondence .

Censorship. (See above, under Cen­sorship.)
Court proceedings .
Death of .
Death certificates '
Discipline:

Disciplinary punishment . Generally .
Arndt: . Pape
H. IV, Preamble;.8, 44, 48,
GWS, 2, 3, 63;.65,67,117,
CWS Sea, 2, 3, 62;.135, 185
GPW, 2, 3, 142;
GC, 2, 3, 158

WS, 49; GWS Sea,.40, 63, 50; GPW, 129;.115, 183 GC, 146
GWS, GWS Sea,.24, 48, 67, GPW, GC, 2.135
GC, 79-135 160
GC, 82, 83, 85 160, 161 GC, 132 . 178 GC, 98 167 GC, 88 162 GC, 98 167 GC, 130 178
GC, 99 167 GC, 99 167 GC, 143 182 • GC, 83 161
GC, 99 167 GC, 87 162 GC, 101, 112 168, 172
G C, 80 160
GC, 90 163 GC, 31 145 GC, 33 146
GC, 95 165 GC, 101 168 GC, 122, 126 175, 177 GC, 106, 107, 111-169, 170, 113, 125, Annex 171, 176, III 192
GC, 115, 118, 121, 173-175,
123, 124, 126 176 GC, 129-131 177 GC, 129 177
GC, 119-125 174
GC, 100 168
262
DODD0A-012299
Internees-Continued Discrimination . Education of Employment of. (See below, under Labor.) Escape, effect on other offenses . Families. Financial allowances . Food rations . Graves registration .
Articles
GC, 27 GC, 94
GC, 120, 121 GC, 82 GC, 98 GC, 89 GC, 130
Groupings for housing purposes .GC, 82 Hazards of war, protection from .GC, 88 Humane treatment . GC, 27, 100, 127
Hygiene and health . GC, 85 Identification and identity cards .GC, 97, 106, 138
Imprisonment . GC, 118, 119, 122, 124, 125 Information bureaus . HR, 14; GC, 136­141 Inspection of internment facilities .GC, 143
GC, 94 GC, 101-104
GC, 106, Annex III
Intellectual pursuits . Internee committees . Internment. (See above, under Accom­modations.) Internment cards . Investigations: Death or injury . Inspection of camp . Offenses of internees . Judicial proceedings. (See above, under Court proceedings.) Killed or injured, special circumstances_ Labor: Conditions . Labor detachments . Laws applicable . Lawsuits against . Legal aid . Legal documents . Maintenance . Medical examinations and care . Monies .
GC, 131 G C, 143 GC, 122
GC, 131
GC, 95 GC, 96 GC, 117 GC, 115 GC, 113, 115 GC, 113, 129 GC, 81 GC, 91, 92 GC, 97, 98
Page
144 165
174 160 167 162 178 160 162 144, 168, 176 161 166, 169, 180 173, 174, 175, 176 10, 180
182 165 168
169, 192
178 182 175
178
165 166 173 173 172, 173 172, 177 160 163, 164 166, 167
Notifications by detaining power .GC, 105, 129, 131,.169, 177, 136 178, 180 Offenses: Generally . GC, 117, 120-121 173, 174 Investigation of . GC, 122 175 Punishment (see below, under Punish-ments). Penalties and disciplinary sanctions (see below, under Punishments). Personal effects GC, 97, 139 166, 181
.
263
DODDOA-012300
Midas.
Internees-Continued Pap Petition, right to . GC, 101. 168 Postal exemptions . GC, 110. 171 Prisoners of war, separation from.GC, 84. 161 Property, personal. (See also Monies above.) Forwarding of personal property..___ GC, 139. 181 Management of . GC, 114. 173 Personal effects of . GC, 97; 139.166, 181 Transfers . GC, 128. 177 Protecting Powers: Complaints to . GC, 101. 168 Notification to . GC, 105, 129,131.169, 177, 178 Supervision by . GC, 143 182 Visitations by . GC, 143 182 Protection of . GC, 88 162 Punishments: Basis for . GC, 124 175 Disciplinary . GC, 117-126 173 General provisions . GC, 117 173 Penalties prescribed . GC, 118 173 Procedures for imposing .GC, 123-126 175 Prohibited punishment .GC, 32, 33 145, 146 Safeguards . GC, 124, 125 175, 176 Recreation GC, 94 165 Release V. GC, 132-135 178 Relief. GC, 108 170 Collective relief . GC, .109, Annex II 171, 190 Exemption from fees and duties.. .GC, 110 171 Relief shipments . GC, 108, 111, 142 170, 171, 182 Relief societies . GC, 142. 132 Religious freedoms . GC, 86, 93.162, 164 Repatriation . GC, 132-134. 178 Costs of. GC, 135. 179 Representatives of (see also Protecting Powers, above).. . GC, 101-104. 168 Residence, return to . GC, 134-135. 179 Rights: Generally . GC, 27, 84, 100, 127.144, 161, 168, 176 During punishment . GC, 124-125. 175 Sanitation measures . GC, 85. 161 Transfers: Conditions . GC, 127. 176 Methods . GC, 128. 177 Visitors and visits (see also Protecting Powers, above) . GC, 116. 173 Wills . GC, 113, 129.172, 177 Women. GC, 81, 82, 85, 89,.160, 161, 91, 97, 124.162, 163, 166, 175
DODDOA-012301

Internment (see also Assigned residence; In­ternees): Areas of. Civilian. Neutral territory . Prisoners of war .
Interrogation:
Artides
GC, 83 GC, 79
H. V, 11 HR, 5, 14, 15; GPW, 21-24
Civilians, use of force prohibited .GC, 31
Prisoners of war .
Killing or wounding, limitations on means of_. Korean Armistice Agreement .
Labor. (See under Aliens; Internees; Pris-oners of war; and Occupied Territory.) Land forces, instructions to, required by H IV.Land warfare. (See Hostilities.) Law of Nations. (See International Law.) Lawful belligerents. (See Belligerents.) Laws of war: Applicability.
Civil War, applicability to .
Customary laws .
Enforcement of .
Interpretation of 1949 Geneva Conven­tions relating to .
Protecting Powers, role with regard to___
Unwritten' rules. (See Customary laws, above.) Violations (see also Prohibited acts; War crimes) .
Legal documents. (See under Internees; Prisoners of war.) Levee en masse, defined . Loosing .
GPW, 17
HR, 22, 23, GC, 147 App. B
H. IV, 1
H. IV, Preamble; HR, 1; GWS, 2, 3; GWS, 63; GWS Sea, 2, 3, 62; GPW, 2, 3, 142; GC, 2, 3, 158 GWS, GWS Sea, GPW, GC, 3
H. IV, Preamble; GWS, 63; GWS Sea 62; GPW 142; GC, 158 GWS, GWS 3es, GPW, 8, 9, 11; GC, 9, 10, 12
GWS, GWS Sea, GPW, 11; GC, 12 GWS, GWS Sea, GPW, 8, 10, 11; GC, 9, 11, 12
H. IV, 3; GWS, 50-52; GWS Sea, 51, 53; GPW, 130­132; GC, 147-149
Pap
161 160 19 9, 10, 11, 75
145 73
12, 183 197
6
5, 8, 24, 44, 48, 65, 117, 135, 185
24, 48, 67, 135 5, 44415, 117, 185
26, 27, 51, 70, 71, 72, 138, 139
27, 51, 72, 139 26, 27, 50, 51, 70, 71, 72, 138, 139
6, 41, 63,
115, 183

HR, 2; GPW, 4.8, 68
HR, 28, 47; GC, 33 13, 16, 146

265.
DODDOA-012302
Mail. (See Correspondence under Civilians; Internees; Prisoners of war, etc.; see also Censorship; Information bureaus.)
Medical aircraft. (See under Medical units.)
Medical Commissions.
Medical examinations. (See under Internees; Prisoners of war.) Medical personnel (see also Wounded and
Sick; Red Cross): Besieged places. (See Besieged places.) Civilian hospitals, employed at. Definition, persons included .
Emblem of protection .
Identification .
Neutrals, status of .
Prisoners of war, status of .
Protection of.
Retained personnel, status as .
Return by the enemy .
Rights, nonrenunciation .
Security measures . Weapons, right to carry . Medical stores and supplies (see also Medical
units): Free passage . Occupied territories, use in . Protection of .
Requisition of . Medical units (Including hospitals and Mobile units; see also Medical commissions): Aircraft, medical .
Building, mobile units and stores, pro­tection of .
Civilian hospitals . Defense of, protective status not thereby denied . Emblem of protection .
.
Articles Page
GPW, 112, 113, An-.107, 108, flex H. 124
GC, 20
GWS, 19, 24-27, 29, 32; GWS Sea, 36, 37; GPW, 33; GC, 20
GWS, 38, 40, 43; GWS Sea, 42 GWS, 40; Annex II;
GWS Sea, 42 GWS, 27, 32 GWS, 24, 25, 28, 29,
32; GWS Sea, 36, 39; GPW, 33
GWS, 22, 24, 25, 35;
GWS Sea, 36, 39
GWS, 24, 25, 27, 28-

