Army Inspector General Report on Detainee Abuse

<p>This appears to be portions of a draft of the report by Army Inspector General Mikolashek on detainee abuse at US facilities overseas. Portions of this report were made public and published. The pages contained herein correspond to pages 16 through 22; 31 through 33; 36 through 40; and Appendix A of the report. Redacted portions of this document are not included.</p>

Oversight Report
Tuesday, February 14, 2006

MCIASSIFIED -sEERET-7NOFORIN DA I G 3c) inn leourn DOD-045382 PRASSIFIED a. Finding 2: (U) (1) Finding: In the cases the DAIG reviewed, all detainee abuse occurred when one or more individuals failed to adhere to basic standards of discipline, training, or Army Values; in some cases abuse was accompanied by leadership failure at the tactical level. (U) .(2) Standard: See Appendix E. (U) (3) Inspection Restilts: As of 9 June 2004, there were 125 reported cases of detainee abuse (to include death, assault, or indecent assault) that either had been, or were, under investigation. (U) For the purpose of this inspection, we defined abuse as wrongful death, assault, sexual assault, or theft. As of 9 June 2004 we had reviewed 103 summaries of Criminal Investigation Division (CID) reports of investigation and 22 unit investigation summaries conducted by the chain of command involving detainee death or alleged abuse. These 125 reports are in various stages of completion. No abuse was determined to have occurred in 31 cases; 71 cases are closed, and 54 cases are open inee death regardless of circumstances. (U) Recognizing that the facts and circumstances as currently known in ongoing cases may not be all inclusive, and that additional facts and circumstances could change the categorization of a case, the Team placed each report in a category for the purposes of this inspection to understand the overall numbers and the facts currently known, and to examine for a trend or systemic issue. This evaluation of alleged abuse reports is not intended to, nor should it, influence commanders in the independent exercise of their responsibilities under the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ) or other administrative disciplinary actions. As an Inspector General inspection, this report does not focus on individual conduct, but on systems and policies. (U) We separated these 125 cases into two categories: (1) no abuse occurred (2) confirmed or possible abuse (U) In the flrst category of no abuse occurring, we further separate the reports into deaths (to include death from natural muses and justified homicide as determined by courts martial) and other instances (to include cases where there was insufficient evidence to determine whether abuse occurred or where the leadership determined, through courts martial or investigation, that no abuse occurred). There were a total of 19 natural deaths and justified homicides, and 12 instantes of insufficient evidence or determined that no abuse occurred. Deaths occurred at the following locations: 15 at I/R facilities; 1 at Central Collecting Points (CPs); 1 at Forward CPs; and 2 at the point of capture (POC) for a total of 19. Other instances where it was determined that no abuse occurred were at the following locations: 2 at I/R facilities; 1 at Central CPs; 2 at Forward CPs; 5 at the POC; and 2 at locations which could not be determined or did not fall into doctrinal categories, for a total of 12. .31„ eRN— ICASSIFIEll IIICEASSIFIEll (U) In the second category of confirmed or possible abuse, we further separated the reports into wrongful deaths, deaths with undeterrnined causes, and other alleged abuse (e.g., assault, sexual assauft, or theft). There were a total of 20 deaths and 74 incidents of other alleged abuse. Deaths occurred at the following locations: 10 at I/R facilities; 0 at Central CPs; 5 at Forward CPs; and 5 at the POC, for a total of 20. Other instances of alleged abuse occurred at the following locations: 11 at I/R facilities; 3 at Central CPs; 11 at Forward CPs; 40 at the POC; and 9 at locations which could not be determined.or did not fall into doctrinal categories, for a total of 74. (U) This review indicates that as of 9 June 2004, 48% (45 of 94) of the alleged incidents of abuse occurred at the point of capture. For this inspection, the ONG Team interpreted point of capture events as detainee operations occurring at battalion level and below, before detainees are evacuated to doctrinal division forward or central collecting points (CPs). This allowed the DAIG Team to analyze and make a determination to where and what level of possible abuse occurred. The point of capture is the location where most contact with detainees occurs under the most uncertain, dangerous and frequently violent circumstances. During the period of April-August 2003 when units were most heavily engaged in c,ombat operations, 56% (29 of 52) of point of capture incidents were reported. Even during this period of high intensity combat operations! Soldiers and leadPrs identified incidents thPt they believe to he abusA and the command took action when reported. Most of the allegations of abuse that occurred at the point of capture were the result of actions by a Soldier or Soldiers who failed to maintain their self discipline, integrity, and military bearing, when dealing with the recently captured detainees. There are a few incidents that clearly show criminal activity by an individual or individuals with disregard of their responsibility as a Soldier. (U) This review further indicates that as of 9 June 2004, 22% (21 of 94) of the alleged incidents of abuse occurred at I/R facilities. This includes the highly publicized incident at Abu Ghraib. Those alleged abuse