Army Field Manual No. 3-19.4: FM 3-19.4 Military Police Leaders' Handbook

Army Field Manual No. 3-19.4: FM 3-19.4 Military Police Leaders' Handbook Describes need to set up temporary EPW (Enemy Prisoners of War) collecting points; Evacuating EPWs quickly so their transit does not impede the movement of friendly forces; Internment and resettlement of enemy prisoners of war (EPWs); Calls for humane treatment from moment captured to the time they are released; and Refers to Geneva Conventions and other army manuals.

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Doc_date: 
Monday, March 4, 2002
Doc_rel_date: 
Thursday, December 30, 2004
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Field Manual
No. 3-19.4
Page 1 of 6
*FM 3-19.4 (FM 19-4) Headquarters Department of the Army Washington, DC, 4 March 2002
FM 3-19.4
MILITARY POLICE
LEADERS' HANDBOOK

Table of Contents
COVER
CHANGE 1
PREFACE
Chapter 1 MILITARY POLICE OVERVIEW

Introduction
Military Police Functional Areas
Threat

_ Military Police Platoon Organization and Leadership
Force Protection (FP) Measures
Military Police Platoon Mission, Capabilities, and Limitations
Peacetime Training

Chapter 2 BATTLE COMMAND
Overview
Military Decision-Making ProcessAMDMP)
Troop-Leading Procedures
Orders and Reports
Rules of Engagement and Rules of Interaction (ROI)

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FM 3-19.4 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page 2 of 6

Situational Awareness Command Post Operations
Chapter 3 SHOOT, MOVE,AND COMMUNICATE Shoot Move Communicate
Chapter 4 COMBAT OPERATIONS Prepare for Combat Construct Fighting and Survivability Positions Defend a Site Patrols Clearing Techniques
Chapter 5 MANEUVER AND MOBILITY SUPPORT Maneuver Support Mobility Spport
Chapter 6 AREA SECURITY Reconnaissance Operations Area Damage Control Base Defense Air Base Defense Enemy Delay Battle Handover to a Tactical Combat Force Critical Site, Asset, and High-Risk Personnel Security
Chapter 7 INTERNMENT AND RESETTLEMENT Overview
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FM 3-19.4 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page 3 of 6

Enemy Prisoners of War and Civilian Internee United States Military Prisoner Handlingffield Detention Facilities) Populace and Resource Control (PRC) Dislocated Civilian Resettlement Evacuation Operations
Chapter 8 LAW AND ORDER Overview Law and Order Augmentation Detachment Company and Platoon Level Law and Order Operations United States Customs Support Multinational Law and Order Operations
Chapter 9 POLICE INTELLIGENCE OPERATIONS Overview Police Information Assessment Process Police Information Responsibilities
Appendix A METRIC CONVERSION CHART
Appendix B MEDIA RELATIONS Overview Media Interaction
A_ppendix_C TRAINING EXECUTION MODEL Overview Task Identification
Appendix D ORDERS AND REPORTS DODDOA-009753
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FM 3-19.4 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page 4 of 6

Orders Reports
Appendix E PRECOMBAT INSPECTIONS Modified Precombat Inspection Checklist Precombat Inspection Checklist
Appendix F FRATRICIDE AVOIDANCE Fratricide Fratricide Effects Fratricide Causes Fratricide Risk Assessment Preventive Measures Friendly Fire Incidents Leader Responsibilities
Appendix G MK19 QUALIFICATION TABLES PrimaiT Gunner, MK19 Qualification and Zero/Practice Tables Assistant Gunner, MK19 Firing Table, Mounted MK19 Scorecard G-15
Appendix H COUNTERMINE OPERATIONS Overview Detect Report Mark
Appendix I ROUTE CLASSIFICATION AND SIGNING SYSTEM Overview Route Classification Formula DODDOA-009754
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Calculations
Temporary Route Signing
Main Supply Route Signs
Portable Sign-Making Kit

Appendix J NUCLEAR, L CHEMICAL DEFENSE

Overview
Hazard Detection and Reporting

Contamination Marking
Radiological Contamination Detection and Monitoring

Chemical Agent Detection Biological Agent Detection Self-Defense Measures Military Police Leaders' Responsibilities Mission-Oriented Protection Posture Levels, Alarms, and Signals Biological Defense Nuclear Attack Defense Chemical Attack Defense Symptoms and Treatment of Casualties
Unmasking Procedures
Appendix K CIVIL-DISTURBANCE MEASURES
Overview
Civil Disturbances on Department of Defense Installations Outside the Continental United States Crowd Behavior Crowd Tactics Company Level Operations Nonlethal Munitions

Appendix L WEAPCINS AND EQUIPMENT
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Friendly Vehicles Friendly_Weapons Friendly Nonlethal Equipment and Munitions Friendly Communication, Single-Channel, Ground-to-Air Radio System
(SINCGARS)
Threat Weapons and Equipment

GLOSSARY
BIBLIOGRAPHY
AUTHENTICATION
DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
* This publication supersedes FM 19-4, 7 May 1993.
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FM 3-19.4

(Formerly FM 19-4)
MILITARY POLICE LEADERS' HANDBOOK
HEADQUARTERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public nalease: distribution Ls unlimited
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*FM 3-19.4
Cl
Change 1 Headquarters
Field Manual Department of the Army
No. FM 3-19.4 Washington, DC, 2 August 2002

Military Police
Leaders' Handbook

1. Change FM 3-19.4, 4 March 2002 as follows:
Remove Old Pages Insert New Pages
G-7 through G-12 G-7 through G-12
G-15 G-15
2.
A star (*) marks new or changed material.