32; GPW, 33 GWS, 30-32 GWS, 7; GWS Sea,
33 GWS, 30 GWS, 22
142
31, 33, 34, 35, 58, 79, 142
37, 38, 39, 60 38, 47, 60 33, 35 33, 34, 35, 58, 59, 79
32, 33, 36, 58, 59 33, 34 79 35 26, 58
35 32
.
GC, 23 143
.
GC, 55 152 GWS, 33; GWS Sea,.36, 59 38
.
GC, 55, 57 152, 153
GWS, 36, 37; GWS 36, 37, 59, Sea, 39, 40; 60, 142 GC, 22
.
GWS, 19-22, 33; 31, 36, 56, GWS Sea, 23;.140, 141 GC, 14, 18-21
.
GC, 18, 19, 56, 57 141, 153 .
GWS, 22 32
.
GWS, 42, 43; 38, 39, 141 GC, 18
266.
DODD0A-012303
Medical units etc.-Continued Hospital ships .
Captured ports . Certificates.from.responsible.au-
thorities. Communications . Defined . Emblem . Merchant ships used as. Neutral observers. Neutral ports . Notification of voyage particulars to
adverse party . Personnel..(See Medical personnel.) Protection of. Search of . Secret code may not be passed by_ _
Sick bays . .GWS Sea, 28, 35
Pap
53, 55, 56, 57, 142
57
56 57, 58 55 61, 82 58 57 57
59
55, 58, 61 57 58
57, 58 32, 140 31, 140
20, 37
33, 39 141, 153
153
32, 58
36 32 32 58
152 15 12, 15, 151, 155 150
195
68
166, 167
16
Hospital zones .
Location of .
Neutral territory, passage of units through .
Neutral units, and the use of national flag .
Occupied territory .
Protection of. (See Buildings, etc., above.)
GWS, 23; GC, 14 GWS, 19; GC, 14
H. V, 14; GWS, 37
GWS, 27, 43 GC, 18, 19, 57
Sick bays. (See Hospital ships, above.) Termination of protection .
Transportation units . Utilization of . Weapons employed in connection with _ _
Merchant ships Military government (see also Occupied ter-
ritory):
Courts, suspension of .
Functions .
Laws to be applied .

Rights protected under . Military occupation. (See Occupied terri­
tory.) Military passports: form . Militia:
Definition . Mixed medical commissions. (See Medical commissions.)
Money: Internees . Occupied territory, use of (see also Taxa­
tion) .
Articles
GWS Sea, 15, 22, 24-26, 29, 30, 43; GC 21
GWS Sea, 29
GWS Sea, 24 GWS Sea, 31, 34 GWS Sea, 22 GWS Sea, 43, 44 GWS Sea, 33 GWS Sea, 31 GWS Sea, 32
GWS Sea, 38
GWS Sea, 22, 34, 35 GWS Sea, 31 GWS Sea, 34
Requisition of hospitals and other units .GC, 57
GWS, 21; GWS Sea,
34 GWS, 35 GWS, 21, 22 GWS, 22 GWS Sea, 33
GC, 54 HR, 43 HR, 23, 43;
GC, 51, 64 GC, 47
App. A
GPW, 4
GC, 97, 98
HR, 48, 49, 51
.
267 DODDOA-012304
Pate
13, 17
18, 19 18, 19
17 17
12
18, 19
57, 59 20 19 19 20 19 20 56 20
33, 35
136 136 20 57
19
18, 19
18, 19
21 19 19 19, 20 20, 34, 37, 43 18, 19, 20 19
Money-Continued Prisoners of war. (See Prisoners of war-
finances.) Monuments, protection of .Municipal property. (See Property-public
property.) Munitions (see also Weapons; Prohibited Acts):
Neutral territories: Convoys through . Shipments to belligerents .
Occupied territory: Seizure authorized . Museums; protection of .
National Red Cross. (See Red Cross.) Necessities of war, destruction, seizure of
property required by . Neutral aid societies. (See Aid societies.) Neutral commerce, shipment of supplies for
belligerents . Neutral countries. (See Neutral Powers; Neu-tral territory; Neutrality.)
Neutral observers on medical transports .GWS Sea, 31, 38
Neutral persons . Belligerent acts . Commerce with belligerents . Definition . Export of arms . Forfeiture of neutrality . Hospital ship owners . Hostile acts . Medical nersonnel, security measures____ Occupied territory:
Diplomatic personnel. (See Diplo­matic personnel above.)
Status in . Protected persons, status as . Rights and restrictions .
Neutral ports, hospital ships in .
Neutral Powers: Asylum . Belligerents, relations with:
Commercial shipment . Communication facilities, belligerents use of . Equipment of belligerents, disposi­tion of. Export controls .
H. V, 16-18
H. V, 4, 6, 10, 17
H. V,7
H. V, 16
H. V,7
H. V, 17 GSW Sea, 25
H. V, 17 GWS, 27, 32
GC, 4 GC, 4
H. V, 16-18 GWS Sea, 32
H. V, 11
H. V, 2, 5, 7
H. V, 3, 8, 9
H. V, 19
H. V, 7, 8
Force, use to enforce neutrality .H. V, 10
H. V, 11, 12
H. V, 14; GWS 28, 30; GWS, 37, 43
H. V, 2, 5, 14
H. V, 11 Internment of belligerents . Medical units and medical personnel_
Movement of troops and supplies___ Parole of belligerents .
Articles
HR, 27, 56
H. V, 2, 5
H. V, 5, 7, 18
HR, 53
HR, 56

HR, 23
H. V, 2, 5, 7
DODDOA-012305
268
Neutral Powers—Continued Articles Page
Belligerents, relations with—Continued
Radio apparatus..(See above, Com-
munication facilities.)
Treatment of belligerents . H. V, 11, 12 19, 20
Neutral persons..(See Neutral persons.)
Neutral.territory..(See.Neutral.terri-
tory.)
Neutrality..(See Neutrality.)
Notification as to:
Medical aircraft passage . GWS Sea, 40 60
Neutrality. H. III, 2, 3 2
State of war . H. III, Preamble, 2, 3 2
Prisoners of war, duties concerning. .(See
Prisoners of war.)
Protecting.Power,.role.as..(See.Pro-
tecting Powers.)
Railroad equipment . H. V, 19 21
Responsibilities . H. V, 5, 7 19
Shipwrecked belligerents, detention .H. V, 6; GWS Sea, 19, 53, 54
15, 17
Troop movements . H. V, 2, 5 18, 19
Violations of neutrality . H. V, 5, 10 19
Weapons, transport or export _____ H. V, 2, 5, 7 18, 19
Wounded, sick, or shipwrecked, duties
toward.(see also Wounded, sick, or
shipwrecked) . GWS Sea, 5 49
Neutral ships, care for wounded, sick, or ship­
wrecked . GWS Sea, 2 48
Neutral territory (see also Neutral Powers):
Asylum . H. V, 11 19
Belligerents in (see also under Neutral
Powers) _ . H. V, 11 19
Communication facilities, use of .H. V, 3, 8, 9 18, 19
Inviolability of . H. V, 1 18
Medical aircraft . GWS, 37; GWS Sea, 37, 60
40
Medical personnel . G WS, 28, 30 34, 35
Movements of troops and supplies
through . H. V, 2 18
Prisoners of war, escapees . H. V, 13 20
Radio stations, etc., forbidden . H. V, 3, 9 18, 19
Railroad equipment . H. V, 19 21
Recruitment of troops prohibited .H. V,4 19
Restrictions of territory . H. V, 5 19
Sale of supplies to belligerents . H. V, 2, 5, 7, 18 18, 19, 21
Violations of neutrality . H. V, 5, 10 19
Wounded,.sick,.or shipwrecked..(See
Wounded, sick, or shipwrecked) .GWS, 37; GWS Sea, 37, 53
15
Neutrality (see also Neutral persons; Neutral
Powers; Neutral territory):
Enforcement of . H. V, 10 19
Forfeiture of . H. V, 17 20
269. DODD0A-012306

Neutrality—Continued Articies. POP
.
Notification of . H. III, 2, 3 2
.
Violations of . ER, 4-6, 10; 8, 10, 55 GWS Sea, 21
.
Neutralized zones, creation of . GC, 15 140 Newspaper correspondents, status as pris-
.
oners of war . ER, 13; GC, 4 10, 136 Nonbelligerent Powers. (See Neutral powers.) Noncombatants:
.
Besieged places . GC, 17, 23 141, 143
.
Prisoner of war status. ER, 3 8
Nonhostile agreements. (See Armistices; Capitulations; Cartels; Suspension of arms; Surrender.)
Nonhostile relations of belligerents. (See Belligerents—nonhostile relations.) Notification to neutrals (see also Protecting
.
Powers) . H. III, 2 2
.
Oath of allegiance to Occupying Power .HR, 45 16
Occupation: Definition . HR, 42 15 Question of fact . ER, 42 15 Sovereignty not transferred .GC, 47 150 Subjugation or conquest, distinctions.. _ _ GC, 47 150
Occupational accidents. (See Labor under Internees; Prisoners of war; Occupied ter­ritory.)
Occupied territory (see also Civilians; In­
ternees; Neutral persons) . ER, 23, 42-56;.12, 15, GC, 27-34, 43,.144, 148, 47-48. 150
Administration . ER, 23, 43, 47, 48;.12, 151, GC, 51, 54, 64.152, 155 Allegiance, inhabitants not to be forced
to give . HR, 45. 16 Annexation . GC, 45, 47.149, 150 Assigned residence . GC, 78. 159 Charitable property. (See Property—
religious, charitable and cultural.) Children . GC, 23, 24, 50.143, 151 Coercion of inhabitants to obtain infor-
mation, prohibited . BR, 44; GC, 31.16, 145 Collective punishment. (See this title under Laws—penal laws.) Commercial intercourse, restrictions al-
.
lowed . GC, 48 150 Confinement (see also Assigned residence; Internment):
.
Place of . GC, 76 159
.
Pretrial . GC, 69 156
.
Treatment during .GC, 76, 77 159
270.
DODDOA-012307
Occupied territory—Continued. Articles
Contributions (see also Taxes, below): Method of levy or collection .GC, 51 Purpose and restrictions .HR, 49, 51, 52
Control of inhabitants .Costs of occupation. (See Contribu-tions; Taxes ) Courts (see also Occupied territory—penal procedures, below) . Crimes. (See Penal law—offenses, be­
low.)
Criminal procedure. dures, below.)
Death penalty. (See low.)
Defenses at trials. below.)
Definition
Detainees, treatment.
(See Penal Proce-Punishments, be­(See under Trials,
.