situations at the I/R Facilities are attributed to: individual failure to abide by known standards and/or individual failure compounded by a leadership failure to enforce known standards, provide proper supervision and stop potentially abusive situations from occurring. (U) While recognizing that any abuse incident is one too many, through a review of the summary reports of the 125 investigations and categorizing them, the DAIG found -there' was not a breakdown in the overall system and could not therefore identify a . systemic cause for the abuse incidents. The DAIG uses the term "systemic" specifically to describe a problem if it is widespread and presents a pattem. As defined by the DAIG in this report, a systemic issue may be found either horizontally across many various types of units, or vertically through many command levels from squad through division or higher level. The DAIG determined that incidents where detainees were allegedly mistreated occurred as isolated events. In a few incidents, higher ranking individuals up to Lieutenant Colonel were involved; however, the chain of command took action when an allegation of detainee abuse was reported. (U) Recognizing that the facts and circumstances as currently known in ongoing cases may not be all inclusive, and that additional facts and circumstances could change the categorization of a case, the Team placed each report in a category for the purposes of this inspection to understand the overall numbers and the facts currently known, and to examine for a trend or systemic issue. This evaluation of alleged abuse reports is not G-2 —SE C RET-iLti449FORtsl- DA iG 3a1-1IUPI AMorn DOD-045384 intended to influence commanders in the independent exercise of their responsibilities -under the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ) or other administrative disciplinary actions. (U) The DAIG Team that visited Iraq and Afghanistan found no incidents of abuse that had not already been reported through command channels; all incidents were already under investigation. The DAIG Team that visited units recently returning from Iraq did receive a total of 5 new allegations of potential abuse that occurred prior to January 2004. In each of these cases, CID and the chain of command were notified of the allegations. There is no evidence of any cover-up of current detainee abuse by U.S. Soldiers. This is consistent with the results of the teams' sensing sessions that all currently deployed Soldiers were aware of their responsibility to report abuse and appeared to be willing and able to report it. (U) In studying the actual abuse investigations, the incidents may be broken down into 2 broad categories. The first category will be referred to as isolated abuse, and the second as progressive abuse. The first are those incidents that appear to be a one-time occurrence. In other words, these are incidents where individual Soldiers took inappropriate actions upon the capture of detainees or while holding or interrogating th—ert-The-second-ca SI'. •. -• •.• ro s ressive abuse because these usually develop from an isolated incident into a more progressive abuse. (U) There is substantiai research on the behavior of guards in prisons and Enemy Prisoner of War (EPW)/Prisoner of War (POVV) camps, in addition to the Department of Defense (DoD) experience of running simulated prisoner of war resistance training. Research indicates that regardless of how good the training and oversight, some inappropriate behavior will occur. (For example, one of the seminal studies of prisoner/guard behavior is Haney, C., Banks, C., & Zimbardo, P., A Study of Prisoners and Guards in a Simulated Prison, the Office of Naval Research, 1973. For a more recent review, along with significant commentary, see Philip Zimbardo, A Situationalist Perspective on the Psychology of Evil: Understand How Good People are Transformed into Perpetrators, a chapter in Arthur Miller (Ed.) The social psychology of good and evil: Understanding our capacity for kindness and cruelty. New York: Guilford, 2004. Also worth reviewing are Stanley Milgram's studies, starting with Obedience to authority, New York: Harper & Row, 1974.) Because of this, the DoD simulated prisoner _I. of war resistance training, that prepares service members to resist exploitation, requires intensive oversight to prevent the abuse of Soldiers by other Soldiers. (U) Contributing factors to the first category of abuse include poor training (common in the cases the DAIG Team reviewed), poor individual discipline, novel situations (to include the stressors involved in combat operations), and a iack of control processes (specific oversight mechanisms). Commander's addressed the first category of abuse through counseling, administrative action, and UCMJ (up to and including courts-martial). (U) Below are 4 examples of this first category of detainee abuse from the 125 reported allegations referenced in the first paragraph of the inspection results above. (U) — One incident occurred at an internment/resettlement (I/R) facility where a Master Sergeant and her 3 subordinates attempted to beat several detainees as they astt-7' IINCIASSIFIEll °CLASSIFIED arrived at the camp. Other Soldiers, not in her chain of command, prevented much of _ the potential abuse and then reported the Master Sergeant to the chain of command who took corrective action. All 4 Soldiers were administratively separated from the Army; 3 of these Soldiers also received nonjudicial punishment. (U) — In another incident a Specialist was threatening detainees by stating he would shoot them. A guard observed him making these threats and immediately turned the Specialist in to his chain of command. The commander took quick