3.
File this transmittal in front of the publication.

DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
FM 3-19.4 Cl 2 AUGUST 2002
By Order of the Secretary of the Army:
Official: ERIC K. SHINSEKI General, United States Army Chief of Staff
JOEL B. HUDSON Administrative Assistant to the Secretary of the Army

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0216902

DISTRIBUTION: Active Army, Army National Guard, and U.S. Army Reserve: To be distributed in accordance with the initial distribution number 111047, requirements for FM 3­
19.4.
This publication is available on the General Dennis J. Reimer Training And Doctrine Digital Library at www.adtdl.army.mil
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Preface
This field manual (FM) addresses military police (MP) maneuver and mobility support (MMS), area
security (AS), internment and resettlement (UR), law and order (L&O), and police intelligence
operations (PIO) across the full spectrum of Army operations. Although this manual includes a
discussion of corps and division MP elements, it primarily focuses on the principles of platoon
operations and the tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTP) the platoon uses to accomplish its mission.
This FM provides the capabilities and organization of the MP, demonstrates the flexibility and diversity of MP in adapting to any mission throughout the full spectrum of Army operations, and characterizes the MP as a combat-force multiplier. Additionally, this manual identifies the fact that the Army will not conduct operations alone and defines the role of the MP in support of joint, multinational, and interagency operations.
The MP TTP are organized by the MP functions of MMS, AS, I/R, LO, and PIO with supporting tasks, both individual and collective, to help illustrate the functions.
NOTE: United States (US) policy regarding the use and employment of antipersonnel land mines (APLs) outlined in this FM is subject to the convention on certain conventional weapons and executive orders (EOs). Current US policy limits the use of non-self-destructing APLs to (1) defending the US and its allies from armed aggression across the Korean demilitarized zone and
(2) training personnel engaged in demining and countermine operations. The use of the M18A1 claymore in the command-detonation mode is not restricted under international law or EO.
Appendix A complies with current Army directives which state that the metric system will be incorporated into all new publications. Appendix B deals with media relations.
The proponent of this publication is Headquarters (HQ) United States Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC). Send comments and recommendations on Department of the Army (DA) Form 2028 directly to Commandant, US Army Military Police School, ATTN: ATSJ-MP-TD, 401 MANSCEN Loop, Suite 2060, Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri 65473-8926.
Unless this publication states otherwise, masculine nouns and pronouns do not refer exclusively to men.

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Chapter 1

Military Police Overview
This chapter provides information about how MP are organized, equipped, and trained to provide
combat support (CS) across the full spectrum of Army operations.
INTRODUCTION
1-1. As a flexible economy-of-force organization, MP provide a wide range of diverse support because of their agility and versatility to adapt to any mission or environment. As a combat multiplier, they support the maneuver commander through the five MP functions. MP contribute to the commander's overall combat power by integrating efforts with those of other combat, CS, and combat service support (CSS) elements.
1-2. In addition to single-service operations, MP also support joint, multinational, and interagency activities. MP support air base defense in concert with Air Force Security Forces, operate joint and multinational checkpoints, conduct combined police patrols, and exchange police information and criminal intelligence with the host nation (HN), military, and civilian police agencies.
1-3. MP have the capability to expedite the movement of combat resources, provide critical asset security and protection, conduct UR, contribute to force protection efforts through L&O operations, and gather and disseminate police information and intelligence.
MILITARY POLICE FUNCTIONAL AREAS
1-4. With the old battlefield missions, the term "operations" was used extensively and
carried too broad of a meaning. To clarify the specific tasks of the MP, the battlefield
missions have been redefined into the following five functional areas:

MMS


AS


I/R


L&O


PIO

1-5. Each of these MP functions have task areas and tasks that support them. MP functions
are the broadest areas for which tasks are placed. Some of these tasks will require groupings
that might not be related to the entire function. Therefore, task areas were created to group
specific tasks. Specific tasks consist of two types—collective and individual. Individual
tasks are further divided into leader and soldier tasks (Figure 1 :-.1). The collective and
individual tasks that support the MP task areas are found in the MP mission training plans
(MTP) and MP soldier's manuals (SMs).
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Figure 1-1. Relationship Between MP Functions and Tasks
1-6. MP procedures are the lowest level of detail. They explain the "how to" at the task level. Procedures include the standing methods used by a unit to accomplish tasks, weapon and equipment operating steps, crew drills, and staff action and coordination. They are the building blocks of individual and collective task accomplishment and serve as the foundation of tactics and techniques. Procedures are explained in the unit standing operating procedures (SOPs), MTPs, SMs, and similar publications.
MANEUVER AND MOBILITY SUPPORT
1-7. The MMS function involves the measures necessary to enhance combat movement and
the ability to conduct movement of friendly resources in all environments. MP conduct
MMS to ensure that the commanders receive personnel, equipment, and supplies when and
where they are needed. The task areas that support the function of MMS include-

MP support for river crossings, breaching, and passage-of-line operations.