(See under Con-
finement, above.) .Deportations .Devastation .Evacuations .Food and clothing:
Generally .
Requisition of.Freedom of movement .Government. (See also Administration,
above.) Government officials. (See Officials, be-low.) .Hospitals:
.
Protection
.
Requisition
.
Zones Hostages forbidden .
GC, 78

GC, 54, 66, 67.152, 155, 156

HR, 42
GC, 76 GC, 49 ER, 53, 54 GC, 49
GC, 55,,59 GC, 55 GC, 48
GC, 31
HR, 18, 19 GC, 57 GC,' 14
GC, 34
Human rights of inhabitants .ER, 46; GC, 27
Hygiene and health .Inhabitanti. (See under appropriate subject headings here.) Institutions to be protected (see also
Property) . Internment (see also Internees) Interrogation of inhabitants Judges. (See Officials, below.) Labor (see also Officials, below)
Prohibited labor . Protection of laborers . Requisitions .
GC, 56
ER, 23, 56
GC, 78
ER, 44

HR, 23; GC, 51, 52,
54
GC, 51
GC, 52
HR, 23; GC, 51

Pope
151 .
16, 17
159
15
159 150 17 150
152, 153 152 150
145
11, 12 153 140 146
16, 144 153
12, 17 159 16
12, 151, 152 151 152
12, 151
271
DODDOA-012308
162-168 0 — 94 — 10
Occupied territory-Continued Land, private and public. (See Prop­erty.) Laws, generally .
Administration .
Occupation laws .
Penal law .
Appellate rights . Applicable law .
Confinement . Courts .
Defense at trial . Individual responsibility Legislation Offenses:
Committed before occupa-tion.
Generally . Penalties . Procedure for trials . Publication of laws . Punishments .
Collective punishment, pro-
hibited . Confinement . Death penalty . Notification to Protecting
Power_.Offense committed before occupation.
HR, 23; GC, 51, 64, 67 HR, 23; GC, 51, 64 67 ER, 23, 43; GC, 51, 64 ER, 50; GC, 33, 64­
78 GC, 73 HR, 23, 43; GC, 51,
64, 67
GC, 69, 76, 77
GC, 54, 66, 67

GC, 72
HR, 50; GC, 33
GC, 64

GC, 70 GC, 68 GC, 68 GC, 71-74 GC, 65 HR, 50; GC, 68-70
HR, 50; GC, 33 GC, 68, 69, 76, 77 GC, 68, 74, 75
GC, 74
GC, 70
Repeal or suspension .GC, 64 Publication of new laws .GC, 65 Right of action, not to be sus-
Pave
12, 151, 155, 156 12, 151, 155, 156 12,15,151, 155 16, 146, 155 158 12,15,151, 155, 156 156, 159 152, 155, 156 164 16, 146 155
157 156 156 157 155 16, 156
16, 146 156, 159 156, 158
158
157 155
• 155
pended . ER, 23. 12
Repeal or suspension BR, 23; GC, 51, 64.12, 151,
155 Medical supplies . GC, 55, 57, 59 152, 153 Military authority . ER, 42-56 15 Military services, recruitment, etc GC, 51 151 Money (see also Taxes, below) .HR, 48, 49, 51 16 Movement, restrictions on GC, 48 150 Municipal property. (See Property-
public property.) Nationals of the Occupying Power, of-
fenses committed before occupation.._.. GC, 70 157 Nationals of other Powers, repatriation__ , GC, 48 150 Neutral persons (see Neutral persons) _ _ _ H. V, 18 21 Oaths (see also Officials, below) .HR, 45 16 Obedience to occupation authorities .HR, 45; GC, 54 16, 152
272
DODDOA-012309
Occupied territory—Continued Occupation. (See Occupation.) Offenses before occupation. (See under
Laws, above.)
Officials of hostile government: Coercion . Obedience . Punishment. (See Punishment, be­
low.) Removal . Penal and disciplinary sanctions. (See
under Laws, above.) Penal law. (See under Laws.) Pillage prohibited . Population, rights of (see also appro­
priate subheadings here) .
Prisoners of war, status of persons in
occupied territory . Property. (See Property.) Protecting Power (seealso Internees; Pro­
tecting Powers): Functions with respect to: Foods, medical supplies and
relief. Labor . Trials .
Notification of Transfers and deportations_ _ _ _ Trials awl sentences
Public finance . Public order_ . Punishment. (Sec under this title,
Laws—penal law.) Puppet governments . Red Cross. (See Red Cross.) Relief and relief shipments Relief societies . Religion:
Religious assistance Religious freedom .
Religious property, protection and use .
Repatriation of nationals of other powers (see also Civilians; Internees; Prisoners of war) .
Reprisals prohibited . Requisitions. (See Requisitions.) Residence, assigned . Revenue. (Sec Taxes, below.) Rights of action . Rights of inhabitants .
Art*.
GC, 54 HR, 45; GC, 54
GC, 54
HR., 47; GC, 33
HR, 46; GC, 27-34, 48-50, 55-58
GC, 68
GC, 55, 59-61 GC, 52 GC, 72, 74 GC, 74 GC, 49 GC, 71, 74, 76
HR, 48, 49, 51 HR, 43; GC, 64
GC, 47
GC, 59-62 GC, 63
GC, 58 HR, 46; GC, 13, 27
HR., 46, 56
GC, 48
GC, 33

GC, 78
HR, 23 HR, 46; GC, 24-34, 47-50, 55-58
POP
152 16, 152
152
16, 146
16, 144, 150, 152
156
152, 153 152 157, 158 158 150 157, 158, 159 16 15, 155
150
153 161
153 16, 140, 144
16, 17
150 146
159
12 16, 143, 150, 152
273.
DODD0A-012310
Occupied territory—Continued Schools. Security measures .
Services, requisition of . Subjugative or conquest . Submarine cables. Taxes (see also Contributions, above):
Collection of.
Use. Termination of occupation . Transfers of populations . Transportation, control of .
Trials (see also Courts; Laws—Penal law,
above):

.
Appellate rights . GC, 73
.
Defense, rights of . GC, 71-75
.
Notification to Protecting Power.. .GC, 74
.
Women . GC, 27
Workers. (See Labor, above.)

Officers (see also Commanding officers): Captured. (See Prisoners of war—officers.)
.
Internment by neutrals .
Parole in neutral countries . Open cities . Opening of hostilities. (See Hostilities.) Orders and regulations:
.
mon
Pie*
.
GC, 49 150
.
GC, 5, 27, 64 137, 144, 155 HR, 23; GC, 51,54 12, 151,162
.
GC, 47
.
ER, 54
.
HR, 48, 49
.
ER, 48, 49
.
GC, 6, 77
.
GC, 49
.
GC, 48
H. V, 11
.
H. V, 11
.
HR, 25
Prisoners of war, posting in prisoners'