action, administering an Article 15, to prevent a recurrence, (U) — Another example occurred in an intemment facility where a Specialist and a Staff Sergeant began to punish a detainee by using excessive force. Another Soldier from a different company joined them. The Platoon Sergeant discovered the incident and immediately relieved both of the Soldiers in his platoon and pressed charges against all 3. All 3 received field-grade Article 15 punishments. (U) — Another illustrative incident occurred when an interrogator struck a detainee on the head during questioning. The International Committee of the Red Cross, via the mayor of the detainee's compound, discovered this after the fact. Once e was - -- - cf the incident, the Soldier's commander investigated and ultimately issued a field-grade Article 15. The commander then required 2 Soldiers to be present during every interrogation. (U) In these examples, abuse was discovered immediately by the command, and corrective actions were taken to prevent a recurrence. One comment made by a Noncommissioned officer (NCO) from a unit that did not have any abuse cases was that multiple levels of NCO oversight ensured compliance with the Rules of Engagement (ROE), and the team leaders and Platoon Sergeant maintained strict standards for all Military Poiice (MP). One interrogator NCO stated that in his unit there would be a number of people in the room during interrogations to ensure that Soldiers did not violate the Interrogation ROE. (U) The psychological research on abuse (see above) suggests that in similar situations, such as prisons, when some relatively minor abusive behavior occurs and corrective action is not taken, there is an escalation of violence. If there is uncorrected abuse and more people become involved, there is a diffusion of responsibility making it -easier for individuals to commit abuse. The research further suggests that a moral disengagement occurs which allows individuals to rationalize and justify their behavior. (See Bandura, A., Moral Disengagement in the Perpetration of Inhumanities, Personality and Social Psychology Review, 1999.) (U) In at least 11 of the 125 incidents reviewed by the DA1G Team, immediate corrective action was not taken by the chain of command. The reasons for this leadership failure included either a lack of fundamental unit discipline, ambiguous cgmmand and control over the facility or individuals involved, ambiguous guidance from command on the treatment of detainees, no control processes in place to provide oversight and notify the command of the incident, or, in very few cases, leader complicity at the Lieutenant Colonel level.and below in the actions. This led to the second category of detainee abuse, referred to as progressive abuse because these usually develop from an isolated incident into a more progressive abuse. G-4 111E1 ASSIFIEll -6E-GRE-T-iwar-af NONCIASSIFIEll (U) Here are 5 examples of this second category from the 125 reported allegations referenced in the first paragraph of the inspection results above, where actions were not taken until more generalized abuse had occurred. G raibb arf-no' OC, eineeI„ tier rt ens ve s'='?0 ,e usge Increase SI Mau eriv, rem°, rm. :con :47qp0. 6 rre 0.1.0 S.' OfciierefOr :b)i(.71) (A): wex it a ern o.sica e taVVInIS atements in ea in tag ues re wa „„„ ade, eview roceseOs'irl' -ation te,,cin^ tne'Jr,r„,0,,.,.., 40i on' .nt,t'uo,s° ea, ''tbtlae.:h1,0Yo17tirtiiqij:eTfl,bhe;, In, -LISN _ e,t) a'r"ePith`ri'ar')?:9 t elr-e ant- Ce4.N (7)-0 r ivie11,191!" RePrirla f the Cate ts un derreviecv- YN IsP°siti°1/ 9 ined 2 individualS, laterreleased the e,,,;a ma e ineee„ rowne swci.trvs ,,erhen.-revious scu avi dotatri.00*160' tone arentlY ha 6 !.t.! er re is no evi revioileinci en iscuSSions ere in toa ors 'unicir ea erdePciericieee e Plato° leval-COntriaUtetilc e death of a- detainee. continues to"invistigete t incident (U) — There was an incident involving a Sergeant First Class (SFC) telling his subordinates to, "rough them up," referring to 2 detainees in custody. This occurred in the middle of the night without any oversight and at a division collecting point operated by an infantry unit. There are indications that this SFC had given similar guidance earlier. Several of the SFC's subordinates actually performed most of the subsequent beating. There is no evidence that the SFC had abused detainees previously. This incident was adjudicated by both Special and Summary Courts-Martial, with the SFC receiving a reduction to Staff Sergeant (SSG) and a punitive censure. One SSG was reduced to a Specialist and received 30 days confinement; another SSG pled guilty to one specification of violation of a lawful general order and was reduced to the grade of Sergeant. Finally, a Specialist was found guilty at a summary court-martial and his punishment included forfeiture of $1092 and hard labor without confinement for 45 days. 7G434,577" NCIASSIFIED DOD-045387 SECRET/INOFORN ONCIASSIFIED lee ad. eXairPS'ulrieit-abbutVantin rativra et4iflee:*. "10'Weel' no rren lop )1074;40:00t:-.004; (U) Although elimination of all abuse is the goal of the DoD Law of War Training several factors prevent the complete elimination of detainee abuse. These include: (U) a. The psychological process that increases the likelihood of abusive behavior when one person has complete control over another is a major factor. This is the same process that occurs in prisons, in EPW/POW camps, and in DoD resistance training. Even in weli-trained and screened populations, it is a constant threat. This threat can be minimized through individual and unit training on proper procedures and standards of behavior and by leader supervision of actual operations. (U) b. Poor training in