Straggler and dislocated civilian control.


Route reconnaissance and surveillance.


Main supply route (MSR) regulation enforcement.

1-8. The security and viability of the operational and tactical lines of communications
(LOC) will be critical to continuous sustainment and recovery operations. MP ensure that
logistics and supply operations are kept on time and arrive at the right place. Refer to
Chapter 5 for more information about MMS.
AREA SECURITY
1-9. The AS function consists of those security measures designed to give commanders freedom of maneuver and flexibility to conduct operations. The task areas that support AS include-

Reconnaissance operations.


Area damage control (ADC).


Base and air base defense.

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Response force and tactical combat force (TCF) operations.


Critical site, asset, and high-risk personnel security.


Force protection and physical security.


Antiterrorism.

1-10. MP performing AS contribute to securing and protecting the force and preserving combat power. Refer to Chapter 6 for more information about AS.
INTERNMENT AND RESETTLEMENT
1-11. The UR fu action consists of those measures necessary to provide shelter, sustain, guard, protect, and account for people (enemy prisoners of war [EPWs] and civilian internees [CIs], US military prisoners, and dislocated civilians [DC]). The task areas that support UR include-

EPW and CI handling.


Populace and resource control.


US military prisoner confinement.


DCs control.

1-12. The international community, media, and public perceptions have increased
sensitivity to the protection of human rights and the need for absolute accountability of
interned, detained personnel, and refugees in military operations. Refer to Chapter 7 for
more information about UR.
LAW AND ORDER
1-13. Task areas and tasks that minimize the effects of a criminal threat on friendly forces support the L&O function. MP conduct L&O to remove the conditions and opportunities that promote crime, thereby preventing diversion of military resources and maintaining military discipline. The task areas include-

Law enforcement.


Criminal investigations.


US customs operations.


Related L&O training.

1-14. Whether patrolling an installation's housing area, conducting counterdrug operations, enhancing security, or investigating war crimes, MP L&O capabilities are invaluable to the commander. Refer to Chapter 8 for more information about L&O.
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POLICE INTELLIGENCE OPERATIONS
1-15. The PIO function supports, enhances, and contributes to the commander's protection
program, situational awareness, and battlefield visualization by portraying relevant threat
information that may affect the operational and tactical environment. The task areas that
support PIO include-

Intelligence preparation of the battlefield (IPB).


Active and passive roles.


Police assessment process.

1-16. Whether in support of peacetime installation L&O or detecting threat forces in the battle space, the MP force employment provides the commander with substantial information and an intelligence source, particularly where the criminal element is the same as or closely aligned with the opposing forces (OPFOR) and government. Refer to Chapter 9 for more information about PIO.

THREAT
1-17. Today, friendly forces encounter a broad range of traditional and nontraditional threats. No single dominating threat will be the undisputed focus of US security policy. Although overt attacks on the US and its strategic interests may be less common, stability operations and support operations will likely increase. Economic development and demographics, as well as the progression of social and cultural movements, will encompass an array of threat forces including nonnation forces (ethnic conflicts and terrorist activities) which challenge traditional nation and state environments. Additionally, nation and state forces (internal security forces and infantry-based and armor-mechanized-based armies) continue to present a global threat. These forces possess varying levels of military and advanced technology capabilities.
1-18. In recent military operations, a nontraditional criminal threat has emerged. The
evolving criminal threat operates most often in the rear area, near ports, in built-up areas,
and where troop populations are high. This threat is most likely to be detected at border
crossings trying to disrupt the relocation efforts of DCs. They may commit crimes against
particular ethnic groups or be at checkpoints and roadblocks trying to position weapons,
explosives, or personnel in sustainment areas in order to disrupt military operations or kill
friendly forces. Such a threat requires commanders to minimize its negative impact on
friendly forces, resources, and operations. The MP continue to respond to nonmilitary
threats including famine, health epidemics, illegal immigration, illegal drug traffic, and
population dislocation.
MILITARY POLICE PLATOON ORGANIZATION AND LEADERSHIP
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1-19. There are two basic MP platoon organizations, corps and division. Corps MP platoons
are organized and equipped basically the same. Each division MP platoon supporting a
different kind of division (such as heavy, light, airborne, or air assault) is designed under a
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different table(s) of organization and equipment (TOE).
CORPS MILITARY POLICE
1-20. Depending on the nature of the operation, corps MP are usually among the first forces deployed to support military operations around the world. They deploy early to areas devastated by natural or man-made disasters to assist disaster relief and damage assessment efforts. They provide security and force protection to friendly forces, critical facilities, and resources as units organize for military operations. In a developing theater, corps MP concentrate mission support to the main effort. Units whose assistance to the main effort is vital normally receive the highest priority for protection. Key facilities, such as traffic choke points, critical tunnels and bridges, and ammunition and fuel storage points may require special protection. As the theater matures, the focus may quickly change to other functions as MP adjust priorities to accommodate the change.
DIVISION MILITARY POLICE
1-21. Division MP are organized somewhat different depending on the type of division they are supporting. For example, a heavy division has one MP platoon providing direct support (DS) to each maneuver brigade and two MP platoons providing general support (GS) to the division's rear. Both airborne and air assault divisions have four MP platoons providing GS. A light infantry division is supported by three MP platoons.
1-22. In heavy divisions, where highly mobile forces are designed to move quickly over open ground, the overall need for MMS is significant. Division MP are likely to focus on expediting the forward movement of the critical combat resources into the division area. However, the priority could change quickly to removing EPWs from forward areas to freeing maneuver forces from guarding and caring for captives.
1-23. In airborne and air assault divisions, priority of MP support is most often needed for EPW operations and then for MMS to speed the movement of CS vehicles within the airhead.
1-24. For MP supporting any division, certain employment considerations remain constant. MP provide dedicated security for assets deemed critical by the division commander. This includes the division's main command post (CP) where MP operate outside the CP perimeter conducting screening missions designed to detect, disrupt, and delay enemy forces from disrupting the division's primary CP. Another consideration is MP accepting EPWs from capturing troops as far forward as possible.