language .GPW, 41 Orphans, care of. GC, 24, 44 Outlawry and assassination HR, 23
Parlementaires . HR, 32-34
Parole: In neutral territory . H. V, 11 Information on.. . HR, 14 Prisoners of war. (See Prisoners of war—
parole.) Passports, military, forms . App. A
Pay. (See Internees; Prisoners of war.) Peace Treaty with Hungary .Penal and disciplinary sanctions. (See under
Internees; Occupied territory; Prisoners of war.)
Permitted acts, specifically mentioned: Property destruction .Ruses.Spies Stratagems .
Personal property. (See Internees; Prisoners of war; Property; Wounded and sick.) Physical examinations. (See Internees; Pris-oners of war.) Pillage prohibited
274
App. B
GC, 53 HR, 24 HR, 29 ER, 24
16 17
16 16 137, 159 150 150
158 157 158 144
19 19 13
82
143, 149 12
14
19 10
195
n4
152 13 13 13
ER, 28, 47; GWS,.13, 16, 29, 15; GWS Sea, 18;.54, 146 GC, 33
DODD0A-012311
Poison . Policing of battlefields, etc .
Populations shifts in occupied territory (see Occupied territory-transfers).
Postage. (See Mail.)
Press. (See Newspaper correspondence; Com­munications.) Prisoners of war_
Accidents .
Articles
HR, 23
GWS, 15; GWS Sea, 18
HR, 24, 29, 30; GWS Sea, 14, 24-27, 29, 32; GPW, 1-143; GC, 4, 68
GPW, 114
Accommodations in neutral country .GPW, 109-111, 115 Accounts. (See Finances, below.) Accused prisoners, rights . GPW, 99, 105, 106
Acts committed prior to capture .GPW, 85 Administration of. (Sec Camps-admin istration, below.) Addresses of prisoners, belligerents to in-
.
form each other . GPW, 122
.
Agreements on treatment . GPW, 6
Pap
12 29, 54
13, 14, 67, 70, 72, 87, 136, 156 108 106, 108
102, 104, 105 98
111 70
.
Aid societies (sce also Red Cross) .HR, 15; GWS, 26; 11, 33, 92,
.
GPW, 72-75, 125
Aiding the enemy. (See Espionage, sab­
otage, and treason.) Appellate rights after conviction . Armistice, disposition during . Authorities of Detaining Power, relations
with .
Asylum . Badges and decorations . Books, may receive . Bureau of information . GPW, 106 HR, 39
GPW, 57, 78-81, 98, 104, 107, 125, 127
GPW, 119 GPW, 18, 40 GPW, 72 GPW, 122-124
Burial certificates, etc. (see also Dead) .GPW, 120
Camp followers, status .
Camps: Administration . Geneva Conventions, regulations and
orders, posting of . IJygiene
HR, 13; GPW, 4, 5 GPW, 39 GPW, 41
GPW, 29
Responsible officer GPW, 39
Screening GPW, 24
Supervision . GPW, 126
Transit . . GPW, 24, 29

Working .. GPW, 23 Canteens . GPW, 28 Captivity (sec also Capture, below): Beginning of . GPW, 17-20 Termination of. GPW, 21, 109-121
113
105 15
87,95,102, 103, 105, 113, 114 109 74, 82 92 111 110 10, 68, 70
82
82 78 82 77 114 77, 78 83 78
73 75, 106
275
DODD0A-012312
Pop
98 100 92, 128 94
113
73
77
102 73
41, 63
95
101, 102,
103, 105 102 103
101, 105 103
105 105 105
11, 92, 128
94 92, 93 93 128 11, 92 95 92, 93 92 94 92, 93 91 70, 98, 103
Prisoners of war—Continued Articia
Capture: Acts committed prior to.GPW, 85 Recapture . GPW, 92-94
Capture cards. GPW, 70, Annex IV Censorship . GPW, 76 Central Prisoner of War Information
Agency. GPW, 123, 124 Chaplains. (See Religious ministers,
below.)
Civil capacity. GPW, 14
Civilians. (See Civilians.)
Clothing. GPW, 26

Coercion for: Inducement to admit guilt . Obtaining information, prohibited_ _
Collective punishment. (See Punish-ment, below.) Combatants and noncombatants, status. (See this title—Definition.) Compelling to serve in hostile forces, for-bidden .
Complaints and requests, right to make__ Confinement as punishment (see also Internment): Conditions.
Duration .
Hearings prior to .
Place .
Pretrial .

Conviction: Appeal from . Enforcement. Notice of.
Correspondence (see also this title—In­formation Bureau): Capture card .
Censorship and suspension . Dispatches . Exemption from postage and duties_ Forms . General rules . Legal documents . Parcels . Relief shipments . Special transport . Telegrams . Transfer of .
Courts .
Dangerous work. (See Labor, below.)

GPW, 99
GPW, 17

GWS, 50; GWS Sea, 51
GPW, 78
GPW, 97, 98, 103,
108 GPW, 98 GPW, 103 GPW, 97, 108 GPW, 103
GPW, 106 GPW, 108 GPW, 107
HR, 16; GPW, 70, Annex IV
GPW, 76 GPW, 71, 74
GPW, 74
GPW, Annex IV HR, 16; GPW, 71-77
GPW, 77
GPW, 72, 73
GPW, 72
GPW, 75
GPW, 71, 74
GPW, 48
GPW, 5, 84, 102
276. DODDOA-012313

Pau
12, 110, 111 12, 110 110, 128 111 102, 103, 105
8, 10, 68, 70, 73, 77, 78, 79 13, 14, 68, 70, 136, 156
76
90
67, 73 76
9, 82, 99, 101 82, 101 101 9, 12, 73 95 87, 95,102, 103, 105, 113, 114 9, 20, 100
109 76 91 75
74, 87, 90
90 90
91 78 91 74, 87 88, 90, 91 87
74, 89
Prisoners of war-Continued Dead: Burial.
Death certificate . Notification of .Special circumstances of death
Death penalty .
Definition: Persons included .
Persons excluded .
Deployment of prisoners (see also Labor, below) .
Detaining power: Accounts maintained by_ . Responsibility for treatment of pris-
oners . Detention in combat zone . Diplomatic personnel of neutral states. Discipline and disciplinary punishment
(see also this title-Punishment) .HR, 8; GPW, 39-42,
Power to administer .
Right of defense . Discriminations . Documents, legal . Enemy, relations with .
Escapee (see also Punishment, below) _ _ _
Exchange of . Exposure to combat fire . Exterior, relation with .
Artidu
HR, 19; GPW, 120, 121 •.
• HR, 19; GPW, 120
GPW, 120, Annex IV GPW, 121 GPW, 100, 101, 107
HR, 3, 13; GPW,
4, 5, 14, 27, 29,
32, 33

HR, 24, 29, 30, 31; GPW, 4, 5; GC, 4, 68
GPW, 23
GPW, 64
GPW, 2, 15
GPW, 23
Evacuation (see also Transfers, below) .GPW, 19, 20
Finances: Accounts: Maintained by Detaining Power
Terminating of . Right of prisoners to inspect_ _ _ Adjustments between parties to con-
flict . Canteen funds . Claims for compensation Money of prisoners of war Pay advances .Ready money .
.

89, 90, 96 GPW, 39, 96 GPW, 96 HR, 6, 19; GPW, 16 GPW, 77 GPW, 57, 78-81, 98,
104, 107, 125, 127
HR, 8; H. V, 13;
GPW, 91-94 GPW, 118, 119 GPW, 23 GPW, 69-77
GPW, 18, 58, 59, 64­
68 GPW, 66 GPW, 65
GPW, 67 GPW, 28 GPW, 68
. GPW, 18, 58-67 GPW, 60, 64, 67 GPW, 58
Receipts issued for funds of pris-oners . GPW, 18, 63
277
DODD0A-012314

Prisoners of war-Continued
Finances-Continued Restrictions by Detaining Power___ Supplementary pay . Transfer of funds .
Artkies .Pate
GPW, 60, 62, 63.88, 89 GPW, 61. 88 GPW, 63, Annex V.89, 134
Wages for labor or working pay.... .GPW, 54, 57, 62, 64.86, 87
Food: Generally . GPW, 26. 77 Mess supervision . GPW, 44, 45. 83
Force used against. (See Coercion, above.) Funds of prisoners. (See Finances, above.)
.
General divisions of enemy populations .GPW, 4 68
.
Geneva Conventions, posting of text .GPW, 41 82
.
Gifts for . HR, 16; GPW, 72-11, 92 75
.
Graves. GPW, 120 110
.
Guerillas . GPW, 4 68 Hospitalization. (See Medical atten­
tion.) Humane treatment . GPW, 13. 72 Hygiene and health . GPW, 29, 31, 108.78, 79, 105 Identification and identity cards .GPW, 4, 17, 18, 120, 68, 73, 74,
122, Annex IV.110, 111,
Imprisonment. (See Confinement,
above.) Infirmaries . Information Bureaus .
Information to be given by prisoners____ Injuries of .
Insignia of rank and badges . Insults and public curiosity, protection
from . Intellectual pursuits . Interim protection if status doubtful_ _ _ _ International Committee of Red Cross.
(See Red Cross.) Internees, to be separated from . Internment of prisoners:
Generally .
In neutral country . Interrogation . Judicial proceedings .
Appellate rights . Defense . Notification of proceedings to:
Accused . Protecting Powers. (See Pro-tecting powers, above.) Principles in general .
GPW, 30
HR, 14, 16; GPW,

122-124 HR, 9; GPW, 17 GPW, 30, 54, 55,
114, 121 GPW, 18, 40
GPW, 13 GPW, 38 GPW, 5
GPW, 84
HR, 5; GPW, 20-24 GPW, 111 HR, 9; GPW, 17 GPW, 99-108 GPW, 106 GPW, 99, 105
GPW, 104, 107
GPW, 99
Sentence, validity and execution .GPW, 102, 107, 108
128
78 10, 11, 111
10, 73 78, 86,108, 111 74, 82
72 81 70
98
9, 75 107
10, 73 102 105
102, 104
103, 105
102 103, 105
DODD0A-012315

Prisoners of war-Continued Killing prohibited . Labor:
Accidents, occupational . Authorized labor . Complaints regarding . Conditions of. Dangerous or humiliating labor, gen-
erally prohibited . Detachments of labor, administra-tion of . Disease, occupational .
Employers, private . Generally . Officers and noncommissioned offi-
cers. Persons subject to. Physical examination . Prisoners' representatives_ . Rest required . Wages .
War operations, relations to . Language employed. Laws and regulations applicable .
.
Article* Paps
.
GPW, 13 72 .
GPW, 54, 55 86 HR, 6; GPW, 50, 52.9, 85
.
GPW, 50, 54 85
.
GPW, 51 85 .
GPW, 52 85 .
GPW, 56 86
.
GPW, 54, 55 86
.
Duration of, hours and days .GPW, 53 86
.
Legal documents .
Legislation. (See Laws, above.)
Letters. (See this title, Correspondence.)
Levee en masse_ .