the handling of detainees increases the risk of abuse. Although most personnel interviewed had some training in the Law of Land Warfare, many did not have training specific to detainee handling. It was often the case that individuals conducting interrogations were not school-trained as interrogators. (U) c. Ambiguous instructions concerning the handling of detainees also greatly increase the risk of abuse. Some Soldiers believed their command encouraged behavior at the harsher end of the acceptable range of behavior in the treatment of detainees. This can very quickly lead to abusive behavior, even if it is not the intent of the command. The Taguba Investigation makes clear that the 800th MP (I/R) Brigade leadership did not properly communicate to its Soldiers the requirements for the treatment of detainees. In order to mitigate the risk of abuse, commanders must give clear, unambiguous guidance, make sure that Soldiers understand the guidance, supervise Soldiers' operations, and then hold their Soldier's accountable for meeting standards. (U) d. Criminal behavior among a small percentage of Soldiers. (U) e. Combat operations, as a new experience for many Soldiers, combined with the above, may lead to Soldiers justifying abusive behavior as a result of their exposure to dabger. This-teads to a moral disengagement where Soldiers do not take responsibility for their actions. (U) f. Poor unit discipline, which is a function of poor leader supervision, allows abusive behavior an opportunity to occur. Again, the Taguba Investigation identified a serious lack of discipline among the units involved in detainee abuse. (U) The last 3 of these factors can be best prevented by making sure Soldiers understand the standards of behavior expected of them, and by leaders who maintain unit and individual discipline and exercise appropriate supervision of Soldiers. (U) Almost all of the abuse cases studied by the DAIG Team were isolated events. The Soldiers' chain of command, when notified of the allegation of abuse, took appropriate action and prevented further abusive behavior. The DAIG Team found that G-6 34.3eRt DA " IIICIASSIE DOD-045388 --K-GRET-twiaFeRN— IMCIASSIFIED most abuse incidents were isolated events that, when discovered, were immediately _ corrected by commanders at battalion level and lower. (U) Those cases where corrective action did not occur, usually because the chain of command was not aware of the abuse, resulted in a continuation of abuse or a progression from talking about abuse to actually committing abuse. Factors that influenced this progression of abuse and responsive actions taken by units to mitigate these factors were: (U) a. Poor oversight and poor control mechanisms to inspect and check on Soldiers' behavior decreased the likelihood that abuse would be discovered by command. This led to a breakdown in the command and control of Soldiers interacting with detainees. One NCOIC stated that the chain of command did not visit his location very often, and that when they began to receive enemy fire, he did not see the Commander or Command Sergeant Major (CSM). In response, over time, several units developed standing operating procedures that incorporated specific control mechanisms, such as requiring a certain nurnber of personnel to be present during interrogations, having all Soldiers sign a document outlining acceptable behavior, and tasking independent officers to monitor all detainee operations, with the ability to observe anything, anytime, within their facility. (U) b. A command climate that encourages behavior at the harsher end of the acceptable range of behavior towards detainees may unintentionally, increase the likelihood of abuse. One officer interviewed stated that there is often a "do what it takes" mindset. This appeared to be more prevalent in the early days of the war in Iraq. Among other responses, the CJTF-7 Rules for Detainee Operations, published 30 November 2003, states, "Treat all persons with dignity and respect." In addition, on 12 October 2003, CJTF-7 published a memorandum stating all interrogations would be, "applied in a humane and lawful manner with sufficient oversight by trained investigators or interrogators. Interrogators and supervisory personnel will ensure uniform, careful, and safe conduct of interrogations." (U) c. In the few cases involving the progression to more serious abuse by Soldiers, tolerance of inappropriate behavior by any level of the chain of command, even if minor, led to an increase in the frequency and intensity of abuse. In a few cases, the --pe-r—adc-uFate-o-r- n-bt, that Other Gover-nmental Agencies(OGA) conducted ce-ption;--interrogations using harsher methods than allowed by Army Regulation, led to a belief that higher levels of command condoned such methods. As noted in paragraph b above, CJTF-7 began to publish specific guidance that emphasized the humane treatment of detainees. At the time of the DAIG Team's visit to the theater, leaders and Soldiers uniformly understood the need to treat detainees humanely. (U) It is evident there were Soldiers who knew the right thing to do and reported abuse when they discovered it. Soldiers who believed that abusive behavior was not acceptable reported almost all of the abuse incidents. Some of these Soldiers stopped other Soldiers from hurting detainees, demonstrating moral courage in the face of peer pressure. Others reported serious abuse when it involved their comrades and leaders. This finding on abuse has focused on a very small percentage of Soldiers who may have committed abusive behavior, and not on the vast majority that, even under the stress of 77647'-314.79". ONCIESIFIED combat and poor living conditions, and presented with