SEPARATE BRIGADES DODDOA-009765
1-25. MP support to a separate brigade is normally provided by a four-squad MP platoon. The platoon is assigned to the brigade headquarters and headquarters company (HHC). The brigade has a separate provost marshal (PM) cell that serves as the command and control
(C2 ) element for the platoon. The brigade PM cell has operational control (OPCON) of all
MP assets the same way the division PM has OPCON of the division MP assets. The
brigade HHC provides sustainment support for both the PM cell and the MP platoon. The
PM advises the separate brigade commander on matters pertaining to MP operations. The
platoon leader directs the execution of the platoon's missions based on the priorities set
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forth by the PM and the supported commander.
1-26. The platoon can perform any of the five functions. The platoon leader may task organize the squads according to mission, enemy, troops, terrain, time available, and civilian considerations (METT-TC), and provide one squad to operate the EPW collecting
point, one squad to provide a mobile security screen and occupy observation posts (OPs) around the brigade's CP, and two squads to conduct MMS and AS throughout the brigade's rear area.
INITIAL BRIGADE COMBAT TEAMS (IBCTS )
1-27. MP support to an IBCT may differ from that of other separate brigades. The IBCT is a
preconfigured, ready-to-fight, combined-arms package. It is designed and optimized
primarily for employment in small-scale contingencies operations (SSCO) in complex and
urban terrain, confronting low-end and mid-range threats: The IBCT participates in war,
with augmentation, as a subordinate maneuver component within a division or corps, in a
variety of possible roles. It also participates in stability and/or support operations as an
initial entry force. Civil unrest or complete turmoil normally characterizes these
environments.
1-28. Organically, MP support-to the IBCT is a two- person PM planning cell. The PM planning cell is located with the HHC's maneuver support cell and under the direct supervision of the brigade Operations and Training Officer (US Army) (S3). The role of the PM cell is significantly different from that of a traditional division PM or separate brigade PM. The main difference is the lack of organic or habitual MP assets in the IBCT. The absence of organic MP assets makes the job of the PM much more critical. The PM must-

Understand the organization, capabilities, and limitations of the IBCT.


Conduct effective liaison with higher HQ PM elements.


Become an effective planner and anticipator of MP requirements.

.
Task organize MP units effectively and efficiently. DODDOA-009766


Assume C2 of incoming MP forces or, if operating under a division, relinquish C 2 to a division or corps PM (if appropriate for effective employment of MP forces).

1-29. Depending on METT-TC, the IBCT may be augmented by MP elements ranging from a platoon to a battalion. Once the brigade receives MP augmentation, the PM then becomes a staff planner and coordinator for all MP activities.
1-30. Since the IBCT is a divisional brigade, the division PM and the IBCT PM play an
important role in developing an optimum MP force package to support the brigade
commander's concept of the operation. Despite the brigade's early time lines, the PM must
consider and plan for MP augmentation forces as early as possible to free up valuable
combat resources. SSCO that result in numerous EPWs, CIs, and refugees will hamper the
maneuver force's freedom of movement.
1-31. Initially, MP priority of effort during the offense may be providing MMS for ground
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combat, CS, and CSS forces and taking control of EPWs and CIs. During the defense, the
priority of MP support may shift to conducting AS and counterreconnaissance along the LOC, C2 centers, and CSS bases. MP may also be required to conduct response force operations or become part of the TCF.
1-32. During stability and support operations, MP support may include-

Order restoration.


Crowd control.


AS or force protection.


DC operations.


Noncombatant-evacuation operations.