Maintenance of .

Medical duties . Medical examination and care (see also Wounded and sick, below) .
Medical commissions, mixed .
Medical personnel: Neutral personnel . Retained personnel_ .
Status and duties.
Voluntary aid society personnel_ _ _ _ Mess supervision (see also Food, above) _ Ministers of religion. (See Religious
Ministers, below.) Militia and volunteer corps . Money. (See Finances, above.) Movement, liberty of . Neutral personnel (see also Protecting
Powers, below) .
HR, 6; GPW, 57 9, 87
.
GPW, 49 91 .
GPW, 49 91
.
GPW, 49, 81 91, 97
.
GPW, 55 86
.
GPW, 81 97
.
GPW, 53 86 HR, 6; GPW, 54, 57, 9, 86, 87, 58, 62, 64...89, 90 GPW, 50, 52 85
.
GPW, 17, 41, 79 73, 82, 103
.
GPW, 41, 82 82, 97
.
Ex post facto laws prohibited .GPW, 99 102
.
GPW, 77
ER, 7; GPW, 4 ER, 7; GPW, 15, 60, 67 GPW, 32
GPW, 30;31, 55, 112, 113 GPW, 112, 113, Annex II
GWS, 32
GWS, 24, 25, 27, 29,

32; GPW, 33 GWS, 24, 25, 28-33 GWS, 26, 28 GPW, 44, 45
.
GPW, 4 .
GPW, 21 .
GWS, 32
95
9, 68
9, 73, 88, 91 79
78, 79, 86, 107, 108 107, 108, 124
35 33, 34, 35, 79 33, 34 33, 34 83
68
75
35
279.
DODD0A-012316
Prisoners of war-Continued Neutral territory: Accommodation .
Escape to . Internment in. Passage through_ .
Treatment.
Wounded and sick prisoners . Noncommissioned officers, supervisory work only . Notification by belligerents: To each other (see also Information Bureau, above) .
Adidas
H. V, 13; GPW, 109­
117, Annex I IL V, 13 GPW, 111
H. V, 13, 14; GWS, 37
H. V, 13, 14; GWS,
37 GPW, 109, 110
GPW, 49
GPW, 43, 58, 69
To Protecting Power . GPW, 69, 81, 94, 100, 101, 104, 105, 107, 121
Occupational accidents. (See Labor, above.)

Occupied areas, certain persons in .GPW, 82 Offenses (see also Punishment, below; Discipline, above): Committed prior to capture.. .GPW, 85
Officers: GPW, 44 Generally_ . GPW, 39, 44 Labor. HR, 6; GPW, 49 Mess supervision . GPW, 44 Prisoners' representatives__ _____ GPW, 79 Quarters . GPW, 97
Orders and regulations, posting of .GPW, 41 Parcels by mail may be received .HR, 16; GPW, 72
Parols
Pay (see also Finance, above): Advance pay . Labor, pay for .
Supplementary pay . Penal and disciplinary sanctions. (See Punishment, below.) Personal property (see also Clothing, above) .
Prohibited acts. (See Prohibited acts.) Prisoners' representatives. (See Repre-sentatives of prisoners, below.) Protecting Powers: Complaints to
HR, 10-12; GPW, 21
GPW, 60 HR, 6, 17; GPW, 54, 62 GPW, 61
,RR, 4, 14; GWS, 4-7, 12, 13, 15; • GWS Sea, 27, 29,
Paps
20, 106, 119 20 107 20, 37
20, 37
106
84
83, 87, 91
91, 97, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 111
97
98 83 82, 83 9, 84 83 103 101 82 11, 92 10, 75
88 9, 11, 86, 89
as
8, 10, 25, 28, 29, 56, 57, 58, 74,
37; GPW, 18-79, 97, 113, 114
82-108, 125, 127
GPW, 78, 81 95, 97

Correspondence . GPW, 71, 75 92, 94
DODD0A-012317

Prisoners of war—Continued Protecting Powers—Continued
Notification as to: Death penalty . Judicial proceedings. Killed or injured prisoners Labor.Measures taken concerning pris-
oners .Recapture .
An1CUS
GPW, 100, 101 GPW, 104, 105 GPW, 121
GPW, 56
GPW, 69 GPW, 94
Supervision of camps.GPW, 126 Visitation of camps .GPW, 128 Protection: Commencement and termination.._ _ GPW, 5
.
Generally GPW, 5-7, 12-16 Hazards of war . GPW, 23 Interim . GPW, 5
Punishment: Acts committed prior to capture .GPW, 85 Appeal, right of . GPW, 106 Coercion . GPW, 99 Collective punishment forbidden.. .GPW, 87 Confinement . GPW, 97
Courts .Death penalty .
Defense, right to .Disciplinary punishment (see also Discipline, above) .
Duration . Escape .
GPW, 84, 102 GPW, 100, 101, 107
GPW, 96, 105
ER, 8; GPW, 39-42,
89, 90, 96
GPW, 90
HR, 8; H. V, 13;

GPW, 91-94
Ez poskfaeto laws prohibited .GPW, 99
Execution of penalties . Forms of . General principles . Leniency . Notice of:
Proceeding for
.

Results
.
Place of Repatriation or accommodation in neutral country .
GPW, 88, 97 GPW, 89 GPW, 87-89, 99 GPW, 83
GPW, 104 GPW, 107 GPW, 97
GPW, 115
Repetitive punishment prohibited_ _ .GPW, 86 Rights during. GPW, 98, 108 Safeguards . GPW, 98 Sentence, validity . GPW, 102
Physical exercise. (See Recreation, be-low.)
Quarters . GPW, 25
Questioning of_ . GPW, 17
102, 103 103, 104 111 86
91 101 114 114
70
70, 72 76 70
98 105 102 98 101 98, 103 102, 103, 105 101, 104
9, 82, 99, 101 99 9, 20, 100
102 99, 101 99 98, 102 97
103 105 101
108 98 102, 105 102 103
77 73
281
DODD0A-012318
Prisoners of war-Continued Rank: Notification to parties to conflict_ __ Recognition of .
Rations. (See Food, above.)
Recapture, notice .

Adidas
HR, 9, 14; GPW, 43 HR, 6, 19; GPW, 39, 43-45, 98
GPW, 21, 91-94
Recreation .GWS, 26; GPW, 38, 108, 125, 126
Release . GPW, 21, 109-119 Relief: Collective relief, regulations con-cerning. GPW, Annex III Shipments or transportation .GPW, 72-75 Exemption from postal and transportation charges .GPW, 74
Page
10,83 9, 12, 82, 83, 102
75, 100 33, 81, 105, 113, 114 75, 106
126 92
93
Relief societies. (See this title, Aid societies; Red Cross.) Religious freedoms .
Religious buildings . Religious ministers .
HR, 18; GPW, 34-.11, 80 37
HR, 46. 16
GWS, 24; GPW, 7,.33, 70, 81 35-37
Renunciation of rights prohibited .GWS, 7; GPW, 7.26, 70
Repatriation (see also Exchange of pris­oners; Release of prisoners): Activity of repatriated prisoners__ _ Agreement, model . Asylums permitted . Costs of . Certificate, model . Exchanges . Hostilities, end of . Injured person . Mixed medical commissions exami­nations . Prisoners serving sentences . Procedures . Wounded and sick .
Reports . Representatives of prisoners .
Duties .
Prerogatives . Reprisals prohibited . 'Retained personnel .
Rights protected (see also Treatment, be­low) .
GPW, 117 GPW, Annex I GPW, 119 GPW, 116, 118 GPW, Annex IV GPW, 118, 119 HR, 20; GPW, 118 GPW, 114
GPW, 113 GPW, 115 GPW, 119 GWS, 14; GPW, 109, 110 GPW, 78 GPW, 44, 45, 57, 78-81, 98, 104, 107, 125, 127
GPW, 57, 78-81, 98, 104, 107, 125, 127
GPW, 81 GPW, 13 GWS, 24, 25, 27-29, 31, 32; GPW, 33
GPW, 24
109
119
109
109
128
109
12, 109
108

108
108
109
29, 109

95
83, 87, 95,
102, 103,
105, 113,
114
87,95,102,
103, 105,
113, 114
97
72
33, 34,
35, 79

77
282.
DODD0A-012319
Prisoners of war-Continued Screening camps . Segregation of . Sick and wounded. (See Wounded, sick,
or shipwrecked, below.) Special agreements concerning . Spies. (See Espionage, sabotage, and
treason.) Summary execution forbidden . Supervision by Protecting Powers. (See
Protecting Powers, above.) Transactions with enemy prohibited_ _ Transfers.
Circumstances precluding . Conditions of .
Articles GPW, 23 GPW, 16 Pas 76 73
GPW, 6 70
GPW, 23 76
GPW, 18 GPW, 46-48 GPW, 47 GPW, 46 74 83 84 83