sometimes resistant and hostile _ detainees, have treated all within their care humanely. (U) (4) Root Cause: Detainee abuse was an individual failure to uphold Army Values and in some cases involved a breakdown in the leadership supervision of Soldiers' behavior. (U) (5) Recommendation: Commanders enforce the basic fundamental discipline standards of Soldiers, provide training, and immediately correct inappropriate behavior of Soldiers towards detainees to ensure the proper treatment of detainees. (U) Recommendation: Commanders assess the quality of leadership in units and replace those leaders who do not enforce discipline and hold Soldiers accountable. (U) Recommendation: TRADOC develop and implement a train-the-trainer package that strongly emphasizes leaders' responsibilities to have adequate supervision and control processes in place to ensure the proper treatment of detainees. (U) Recommendation: TRADOC integrate training into all Professional Military Education that strongly emphasizes leaders' responsibilities to have adequate supervision and control processes in place to ensure the proper treatment of detainees. (U) Recommendation: The G3 require pre-deployment training include a strong emphasis on leaders' responsibilities to have adequate supervision and control processes in place to ensure proper treatment of, and prevent abuse of, detainees. b. Finding 5: (U) (1) Finding: Doctrine does not clearly specify the interdependent, and yet independent, rofes, missions, and responsibilities of Military Police and Military intelligence units in the establishment and operation of interrogation facilities. (U) (2) Standard: See Appendix E. -9E6"449FeRP1 NUM DOD-045390 -8.E.G.RETHN4F49.RN-• UNCLASSIFIED (U) (3) Inspection Results: Doctrine does not provide clear guidance on the relationship between Military Police (MP), responsible for the safekeeping of detainees, and Military Intelligence (MI), responsible for intelligence collection. Neither MP nor MI doctrine clearly defines the distinct but interdependent roles, missions, and responsibilities of the two in detainee operations. MP doctrine states MI may collocate with MP at detention sites to conduct interrogations, and coordination should be made to establish operating procedures. MP doctrine does not, however, address approved and prohibited MI procedures in an MP-operated facility. It also does not clearly establish the role of MPs in the interrogation process. Conversely, MI doctrine does not clearly explain MP internment procedures or the role of MI personnel in an internment setting. Failure of MP and MI personnel to understand each others specific missions and duties could undermine the effectiveness of safeguards associated with interrogation techniques and procedures. (U) MP doctrine explicitly outlines MP roles and responsibilities in operating collecting points (CPs), corps holding areas (CHAs) and internment/resettlement (I/R) facilities. MP doctrine identifies the priorities of detainee operations as the custody and control of detainees and the security of the facility. MP doctrine states detainees may be interrogated at CPs, CHAs andl/R-facilities uperateci-by-MPs-to-facilitate_t intelligence information. It highlights the need for coordination between MP and MI to establish operating procedures. MPs are responsible for passively detecting and reporting significant information. MPs can assist MI screeners by identifying captives who may have information that supports Priority Intelligence Requirements (PIRs). MPs can acquire important information through observation and insight even though they are not trained intelligence specialists. MP interaction with detainees is limited, however, to contact necessary for the management of a safe and secure living environment and for security escort functions during detainee movement. Thus, active participation by MPs in the intelligence exploitation process is not within the doctrinal scope of the MP mission. (U) MI doctrine clearly states MPs command and operate CPs and CHAs, but it does not address operational authority for I/R facilities. MI doctrine specifies MPs conduct detainee receipt, escort, transport, and administrative processing functions, _including _document handling and property disposition. MI doctrine in FM 34-52, contrary to MP doctrine in FM 3-19.1, contains a passage that implie8-dri-ative role for MPs in - ---the screening/interrogation process: "Screenera coordinate with MP holding area guards on their role in the screening process. The guards are told where the screening will take place, how EPWs and detainees are to be brought there from the holding area, and what types of behavior on their part will facilitate the screenings." The implication in FM 34-52 that MPs would have an active role in the screening process is in conflict with MP doctrine that states MPs maintain a passive role in both the screening and interrogation processes. This passage could cause confusion with MI personnel as to the role of MPs in screenings and interrogations. The Ryder Report addressed the issue of MPs maintaining a passive role in interrogations, stating that, "Military police, though adept at passive collection of intelligence within a facility, do not participate in Military Intelligence supervised interrogation sessions." The report further states that the active participation of MPs in interrogations could be a source of potential problems: "Such actions generally run counter to the smooth operation of a detention facility, attempting to maintain its population in a compliant and docile state." The Ryder Report recommends establishing G-9 =_N,77 UNCLASSIFIED ONCIASSIfill -8[64RE4Wg.F149"" "procedures that define the role of military