PLATOON LEADER
1-33. The MP platoon leader is responsible to the company commander for the platoon's combat readiness, training, and discipline and the maintenance of its equipment. To be
successful, the platoon leader must demonstrate an ability to lead soldiers and manage an
organization, material, and time. He must be able to articulate the capabilities and
limitations of the platoon to various non-MP staff sections. In combat, the platoon leader is
responsible for accomplishing all the missions assigned to the platoon according to the
commander's intent and preserving the platoon's fighting capability.
PLATOON SERGEANT (PSG)
1-34. The PSG leads elements of the platoon as directed by the platoon leader and assumes
command of the platoon in the absence of the platoon leader. He directs the day-to-day
activities of the platoon and ensures that the platoon has individual and team training and
logistics needed to accomplish its mission. During tactical operations, he may assist in the
control of the platoon.
TEAM AND SQUAD LEADER
1-35. The MP team leader is responsible to the squad leader for individual and team training
and team discipline. He is responsible for the tactical employment and control of the team
and the maintenance and operation of all vehicles and equipment organic to the team.
During combat operations or anytime there is a threat, the team leader quickly assesses the
situation, reports to his superiors, and takes appropriate action to protect the team according
to the rules of engagement (ROE). A squad leader has the same responsibility for the squad
as the team leader has for the team.

FORCE PROTECTION (FP) MEASURES DODDOA-009767
1-36. MP leaders at all levels must examine FP requirements and integrate FP measures throughout all the operations. Once higher HQ has established local FP policies, leaders set
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the example by complying with them. Leaders reduce the soldiers' exposure to hazards by strictly enforcing all the protective postures that may include-

Traveling with at least two vehicles armed with at least one automatic weapon.


Hardening of the vehicles.


Wearing Kevlar® and body armor.


Not driving off the road or cross-country.


Placing off-post facilities off limits during nonduty hours.

1-37. MP leaden analyze and compensate for other threats such as disease, weather, crime,
complacency, terrorism, morale, safety, and other considerations.
1-38. At the operational level, team and squad leaders establish a safety zone around their teams. The safety zone is the immediate area around the team where threat forces or events could harm the team or inflict casualties. In open terrain, the safety zone may extend out to the maximum effective range of the team's organic-weapon systems. However, when searching vehicles at a checkpoint or conducting crowd control, the safety zone may only be an arm's length from the team.
1-39. Team and squad leaders remain alert to threats that enter the team's safety zone. They
must quickly assess any threat to the team and take appropriate action within the ROE to
reduce the threat or move the team.
1-40. When required to operate in crowds, maintain eye contact with team members.
Establish and maintain a safe distance between the team and the crowd. Never allow the
team to become separated or surrounded.
1-41. When patrolling in built-up areas, the gunner scans the upper floors of the buildings and the streets to the vehicle's front, rear, and flanks and immediately reports any suspicious activity. The driver concentrates on the area directly in front of the vehicle looking for any unexploded munitions, scatterable mines, or other road hazards. All team members should stay awake, alert, and ready to react to danger.

MILITARY POLICE PLATOON MISSION, CAPABILITIES, AND LIMITATIONS
1-42. The platoon has one critical wartime mission which is to provide MP CS to an
assigned area of operations (AO). MP CS consists of all five MP functions. The platoon
performs its missions primarily mounted, taking full advantage of the high mobility
multipurpose wheeled vehicle's (HMMWV's) versatility and the added protection and
firepower of the armor security vehicle (ASV).
CAPABILITIES DODDOA-009768
1-43. The MP platoon is capable of operating day or night, in various terrain conditions, and http ://ati am. train. army.mil/portal/atia/adlsc/viewtoublic/297074-1/fm/3-19.4/chanl .htm 12/270004
under all weather and visibility conditions. Their mode of operation is possible through the deployment and employment of the three-person team throughout the battlefield. However, it is dependent on its parent unit for sustainment support. The platoon has self-protection capabilities such as nuclear, biological, chemical (NBC) detection equipment and a Platoon Early-Warning System (PEWS). The platoon's radio transmission range is increased with an 0E-254 antenna. Because of extensive police training and law enforcement missions, the MP are highly skilled in the use of force and the employment of lethal and nonlethal technologies, information-collecting and dissemination, observation and surveillance, and crowd control. The MP platoon has a tremendous combat and noncombat information­collecting capability. This capability is the result of extensive area, zone, and route reconnaissance; daily contact with local nationals; conducting combined police patrols with HN military and civilian police agencies; and conducting field interviews. An MP platoon is capable of covering 500 square kilometers in rolling terrain; however, more severe terrain such as mountains, METT-TC, and mission objectives will affect this capability. For example, consider one mobile MP team per 10 kilometers of route coverage. For -area coverage, begin with an estimate of one mobile MP team per 55 square kilometers.
1-44. Unlike most combat arms platoons, which maneuver together in formation, the MP
platoon most often operates independently and dispersed over a large area. The platoon conducts combat operations, when required, through the employment of mobile combat systems containing three-man teams operating independently or in concert, and having vehicle crew-served and individual weapons capable of defeating a Level II threat and
defending a position against dismounted threats.
1-45. Based on METT-TC, the platoon leader may task organize the platoon for certain missions. Normally, MP are employed as squads; however, individual teams may execute many MP tasks.
LIMITATIONS
1-46. During combat operations, the platoon is not organized and equipped to fight for extended periods unless it is augmented with indirect fire or close air support (CAS). Although the MP team is a lethal and highly mobile platform, it is not structured or equipped for prolonged autonomous missions. Leaders must use the MP team as a task organizational building block and avoid over tasking based solely on the number of teams available. The platoon has limited antiarmor capability and normally uses antiarmor weapons for self-protection and to break contact.