Procedure . GPW, 48 84 Transit camps . GPW, 24 77
Treatment: General rights
Nonrenunciation of . Equality of treatment . Officers . Persons other than officers Responsibility for .
Trial. (See Judicial proceedings, above; Bee also Punishment, above.)
HR, 3, 4; GPW, 5-7, 8
12-16
GPW, 22 76
GPW, 16 73
GPW, 44 83
GPW, 45 83
GPW, 12 72

Uniform, recognition as belligerent .GPW, 4 68
Violence and intimidation prohibited_ _ _
Visitation and supervision of camps by Protecting Powers. (See Protecting Powers, above.)
Voluntary aid societies for. (See Aid
societies.) Volunteer camps . Weapons to be used against prisoners of
war. Wills .
Women as prisoners of war, special men­tion: Protection generally .
.
Punishments
Quarters .
Work. (See Labor.)
Wounded, sick, or shipwrecked: Evacuation . Medical examination .
Neutral countries, accommodation in .
Personal effects of .
GPW, 13 72
GPW, 4 68
GPW, 42 82 HR, 19; GPW, 77, 12, 95, 110 120
GPW, 14, 16, 49, 108 73, 84, 105 GPW, 88, 97, 108.99, 101, 105 GPW, 25, 29, 97, 108.77, 78, 101, 105
GPW, 19. 75 GPW, 30, 31, 55,.78, 79, 86, 112, 113.107, 108
H. V, 14, 15; GWS.20, 53, 106
Sea,'16; GPW, 109 GWS, 16. 29
283.
DODDOA-012320
Prisoners of war—Continued Wounded, sick, or shipwrecked—Con. Protection of . Repatriation .
Sentenced prisoners . Special agreements with respect to.... Status as prisoners of war .
Articles
.
GWS, 5, 16 25, 29 GPW, 109, 110,..106, 108, 114, 116 109
.
GPW, 115 108
.
GWS, 6; GPW, 6 25, 70
.
GWS, 14; GWS 29, 53, 59
Transfers . GPW, 47 Prisoner of War Information Bureau__ .GPW, 122 Prohibited acts (see also Weapons):
Assassination and outlawry .HR, 23
Bombardment of undefended places .HR, 25

Civilians, certain acts toward . Commencing hostilities without declara-tion of war .
Compelling enemy to participate in hos-tilities against own country . Confiscation of enemy property. (See
Property.) Destruction of: HistoriC and educational institu-
tions . Property . Submarine cables (see Submarine
cables, below) Devastation (see also Destruction, above)_ Flags and insignia, improper use of (see
also Red Cross) . Geneva Convention emblem, improper
use of . Germ warfare . Guides, impressment of . Hostages, taking of . Injury of enemy after surrender or by
prohibited means .
Sea, 16, 39
.
.

GC, 32-34
H. HI, 1 HR, 23
HR, 56. HR, 23, 56.
HR, 54. GC, 53, 147.
HR, 23.
HR, 23. HR, 23. GC, 31.
84 111
12 13 145
2
12
17 12, 17
17 152, 183
12
12 12 145
GC, 34. 146
HR, 22, 23. 12

Ill-treatment of peaceful populations__ .GWS, GWS Sea,.24, 48, 67
GPW, GC, 3
Perfidy. (See Treachery.)
Pillage . GC, 33. 146
Poison. (See Weapons.)
Prisoners of war: Discriminating treatment of .GPW, 16. . 73

Inhuman treatment of_ . Killing or wounding of . Status, no renunciation of .
Punishment, collective punishment for-bidden .
Quarters, refusal of .
Red Cross emblem, improper use of. (See Red Cross.)
Reprisals .
GPW, 13, 14 72, 73
.
GPW, 13, 14
.
GPW, 7 .
GC, 33
.
HR, 23
72, 73 70
146 12
GWS, 46; GWS.40, 62, 72, Sea,'47; GPW, 13,.98, 146 87; GC, 33
. 284 DODDOA-012321
Page
72, 98, 146
17 72, 73
12
74 74 12, 74, 152
12, 16, 17,
17 13, 17, 141, 152 12, 17, 152 10 173 17, 152 17 13, 16, 17, 152 8, 74
16
12, 152 17 17 17
16
17
152 17 17 17 17 17
13, 140 141, 153 17, 152,
153
Articles
Prohibited acts-Continued
Revengeful acts . GPW, 13, 87; GC,
33 Submarine cables, destruction of_ .HR, 54 Torture and other inhuman treatment .GPW, 13, 14
Weapons, certain weapons prohibited. (See Weapons.)
Wounded and sick, ill treatment of sur­rendered personnel; killing or wounding of
Property: Bombardment of. (See Bombardment.) Booty of war . Captured . Combat, treatment during .
Confiscation or seizure (see also Requi­sitions; Pillage, below) .
Control by occupant power . Cultural.
Destruction . Inquiry office . Internees, property of . Military . Municipal . Pillage, prohibited .
Prisoner of war, property of.. .
Private property: Confiscation prohibited . Destruction of .
Immovable, requisition or seizure .HR, 52
Military use . Movable . Prohibited acts with regard to (see
also Prohibited acts) . Seizure . Public pioperty: Administration by occupying power_
HR, 53 HR, 53
ER, 46 LIR, 53
HR, 55, 56
Military use of .
Movable .
Preservation of .
Requisitions .
State property .

Railway equipment. (See Railway equipment.) Religious, charitable, cultural, etc_-
Requisitions .
Seizure. (See Confiscation, above.)
HR, 23
GPW, 18
GPW, 18
HR, 23; GPW, 18; GC, 53
HR, 23, 46, 53; GC, 53
HR, 53-56
11R, 27, 56; GC, 18, 19, 53 HR, 23, 53; GC, 53 HR, 14 GC, 114 HR, 53 HR, 56 ER, 28, 47, 56; GC, 33
HR, 4; GPW, 18
BR, 46 HR, 23, 54; GC, 53
DispoSition by occupying power .GC, 53
HR, 53 11R, 53 HR, 55 HR, 52 ER, 53, 55
11R, 27, 46, 56; GC, 14, 18, 19, 56 ER, 52; GC, 55, 57
DODD0A-012322

Property-Continued State property. (See Public property,
above.) Submarine cables. HR, 54 Surrender, disposition of property .GPW, 18 Undefended buildings, bombardment of.. HR, 25
Protected persons (see also Aliens; Civilians;
Internees): Coercion prohibited . Collective penalties prohibited . Definition as. Derogations permitted . Neutrals as . Reestablishment of . Rights, nonrenunciation of. Special agreements . Treatment, responsibilities .
GC, 31 GC, 33 GC, 4, 13 GC, 6, 68 GC, 4, 13 GC, 6 _ GC, 8 GC, 7 GC, 29
Protecting Powers, application to .GC, 30
Protecting powers .
Arbitration and conciliation procedures__ Defined .
Failure to function, remedies .
Functions (see also Internees; Occupied Territory; Prisoners of War). Generally.
International Red Cross Committee, no obstacle to functioning . Notification with respect to . Internees . Prisoners of war. (See Prisoners of war-Protecting Powers.) Protected persons . Substitutes for Visitations by . Public conscience .
GWS, GWS Sea; GPW, 8-11; GC, 9-11
GWS, GWS Sea; GPW, 11; GC, 12
GWS, GWS Sea; GPW, 8-11; GC, 9-11
GWS, GWS Sea; GPW, 10; GC, 11 GWS, GWS Sea; 8-11
GWS, GWS Sea; GPW, 8-11; GC, 9-11
GWS, GWS Sea; GPW, 8; GC, 9 GWS, GWS Sea; GPW, 9; GC, 10 GC, 105, 129, 131
Page
17 74 13
145 146 136, 140 137, 156 136, 140 137 138 137 145 145 26, 50, 70, 138
27, 51, 72, 159 26, 50, 70, 138
27, 51, 71, 138 27, 50
27, 50, 70, 138
26, 50, 70 138 26, 51, 71, 138 169, 177, 178
GPW, 107, 121;.105, 111, GC, 49, 71, 75.150, 157, 158 GWS, GWS Sea;.27, 51, 72, GPW, 10; GC, 11.138 GPW, 126; GC 76.114, 159
H. IV, Preamble.5
DODD0A-012323

Articles
Punishment of: Armistice violation by private persons__ HR, 41 Inhabitants of occupied territory. (See
Occupied territory.) Prisoners of war. (See Prisoners of war.) Spies. (See under Espionage, sabotage
and treason.) War criminals. (See War crimes.)
Quarters. (See Internees; Prisoners of war.) Refusal of . HR, 23
Radios (see also Communications): Neutral territory . H. V, 3, 8, 9
Railway equipment: Neutrality rules concerning .H. V, 19 Prisoner of war correspondence, free car-
riage. HR, 16 Rank. (See Prisoners of war; see also Of­ficers.) Ratifications. (See Geneva Conventions,
Hague Conventions.) Recapture. (See Prisoners of war.) Recruitment:
Neutral territory . H. V,4
Occupied territory. GWS, 38; GC, 25 Red Crescent. (See Red Cross-emblem.) Red Cross (see also Aid societies; Medical
personnel; Medical units): Emblem . HR, 23; GWS, 38-44; GC 25 Auxiliary personnel, use by .GWS, 41
Form . GWS, 38; GWS Sea,
41
Hospitals and other medical units,
and transports, land, sea an d air,
the marking of GWS, 42; GWS Sea,
41-44; GC, 18, 22,
23, 27
Improper use, prohibited . GWS, 44, 53, 54;