police soldiers securing the compound, clearly separating the actions of the guards from those of the military intelligence personnel." (U) Additionally, two intelligence oriented field manuals, FM 34-52, Intelligence Interrogation (discussed above), and FM 3-31, Joint Force Land Component Commander Handbook (JFLCC), contain inconsistent guidance on terminology, structure, and function of interrogation facilities.. Neither field manual address the relationship of MI and MP personnel within those facilities. FM 34-52 describes a Theater Interrogation Facility (TIF). FM 3-31 describes a Joint Interrogation Facility (JIF) and Joint Interrogation and Debriefing Center (JIDC). Interrogation facilities in OEF and OIF identified themselves as JIFs and JIDCs. Commanders and leaders structured the organization and command relationships within these JIFs and JIDCs to meet the unique requirements of their operating environments. G-10 --SEORETINGFORN-• DOD-045392 ONCIASSIFIED CECRET/INOIORN :11111:11111ESitig ::„„ G-11 777-1 UPI ligifirn DOD-045393 -6E-GR€44414gr (U) The DAIG Team determined MP and MI doctrine did not sufficiently address the interdependent role of MP and MI personnel in detainee operations in OEF and 01F. Doctrine needs to be updated to clearly specify the roles and responsibilities of MPs in the intelligence exploitation of detainees. It should alstearly specify the roles and responsibilities of MI personnel within MP-operated internment facilities. For example, MP and MI doctrine should address and clarify: (1) command and control relationship of MP and MI personnel within internment facilities; (2) MPs' passive or active role in the collection of intelligence; (3) interrogation techniques and the maintenance of good order within the detention facility; (4) detainee transfer procedures between MP and MI to conduct interrogations, including specific information related to the safety and well-being of the detainee; and (5) locations for conducting interrogations within I/R or other facilities. (U) (4) Root Cause: Current doctrine does not adequately address or prepare MP or MI units for collabokatively conducting detainee operations and provides inconsistent guidance on t&minology, structure, and function of interrogation facilities. (U) (5) Recommendation: TRADOC develop a single document for detainee operations that identifies the interdependent and independent roles of the Military Police custody mission and the Military Intelligence interrogation mission. (U) Recommendation: TRADOC establish doctrine to clearly define the os. organizational structures, command relationships, and roles and responsibilities of .I personnel operating interrogation facilities. (U) Recommendation: The Provost Marshal General revise, and the G2 establish, policy to clearly define the organizational structures, command relationships, and roles and responsibilities of personnel operating interrogation facilities. (U) Recommendation: The G3 direct the incorporation of integrated Military Poliee-and- Military Intelligence detainee operations into field training exercises, home station and mobilization site training, and combat training center rotations. c. Finding 7: (U) (2) Standard: See Appendix E. (U) (3) Inspection Results: Interviewed Military Intelligence (MI) leaders and Soldiers indicated that G2s and S2s were conducting interrogations of detainees Without ertr4jning brittiP-inah'0 anal t 4r1,1,htfl!,19pill . t 806-„,atrur1,. 6 l-0-am coneclitrile.thhitiO rnen 1-,-treineci,,o Me, n-c4 HUMINTessetsbeing use iri e Odireiit:Obereting'e G-12 -6EC-RET-414EORN- 11CASSIFIEll DOD-045394 UNCLASSIFIED -8.EC-ileFeRft.. counterintelligence team leaders (TL) interviewed expressed a wish that all G2s and S2s were trained on how to manage the collection and analysis of HUMINT. The need for these officers to understand the management of HUMINT operations is the key for successful HUMINT exploitation in the current operating environment. Vttalion menIan comthanders, and latoorr 6eg-141: 6re in'terrogetin9-det a ure-accOrding to counterinteli int6Nieited­COM eine -gtic6because e r0.-OPtiatoped interroga ion-ec niqueS arid quite poSSibl he intelligence 196-beisl&adObirelltiffidOltfelliginallfroniOetairiled Counterintelligence TLs were told on several occasions by these leaders that they had the interrogations under control and did not require their Military Intelligence (MI) assistance. (U) Currently, MI officers only receive a general overview of HUMINT during their Professional Military Education (PME) courses. During the Military Intelligence Officer Basic Course (MIOBC), MI officers receive a 9 day Intelligence Battlefield Operating System (IBOS) block of instruction which includes a 6-hour block on: review/reinforcement of counterintelligence/human intelligence principles; counterintelligence organizations; Subversion & Espionage Directed Against U.S. Army & Deliberate Security Violations (SAEDA); and the role of the tactical human intelligence eTthe-MtOBC—students-receive-approximately u r ut, of instruction from their Stability and Support Operations (SASO) instructor on displaced civilians/refugees on the battlefield. (U) MI Captain Career Course (MICCC) officers receive a one-hour block of instruction in their intelligence support to brigade operations (ISBO) on imagery intelligence (IMINT), counterintelligence/human intelligence, and signals intelligence (S1GINT). Additionally, during practical exercises the students receive 40 hours of Stability and Support Operations (SASO) training, 32 hours of threat training, and 2 hours of crime link training from their instructor. Also, during intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance planning the basic