PEACETIME TRAINING
1-47. MP units train as they will fight. Peacetime training must replicate battlefield
conditions and conform to Army doctrine. Leaders and soldiers must understand
standardized doctrinal principles found in applicable manuals to ensure that training is
conducted to standard. The following manuals provide the basic foundation for Army
training:

FMs.


Training circulars (TCs).

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• MTPs. •

Drill books.


SMs.


Army regulations (ARs)

1-48. FM 25-100 , FM 25-101 , and TC 25-10 provide MP leaders with established training doctrine and assist the leaders in the development and execution of the training programs. These manuals introduce the concept of lane training and define it as a technique for training company, team, and smaller units on a series of selected soldier, leader, and collective tasks using specific terrain.
1-49. Lane training uses multiechelon techniques to maximize the efficient use of limited terrain and control conditions for formal or informal evaluations. Lane training is externally supported, resourced, and evaluated. It enables similar units to simultaneously or sequentially train on mission-related scenarios. Lane training is resource intensive, so commanders must maximize its benefit. Commanders narrow the focus and select only the most critical mission-essential task lists (METLs) items or collective tasks for training. Lane training is especially valuable for conducting specific METL tasks, situational training exercises (STXs), and other training events. It is often associated with training requiring movement over terrain; for example, movement to contact or conducting a route reconnaissance. Lane training can be modified to achieve benefits in L&O scenarios, such as special- reaction team (SRT) incidents, patrol incidents, traffic accidents, and so forth.
1-50. The lane training doctrine outlined in FM 25-101 and TC 25-10 can be tailored for small MP units by using the training execution model (TEM). The TEM follows the Army doctrine and training philosophy of hands-on METL training as outlined by FMs 25-100 and 25-101 . Before the TEM can be implemented, the concept of the operation must be approved, evaluated, and directed from two levels up. For example, a squad leader must receive approval through the chain of command from his company commander to execute the training event; a platoon leader gets approval from the battalion commander and so forth.
1-51. The TEM incorporates the combined-arms training methodology and adjusts it to meet the MP training requirements. The TEM focuses the unit on the time available during the training cycle to train the most critical collective and individual tasks. The TEM consists of an eight-step training methodology that is based on leader certification of the lane expert and an observer/controller (OC) as well as subordinate unit leaders. For more information about TEM refer to Appendix C .
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Chapter 2

Battle Command
This chapter provides the techniques and procedures used by MP leaders at company and platoon level
to C2 their organizations.
OVERVIEW
2-1. Battle command is the art of battle decision making, leading, and motivating soldiers and organizations into action to achieve victory with the least cost to the organization. Commanders must visualize the current and future state of both friendly and enemy forces. The commander positions himself where he can guide and motivate the soldiers and influence the outcome of the missions.
2-2. The company commander is responsible for all that the unit does or fails to do. He cannot delegate this responsibility, and the final decision and responsibility rest with him. He discharges his responsibility through an established chain of command and holds each subordinate leader responsible for the actions of the platoon or the section.
2-3. The commander must be proficient in the tactical employment of the unit. He must know the capabilities and limitations of the soldiers and the equipment. A commander does this through a continuous cycle of planning, executing, and assessing training. Through this training, the commander gets to know the soldiers.
2-4. MP commanders prioritize, assign missions, and allocate resources where they can best support the higher echelon commander's intent. The company commander makes most of the tactical decisions. Technological advances in today's operational environments have reduced the time available for decision making while increasing the possibilities that must be considered.
2-5. Thorough and sound operational planning is the key to successful combat and CS operations. Commanders must identify the opportunities and anticipate and avoid problems. They must analyze their options before making the decisions on which subordinate leaders will base their actions. Commanders balance competing risks and then identify and develop the best course of action (COA).

MILITARY DECISION-MAKING PROCESS (MDMP)
2-6. The MDMP is a single, established, and proven analytical process used at all the
echelons of the commands. This is a seven-step process used when adequate planning time
and enough staff support are available (Table 2-1) . This process is a detailed, deliberate,
sequential, and time-consuming process that helps the commander and his staff examine a
battlefield situation and reach logical decisions. The commander uses the entire staff during
the process to explore the full range of probable and likely enemy and friendly COAs and to
analyze and compare his own organization's capabilities with the enemy's.
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Step Action Step Action
1 Receipt of the mission 5 COA comparison
2 Mission analysis 16 COA approval
3 COA development 7 Orders production
4 I COA analysis
2-7. At company level, the commander normally uses the MDMP in a time-constrained environment without enough staff. A unit can shorten the process if it fully understands the role of each step of the process and the requirements to produce the necessary products. The application of the MDMP at company level and below is called the troop-leading procedures (TLP). Figure 2-1 , page 2-4 shows the relationship between MDMP and TLP.
TLP MOMP
1. Receive and analyze Mssion analysis (METT-TC)
the mission. - Mission Enemy Terrain (and weather)
-Troops
3. Issue the uamirg order - Time available (V1.(13). • Chain considerations
3. Make a tentative plan.
COA development
COA analysis
COA comparison
4.
Initiate movement.