GWS Sea 45
Medical personnel, use by .GWS, 40; GWS Sea, 19, 36, 37, 42; GC, 20
Peacetime use . GWS, 44, 53, 54; GWS Sea, 45 Private and public individuals, firms, etc . GWS, 53, 54; GWS Sea 45 Religious personnel, use by .GWS, 40; GWS Sea, 19, 36, 37, 42 Family news, facilitation of .GC, 27
Page
15
12

19 37, 144
12, 37, 144
38 37, 60
38, 60, 141, 142, 143, 144 39, 41, 42, 62 38, 54, 58, 60, 142
39, 41, 42, 62
41, 42, 62
38, 54, 58, 60 144
287
DODD0A-012324
_ _ .
Red Cross-Continued International Committee of Red Cross activities .
Hospital zones, good offices for es­tablishment of .
Prisoners' representatives, right to
consult with . Purpose . Relief shipments of Central Agency
(see Relief shipments.) . Special status to be given recogni-tion. Substitute for Protecting Power (see also Protecting Powers) .
Visits, with respect to: Prisoners of war. Protected persons .
National Red Cross societies, status of personnel.
Articles.Page
GWS, GWS Sea, 9- 26, 51, 71, 11; GPW, 9-11, 92, 93, 138 72, 73; GC, 10-12
GWS, 23; GPW,.32, 113, 123; GC, 14.140
GPW, 79, 81.96, 97 GPW, 123; GC, 130.113, 178
GPW, 123; GC, 130.113, 178
GPW, 125; GC, 142.113, 182
GWS, GWS Sea,.27, 51, 71, GPW, 10; GC, 11.138 .
GPW, 125, 126 113, 114
.
HR, 50; GC, 143 16, 182 .
GWS, 26 33
.
Prisoners of war, medical personnel .GPW, 26 77
.
Protected persons, right to complain to .GC, 30 145
.
Relief activities .
Red Lion and Sun. (See Red Cross-em­blem.)
Refugees .
Relief (see Civilians; Internees; Prisoners of war)
Relief societies. (See Aid societies; Red Cross.)
Religion: Religious activities and freedoms. (See under Aliens; Civilians; Internees; Prisoners of war; and Occupied terri­tory.)
GPW, 7t, 73, 75; 92, 93, 94, GC, 59, 61, 63,..153, 161, 108, 109, 111 170, 171
.
GC, 44 149
.
GPW, 72-75, 108 92, 105
Religious buildings, protection of .HR, 27, 28, 46, 56; 13, 16, 17,
Religious personnel: Besieged places. (See Besieged places.) Capture, retention or return by an enemy .
Emblem of protection .
Identification .
Rights, nonrenunciation .
GC, 14, 18, 19.140, 141
GWS, 28, 30, 31;.34, 35, 58, GWS Sea, 36;.81 GPW, 36
GWS, 40; GWS Sea,.38, 60 42
GWS, 40; Annex II; 38, 47, 60, GWS Sea, 42; An- 66 nex
GWS, 7; GWS Sea, 7.26, 50
Security measures with respect to .GWS, 30. 35 288
DODD0A-012325
Remedies available for violation of interna­tional law .
Repatriation. (See Occupied territory; Pris-
oners of war; Wounded, sick or shipwrecked.) Reporters. (See Newspaper Correspondents.) Representatives of: (See Internees; Prisoners
of war): Belligerents. (See Parlementaires.) Internees. (See Internees.) Neutral states. (See Neutral powers­
diplomatic agents.) Red Cross. (See Red Cross.) Reprisals .
Requisitions. (See Occupied territory.) Food and medical supplies. General . Hospitals . Labor and other services .
Property .
Railway material . Retained personnel, medical and spiritual re­ligious personnel .
Retaliation. (See Reprisals.) Revengeful acts prohibited .
.
Articles Pao
.
GWS, 11, 49-51; 27, 40, 51, GWS Sea, 11, 50-63, 72, 97, 53; GPW, 11, 13,..115, 139, 82-108, 130-132; 146, 183 GC, 12, 33, 34, 146-149
GWS, 46; GWS Sea, 40,62, 72,
47; GPW, 13, 87; GC, 33, 34
GC, 55, 57 HR, 52, GC 55, 57 GC, 57 HR, 23, 52; GC, 51,
54 HR, 19, 52; GC. 55,57 HR, 19
GWS, 24-31; GPW, 33
GC, 33, 34
Rewards for captured or killed enemy .HR, 23
Rheims, Unconditional surrender of German forces at . Robbery. (See Weapons; Booty of war; Pil-
lage.) Rules of war. (See Laws of war.) Ruses of war.
Sabotage. (See under Espionage, sabotage, and treason.) Safe conducts: Forms (see also Passports, mili-
tary) .Safeguards; Forms .Safety zones (see also Hospital zones; Neutral-
ized zones) Sailors. (See Wounded, sick or shipwrecked.) Sanitation:
Internees . Prisoner of war camps . Science, buildings devoted to, protection of
App. D
HR, 23, 24
App. A App. A
GC, 14
GC, 85
GPW, 29
HR, 27, 56; GC, 14,
18, 19
98, 146
152 17, 152, 153 153 12, 17, 151, 152 12, 17, 152, 153 12
33, 79
146 12
232
12, 13
195 195
140
161
78 13, 17, 140, 141
289.
DODD0A-012326
Security measures. (See Aliens; Civilians; Occupied territory; Prisoners of war; Prop­erty—religious personnel.)
Segregation. (See Prisoners of war; see also Women.) Ships (see also Medical units, Hospital ships, Sick-bays) .Shipments to prisoners of war .Relief shipments. (See under Relief ship­ments.) Shipwrecked belligerents. (See Wounded, sick, or shipwrecked.) Sick and wounded. (See Wounded, sick or shipwrecked.)
Sieges. (See Besieged places.)
Signs, to distinguish protected buil6ings, etc_.

Articles
GWS Sea, 14 GPW, 72
HR, 27
Special agreements with respect to:
.
Civilians, protection of GC, 7
.
Hospital and safety zones GWS, 23; GC, 14 Neutralized zones . GC, 15 Prisoners of war . GPW, 6 Wounded and sick. GWS, 6
Spies. (See Espionage, sabotage and treason;
see also Ruses.) Stratagems. (See Prohibited acts; R uses.) .HR, 23, 24 Subjugation . GC, 47 Submarine cables . HR, 54 Subordinates, responsibility for acts of .GPW, 12; GC 38,
54 Summary executions. (See Prisoners of war.) Supplies, requisition of. (See Requisitions,
above.)
Surrender (see also Capitulation; White flag) _ _ GC, 147 Of German Forces at Rheims .App. D German Commander-in-Chief, South-
west and his forces . App. E Suspension of hostilities. (See Armistice.)
Taxes. (See Occupied territory—taxes; Pris­oners of war—parcels.) Telegraph and telephone: Neutral territory . H. V, 3, 8, 9
Notification to neutral Power of state of war Torture, forbidden. (See Civilians; Prisoners of war.) Transfers. (See Internees; Prisoners of war; Occupied territory.) Transit prisoner of war camps. (See Prison­ers of war.) Transportation:
.
In occupied territory
Wounded and sick.
.
Travel, occupied territory Treachery, forbidden .
HR, 53; GC, 48
GC, 21, 22 GC, 48 HR, 23, 24
Pas
53 92
13
137 32, 140 140 70 25
12, 13 150 17 72, 147, .152
183 232
233
18, 19
2
17, 150 142 150 12, 13
DODD0A-012327