principles of counterintelligence/HUMINT are reinforced during practical exercises (30 minutes in length) that addresses IMINT, counterintelligence/HUMINT, and SIGINT being used on the battlefield to collect intelligence information. During the Intelligence Support Course to division, corps, and joint officers, there is one day of counterintelligence/HUM1NT training. This training includes an overview, specific training, and a practical exercise for counterintelligence/HUMINT. Additionally, the 35E series (Counterintelligence Officer) course conducts counterintelligence/HUMINT training for 8 hours, and the Strategic Intelligence Officer Course conducts counterintelligence /HUM1NT training for 5 hours. (U) Interviewed career course captains with experience in OPERATION ENDURING FREEDOM (OEF) and OPERATION IRAQI FREEDOM (01F) from the Military Intelligence school stated their home station training on detainee operations was limited and concentrated on EPWs or compliant detainee populations, These officers stated the training they received at the MI Basic Course did not provide them with enough training to prepare them to conduct detainee or human intelligence gathering operations. (U) The G2, in coordination witll TRADOC, has created a G2X/S2X Battle Staff Course to begin in July 2004 for MI officers. The G2X/S2X Battle Staff Course will prepare a G2X/S2X staff of a deploying Army division with the capability to synchronize, G-13 SECRET/WEN-OR INCLESIFIER DA 16,- 335- DOD-045395 SECRETIINOrORN NilietASSIFIEll coordinate, manage and de-conflict counterintelligence and HUMINT sources within the -division's area of responsibility (AOR). The G2X/S2X program of instruction (POI) will be tailored for a staff operating within a Joint or multi-national (Coalition) environment which will focus on real world missions, Army-centric, and counterintelligence/HUMINT tool-specific training. The G2X/S2X curriculum is based upon the counterintelligence/HUMINT critical tasks and incorporates J2X/G2X/S2X emerging doctrine/methodology and lessons leamed. This course will be hands-on and application based. The G2X/S2X Battle Staff Course provides the critical knowledge and skills required to enable the G2X staff to successfully synchronize and monitor asset management to place sources against the combatant commander's target in support of the mission. (U) The G2, in coordination with the MI School, is currently revising Field Manual (FM) 34-52, Intelligence Interrogation, 28 September 1992. Additionally, the G2 is spearheading a coordinated effort with TRADOC and the U.S. Army Military Police School to synchronize between the 3 disciplines of intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance, particularly in the area of detainee handling and internment/resettlement facility management. (U) Interviewed and sensed leaders and Soldiers stated that the Law or War training they received prior to deployment did not differentiate between the different classific,ations of detainees causing confusion concerning the levels of treatment. Even though this confusion existed, the vast majority of leaders and Soldiers treated detainees humanely. . (U) TRADOC, in coordination with the Office of the Judge Advocate General, is currently determining the feasibility of increasing or adjusting Law of War training in the proponent schools to include procedures for handling civilian internees and other non- uniformed personnel on the battlefield. (U) (4) Root Cause: The MI School is not adequately training the management of HUMINT to tactical MI officers, The MI School has no functional training course available to teach the management of HUMINT. (U) (5) Recommendation: TRADOC continue the integration of the G2X/S2X Battle Staff Course for all Military Intelligence officers assigned to G2X/S2X positions. (U) Recommendation: TRADOC integrate additional training on the collection and analysis of HUMINT into the Military Intelligence Officer Basic Course program of instruction. reeeRE-witieF G-14I INIESIFIEll DA16-3310 DOD-045396 SEcRE+7544eFeRtfN lliCtASSIFIED (pd Finding 8: (U) (1) Finding: The DAIG Team found that officially approved CJTF-7 and CJTF-180 policies and the early CJTF-180 practices generally met legal obligations under U.S. law, treaty obligations and policy, if executed carefully, by trained soldiers, under the full range of safeguards. The DA1G Team found that policies were not clear and contained ambiguities. The DAIG Team found implementation, training, and oversight of these policies was inconsistent; the Team concluded, however, based on a review of cases through 9 June 2004 that no confirmed instance of detainee abuse resulted from the approved policies. (U) (2) Standard: See Appendix E. (U) (3) Inspection Results: Interrogation approach techniques policy is identified by several different titles by the different commands of OEF and 01F. For the purpose of standardization of this report those titles will be referred to collectively as interrogation approach techniques policy. U Arm doctrine found in Field Manual (FM) 34-52, Intelligence Interroaation, 28 September 1992, lists 1 accep e err• 'ques—lt-states that -911 0.1r-. those approach techniques are not inclusive of all possible or accepted techniques. The DAIG Team reviewed interrogation approach techniques policy for both OEF and OIF and determined that CJTF-180 and CJTF-7 included additional interrogation approach techniques not found FM 34-52. The DAIG Team found that officially approved CJTF-7 and CJTF-180 policies and the early CJTF-180 practices generally met legal obligations under Geneva Convention Relevant to Prisoners of War (GPW), the Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War (GC), the