5.
Conduct reconnaissance.

5. Complete the plan.
COA selection (approval)
Reinernert of pbn ordersproduction
7.
Issue the order

8.
Supervise. refine. and rehearse.'

Figure 2-1. Relationship Between TLP and the MDMP
2-8. MP commanders plan successful operations by anticipating possible future events and
planning contingencies. MP leaders enhance both planning and execution of the operations
when they-
• Use the military planning and decision-making process.
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Develop short- and long-range goals.


Identify goals and objectives with a recognizable end-state.


Coordinate goals and actions internally and externally.


Base their plans on objective planning factors.


Review their plans, continuously, in light of the METT-TC and updated information.


Assign responsibilities and express expectations.


Identify the options that may develop during an operation.


Stand ready to accommodate the changes.

MILITARY PLANNING
2-9. Commanders select and carry out the developed COAs using military planning. Military planning guidelines include-

Forecasting requirements by analyzing and evaluating facts and trends to predict what may occur.


Examining probable requirements and establishing priorities for further preparation.


Studying implications and interrelationships of probable requirements.


Analyzing the mission to determine tasks, their complexity, and their relative importance.


Establishing guidance for further planning that will help keep all the elements focused on the commander's intent.


Preparing studies and estimates to help formulate the COA and assess its feasibility.


Selecting the COA, identifying the best course, and retaining other feasible courses for use in contingencies as alternate plans.


Preparing the plan in detail and conducting rehearsals when time, resources, and security permit.

2-10. Use the following military planning guidelines to answer the three key questions of operational planning:

What military condition must be produced to achieve the goal?


What sequence of actions is most likely to produce that condition?

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• How should resources be applied to accomplish that sequence of actions?
2-11. If the plan is not implemented immediately, retain it for later use. As events occur or
new information becomes available, review and revise the plan accordingly.
ANALYSIS, FORECASTING, AND RISKS
2-12. Conducting a mission analysis is crucial to planning. The process begins by gathering
facts and ascertaining current conditions, such as the-

Higher-level mission and the commander's intent (one and two levels up).


Current task organization (two levels down).


Current unit status (locations, operation capabilities, and activities).


Logistics situation (refer to FM 101-5 for the logistic estimate format).

2-13. When facts are not available, the commander will need to develop assumptions.
Assumptions must substitute for fact where information is not known. Keep in mind that as
time passes between the receipt of a mission and the execution of a plan, facts are increasingly likely to have changed. Develop sound assumptions that can be used in place of facts.
2-14. Analyzing the higher-level mission and the commander's intent will help identify what tasks are required to accomplish the mission. As the mission is analyzed, identify both the specified and the implied tasks to be performed. Specified tasks are those stated in higher HQ orders and plans. Implied tasks (like crossing a river or passing through the lines of a unit lying between you and the objective) are not so stated, but must be accomplished to satisfy the overall operation. From among the specified and implied tasks, essential tasks that are crucial to the mission's success must be identified.
2-15. Integral to mission planning is the analysis of mission requirements in terms of time,
space, and personnel. If MP are to balance the benefits of detailed planning against the need
for immediate action, they must-

Determine how much time there will be between receiving the mission and the deadline for having completed it.


Know how long it will take to obtain and process information, make decisions, and issue orders.


Know how long it will take subordinates to execute the orders, complete the mission, or carry out the operation.

2-16. Because each unit involved in an operation performs its planning based on the plans of the next higher level, allocation of adequate time for subordinate units to plan is a consideration at each level. Publishing SOPs reduces the number of details to be explained. It also promotes understanding and teamwork among commanders, staff, and troops.
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2-17. When doing reverse planning, consider the classic allotment of one-third time for planning and two-thirds time for execution (Table 2-2) . Move backward from the time of execution to-

Allocate time to accomplish each phase of an operation.


Determine how much time is needed to rehearse.


Determine how much time is needed for developing the plan.