Treason. (See Espionage, sabotage, and trea-Aritaa .Pose son.) Treaties, generally (see also Geneva Conven­tions, Hague Conventions and Regulations). GWS, 59; GWS.43, 64, 118, Sea, 58; GPW,.185 134, 135; GC, 154
Trials. (See Prisoners of war; Occupied ter­ritory; War crimes.) Truce. (See Armistice.)
Undefended places, attacks or bombardment of.
Uniform, necessity for status as belligerent.._ Uniform of enemy: Improper use of . Proper use of . Unnecessary suffering, use of arms for, for-bidden . Unwritten rules of land warfare .
Usufructuary, occupying power regarded .as.. _
Violations of the laws of war (see also War crimes) .
Volunteer aid societies. (See Aid societies; see also Red Cross.) Volunteer corps of belligerents . Volunteers to care for wounded and sick .
Wages. (See Prisoners of war-pay.) War (see also Hostilities): Declaration of. Laws of war (see Laws of war) .
Notification to neutral Powers . War crimes: Acts which constitute .
Armistice, violation of . Collective punishment. (See Punish­ment, below.) Death penalty. (See Punishment, below.) Geneva Conventions, grave breaches of _
HR, 25, 27; GC, 14, 18, 19 GPW, 4
HR, 23 HR, 23
HR, 23 GWS, 63; GWS Sea, 62; GPW, 142; GC, 158 HR, 55
GWS, 11, 13, 52; GWS Sea, 11, 53; GPW, 11, 13, 87, 132; GC, 12, 13, 33, 34, 149
HR, 1; GPW, 4 GWS, 18
H. III, 1, 2 GWS, GWS Sea, GPW, GC, 12
H. III, Preamble, 2, 3
HR, 41; GWS, 50; GWS Sea, 51 HR, 41
GWS, 49-51; GWS Sea, 50-52; GPW, 129, 131; GC, 148, 148
13, 140, 141 68
12 12
12 44, 65, 117, 185
17
27, 28, 41, 51, 63, 72, 98, 116, 139, 140, 146, 184
8 31
2 28, 52, 72, 139 2
15, 41, 63
15
40, 63, 115, 183
291
DODD0A-012328
.
War crimes-Continued Hostages, taking of .Jurisdiction.
Laws applicable .
.
Artieisi Pape GWS, 50; GWS Sea,.41. 63 51; GPW, 130 GWS,.49; GWS Sea,.40, 63,
50; GPW, 82-108,..97, 115, 129; GC, 146 183 GWS, 49; GWS Sea,.40, 63, 50; GPW, 105,..104, 115, 129; GC, 46 149
.
Prisoners of war liability for .GPW, 85, 87 98 Punishment: Responsibilities . GWS, 49; GWS Sea,.40, 63,
.
50; GPW, 129; 115, 183 GC, 146 Remedial action other than punishment._ H. IV, 3; GWS,.6, 27, 51,
Suppression.
Trials .
War criminals. (See War crimes.)
Warfare. (See Hostilities; Bacteriological warfare.)
Warship .
War treason. (See Espionage, sabotage, and treason.)
Weapons:
GWS Sea, GPW,.72, 139 11; GC, 12
GWS, 49; GWS Sea,..40, 63, 50; GPW, 129: 115, 183 GC, 146
GWS, 49; GWS Sea,.40, 63, 50; GPW, 82-108,..97, 115, 129; GC, 146 183
GWS Sea, 14, 28, 32.53, 57
Bullets, certain types prohibited .HR, 23. 12
Carried openly . HR, 1. Causing unnecessary injury, forbidden .HR, 23. Grenades, use authorized . HR, 23 . 8 12 12
Inhabitants taking up arms spontane-
ously HR, 2. 8
Medical units and personnel, authority to

use . Occupation army taking possession Poisons . Prisoners of war . Rockets . Surrendered persons .
White flag, use.
Wills: Internees . Prisoners of war
.HR, 2; GWS, 22.8, 32
of _ _ _ HR, 53. 17 HR, 23. 17 HR, 4, 12; GPW, 42.8, 10, 82
HR,23. 12
HR,23. 12
HR, 23, 32. 12, 14

GC, 113, 129.172, 177 HR, 19; GPW, 77,.12, 95, 120. 110
Wounded, sick, or shipwrecked .GWS, 16; GWS Sea,.30, 59 19
Women. (See under Aliens; Internees; Pris-oners of war; Occupied territory.)
292.
DODD0A-012329
Workers. (See Occupied territory-labor; Prisoners of war-labor.) Wounded, sick or shipwrecked (see also Pris­oners of war; Red Cross) .
Abandoned, medical personnel to be left with . Aircraft at sea . American National Red Cross. (See Red Cross.) Applicability. Arms and ammunition .
Articles
HR, 23, 53; GWS, 4-7, 12, 13, 15, 20 35, 36, 38-44; GWS Sea, 4, 13, 22, 27, 29, 37, 43; GPW 33, 47, 109­117
GWS, 12 GWS Sea, 12
GWS, GWS Sea, 13 GWS, 22
Bombardments and sieges, spared in .HR, .27; GWS, 19,
Captured, status as prisoners of war__ _ _ Care and treatment of .
Casualties, search and removal .Civilians..(See Civilians-wounded, sick or shipwrecked.) Coastal rescue craft .
Convoys_ .
Death of (see also Wills) .
Defense of. (See Protection, below.)__ _ _ Definition . Detention in neutral territory .
Discrimination . Emblems, use .
Evacuation . Examination by medical commissions.. _ _ Exchange of wounded and sick .
22, 23; GWS Sea, 4, 20, 22, 27, 29, 37, 43; GC, 14, 18, 19 GWS, 13; GPW, 4 GWS, 12, 15, 18; GWS Sea, 12, 28 GWS, 15
GWS, 4, 20; GWS
Sea, 4, 22, 27, 29, 37, 55, 56,
43
H. V, 14; GWS, 37; GWS Sea, 15 GWS, 26, 27, 35, 36,
PG0
12, 17, 25, 28, 29, 31, 36, 37, 49, 52, 55, 56, 57, 58, 61, 79, 84, 106
28 52
28, 52 32 13, 31, 32
49, 55, 56, 57, 58, 61 140, 141 28, 68 28, 29, 31 52, 57 29
25, 31, 49,
57, 58, 61 20 53 54, 55
.
GWS Sea, 19, 20; 136, 142 GC, 4, 21, 22 GWS, 16, 17..29, 30
.
GWS, Sea 12 52
.
H. V, 11, 12, 16; 19, 20, 53,
.
GWS Sea 15, 17 54
.
GWS Sea, 30 57
.
HR, 23; GWS, 38-12
.
44; GWS Sea, 19 37, 54
.
GC, 17 141
.
GPW, 112, 113 107, 108
.
GWS, 15 29
Geneva Conventions, execution of .GWS, 45; GWS Sea,.40;62
46
.
Graves Registration Service . GWS, 17 30
Hospitals. (See Medical units.)
Hospital ships. (See Hospital ships.)

293.
DODDOA-012330
Page
32 12, 52 28, 29 29, 54, 55, 66 28, 29, 52, 54 10, 29, 54
31 10, 11
29 57
49
53, 54, 56
20
49, 60
106
53, 54, 60
53, 54

20.. 53 20, 37 54
28, 52, 68
12, 13, 25, 28, 52
29
106
40, 62
25, 31, 49,
55, 57,
61
26, 50

28, 29
Wounded, sick or shipwrecked-Continued Hospital zones . Humane treatment .
Identification .
Ill-treatment .
Information to be exchanged .
Inhabitants may be asked to care Internment in neutral state . Medical personnel. (See Medical person-
nel.) Medical units. (See Medical units.) Money and personal effects . Nationality . Neutral Powers, duties toward (see also
Neutral territory, below) .
Neutral ships . Neutral territory: Accommodation in .
Detention in .
Entrance into, ruleZ governing .H. V, 14; GWS Sea,
Articles
GWS, 23 HR, 21; GWS, 12, 15; GWS Sea, 12 GWS, 16; GWS Sea, 19, 20, Annex GWS, 12, 15; GWS Sea, 12, 18 HR, 14; GWS, 16;
GWS Sea, 19 GWS, 18 HR, 11, 12, 16
GWS, 16 GWS Sea, 30
GWS, 4; GWS Sea, 5 GWS Sea, 15, 17, 25
H. V, 14, 15; GWS Sea, 5, 40; GPW, 109-117
GWS Sea, 15, 17, 40
Internment in .
Neutral ports of entry .
Passage through . Personal effects .
Pillage prohibited. (See Pillage.) Prisoners of war. (See Prisoners of war-
Wounded, sick or shipwrecked.) Persons protected .
Protection of .
Records regarding . Red Cross. (See Red Cross.) Repatriation .
Reprisals prohibited .
Rescue craft .
Rights, nonrenunciation of . Robbery and ill-treatment, protection
from .
15, 17
H. V, 11, 12, 16 GWS Sea, 15, 16
.
H. V, 14; GWS, 37
GWS, 16; GWS Sea, 19
GWS, GWS Sea, 13; GPW, 4
HR, 21, 27; GWS, 5, 12; GWS Sea 12
GWS, 16
GPW, 109, 110, 114, 116 GWS, 46; GWS Sea, 47
GWS, 4, 20; GWS Sea, 4, 22, 29, 37, 43
GWS, GWS Sea, 7
GWS, 12, 15
294.
DODDOA-012331
.
Wounded, sick or shipwrecked—Continued Articles Pate Shipwrecked or at sea GWS, 4, 20; GWS 25, 31, 49, Sea, 4, 12, 22, 29, 52, 55, 37, 43 57, 58, 61 Special agreements with respect to .GWS, GWS Sea, 6 25, 50 Surrender to enemy at sea .GWS Sea, 14 53 Transfers. GPW, 47 84 Transportation, vehicles used for .GWS, 4, 22, 26, 27, 25, 32, 33, 35, 36, GC, 4 136 Voluntary care may be requested .GWS 18, GWS Sea, 31, 55 21 Weapons taken from . GWS, 22 32 Women . GWS Sea, 12 52
By Order of Wilber M. Brucker, Secretary of the Army:
MAXWELL D. TAYLOR,
General, United States Army,
.
Official : Chief of Staff. JOHN A. KLEIN,
Major General, United States Army, The Adjutant General.
Distribution: Active Army; NG and USAR: A.
To be distributed on a need-to-know basis to all units and headquarters down to and including companies and batteries and to units and headquarters of comparable size.
U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1994 0 - 162-168

295.
DODD0A-012332
NOTES

DODDOA-012333

NOTES

DODD0A-012334

NOTES

DODD0A-012335

NOTES

DODD0A-012336

NOTES

DODD0A-012337

NOTES

DODD0A-012338

NOTES

DODD0A-012339

DODD0A-012340
PIN: 023433-000

Doc_nid: 
2658
Doc_type_num: 
75