UN Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CAT), the U.S. Torture statute, 18 USC §§2034, 2034A, if executed carefully, by trained soldiers, under the full range of safeguards. The DAIG Team found that some interrogators may not have received formal instruction from the U.S. Army Military Intelligence Center on interrogation approach techniques not contained in FM 34-52. Additionally, the DAIG Team found that while commands published interrogation approach policy, some subordinate units were unaware of the current version of those p_olicies. Content of unit interrogator training programs varied among units in both OEF and 01F. However, no confirmed instance involving the applicatiOn of approved approach techniques resulted in an instance of detainee abuse. (U) The 17 approved interrogation approach techniques listed in FM 34-52 are direct, incentive, emotional love, emotional hate, fear-up (harsh), fear-up (mild), fear-down, pride and ego-up, pride and ego-down, futility, we know all, file and dossier, establish your identity, repetition, rapid fire, silent, and change of scene. Approach techniques can be used individually or in combination as part of a c,ohesive, logical interrogation plan. These approach techniques are found in the current training curriculum at the Military Intelligence School. The FM states these approach techniques are "not new nor are all the possible or acceptable techniques discussed. Everything the interrogator says and does must be in concert with the GWS [Geneva Convention For the Amelioration of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field], GPW, GC and UCMJ [Uniform Code of Military Justice]." The FM further states, "Almost any ruse or deception is usable as long as the provisions of the GPW are not violated." Techniques G-15 -sEc7:74 (N UNCLASSIFIED IMCIASSIFIED considered to be physical or mental torture and coercion are expressly prohibited, including electric shock, any forrn of beating, mock execution, and abnormal sleep deprivation. (U) The FM gives commanders additional guidance in analyzing additional techniques. On page 1-9 it states: "When using interrogation techniques, certain applications of approaches and techniques may approach the line between lawful actions and unlawful actions. It may often be difficult to determine where lawful actions end and unlawful actions begin. In attempting to determine if a contemplated approach or technique would be considered unlawful, consider these two tests: Given all the surrounding facts and circumstances, would a reasonable person in the place of the person being interrogated believe that his rights, as guaranteed under both intemational and US law, are being violated or withheld if he fails to cooperate. If your contemplated actions were perpetrated by an enemy against U.S. PWs [Prisoners of War], you would believe such actions violate intemational or U.S. law. If you answer yes to either of these tests, do not engage in the contemplated action. If a doubt still remains as to the legality of the proposed action, seek a legal opinion from your servicing judge advocate." (U) The FM lists four primary factors that must be considered when selecting interrogation approach techniques: (1) The person under interrogation's mental or physical state, (2) The person under interrogation's background and experience, (3) The objective of the interrogation, and (4) The interrogator's background and abilities. (U) The DAIG Team found some interrogation approach techniques approved for use at Guantanamo Bay were used in development of policies in OEF and 01F. As interrogation policy was developed for Joint Task Force (JTF) Guantanamo, the Commander, U.S. Southern Command requested additional approach techniques to be approved. A Working Group on Detainee Interrogations in the Global War on Terrorism was convened. This group was required to recommend legal and effective interrogation approach techniques for collection of strategic intelligence from detainees interned at Guantanamo Bay. The working group collected information on 39 existing or proposed interrogation tactics, techniques and procedures from the U.S. Central Command _(_CENTCOM1 and U.S. Southern Command in a 6 March 2003 report. It recommended approval of 26 interrogation approaches. (U) A memorandum on 16 April 2003, entitled "Counter-Resistance Techniques" approved 26 specific techniques for use only by JTF Guantanamo. It required the use of 7 enumerated safeguards in all interrogations. The memorandum stated that the use of any additional interrogation techniques required additional approval. The instructions noted that the intent in all interrogations was to use "the least intrusive method, always applied in a humane and lawful manner with sufficient oversight by trained investigators or interrogators." (U) Both CJTF -180 and CJTF-7 developed interrogation policies for intelligence exploitation operations in OEF and 01F. All policies contained additional interrogation approach techniques other than those identified in FM 34-52. The DAIG Team identified this occurred for three reasons: (1) Drafters referenced the JTF Guantanamo policy memorandum as a basis for development for their policy; (2) In two instances, published G-16 -3CCRETINGFER -1) A 1G--33 DOD-045398 yr-7 -7 CFLCC FRAGO 254 to OPORD 03-032 CJCS Messa e CJTF-7 FRAGO 209 to CJTF-7 OPORD 03-036 CJTF-7 FRAGO 415 to CJTF-7 OPORD 03-036 CJTF-7 FRAGO 749 to CJTF-7 OPORD 03-0 6 FORSCOM Message 1003V SECDEF Memo -8E4RE-TioNeFGR- UNCLASSIFIED APPENDIX G TAB 2 111800Z April 2003 211933Z Jan 02 282021D June 2003 151950D July 2003 242320DAUGO3 162313Z JAN 03 16 April 2003 (U) Counter-Resistance Techniques in the War on Terrorism ONCUSSIIIEll