Table 2-2. Reverse Planning Timetable
Time Action
2230 Execute the mission.
2130-2215 Conduct inspection(s).
1845-2130 Conduct rehearsal(s).
1815-1845 Issue an operation order (OPORD).
1745-1815 Complete the plan.
1715-1745 Conduct the leaders' reconnaissance.
1630-1715 Issue a tentative plan.
1630 Issue a WO.
1600 Receive the mission.
2-18. When using terrain analysis, consider the layout of the battlefield. Appreciate the
opportunities and limitations of the major terrain features, transportation networks, and
built-up areas. Fit the operational concept and planning to that environment. Use the IPB to
evaluate the area in terms of the military aspects of the terrain. Consider how to exploit the
opportunities afforded by weather while minimizing its adverse effects.
2-19. Use current information on the threat to identify known enemy activities and threat
capabilities that could affect this and future operations. Attempt to anticipate the enemy's
objectives and intentions.
2-20. Consider available assets and determine acceptable levels of risk. At every echelon,
MP disperse their assets and prioritize operations to meet the echelon commander's needs
within the limits of the resources at hand. MP leaders must concentrate their efforts on key
locations and accept risks elsewhere. When possible, recognize and moderate such risks in
the choice of operations and in the contingency planning. The five steps to identify, analyze,
and reduce risks are listed in FM 100-14 .
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COURSE OF ACTION IDENTIFICATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND SELECTION
2-21. The commander's selected COA will become the actual plan for accomplishing the
mission. To ensure the best plan possible, identify several possible COAs, each significantly
different from the others. In identifying COAs, do not overlook a check of the "basics" that
include the-

Commander's intent.


Essential tasks.


Effective use of C 2 .


Principles of war.


Ethical considerations.


Relative force ratio.

2-22. Consider preparing a COA statement (and sketch, if appropriate) for each option. The COA statement is the "how" of the operation. Ensure that it includes the following five elements:

What - the type of action.


When - the time the action will begin.


Where - the assigned area.


How - the use of available assets.


Why - the purpose of the operation.

2-23. When developing the COA, analyze the relative combat power. Consider the initial
array of the forces and develop the schemes of maneuver. Determine C 2 means and
maneuver control measures.
2-24. Base doctrinal capabilities and planning on historical planning factors, and then relook the estimates in light of the available assets, the factors of METT-TC, the echelon commander's intent, and the mission's priorities. For example, when planning distribution of mobile assets for route coverage, begin with an estimate of one mobile MP team per 10 kilometers. For area coverage, begin with an estimate of one mobile MP team per 55 square kilometers.
2-25. When dispersing the assets into small combat elements, consider the classic ratios of friendly to enemy forces (3 to 1) to help ensure that the elements can concentrate enough combat power to accomplish the mission. Consider the speed and ease of reassembling the elements if dispersing them to distant sites.

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2-26. Attempt to anticipate the enemy's likely moves. Consider ways to obstruct dangerous
approaches to the area and avenues leading away from potential landing zones. Plan ways to
combine the efforts of different resources, like enhancing the combat power for the base
response and counterreconnaissance operations with fire support from field artillery or
aviation. Attempt to determine the outcome of the operations by-

Conserving unit strength through economy of force.


Using terrain, weather, deception, and operations security (OPSEC) to your advantage.


Focusing your efforts on enemy vulnerabilities.


Ensuring unity of effort among subordinates and with your peers.

2-27. When planning for combat operations, whenever possible, develop a COA that avoids an enemy's strength and strikes at his weaknesses. Avoid head-on encounters with an enemy's forces. Seek to gain the element of surprise. When moving, plan to use indirect approaches and flank positions that do not attract immediate attention. Plan for fire support to increase MP combat power. Plan to operate on the enemy's flanks and rear, where direct fire is most effective, psychological shock is the greatest, and the enemy is least prepared to fight. Respond to and implement changes quickly and plan supplementary or alternative control measures to modify the plan as the situation dictates.
2-28. For a combat operation, the COA statement and sketches include the following:

Allocated forces.


Unit boundaries.


Axes of advance.


Routes for a forward or rearward passage of lines.


Air axes for the maneuver of attack helicopters.


Other control measures which may include-

¦
Phase lines.

¦
Assembly and holding areas.

¦
Zones or sectors.

¦
Battle positions.

¦
Objectives.

¦
Obstacles.

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• Routes.
2-29. Assess all of the feasible COAs after developing them. Consider constraints and restrictions on each COA. Weigh the available COA for the AO, for the level of responsibility, the commander's intent, and the mission's priorities. Decide on the best COA. For more information about the MDMP process, refer to FM 101-5.
2-30. Once the commander decides on a COA, he announces it in the form of orders that include his intent and concept of the operation. Based on these orders, the platoon leader uses TLP to organize his time during planning and preparation for the mission. Time management is the key. The platoon leader normally uses one-third of the available time to plan, prepare, and issue the order. The squad leaders have the remaining two-thirds of the time to prepare the squads for the mission. Whenever possible, TLP are integrated and accomplished concurrently rather than sequentially. Relationships between TLP and the MDMP are shown in Figure 2-1 , page 2-4.

TROOP-LEADING PROCEDURES

2-31. TLP begin when the platoon leader is alerted for a mission and starts again when he receives a change or a new mission. Conducting TLP is an eight-step process (Table 2-3) . Steps 3 through 8 may not follow a rigid sequence. Several of the steps may be accomplished concurrently. In CS operations, platoon leaders rarely have enough time to go through each step in detail. However, the procedure must be followed, if only in abbreviated form. This ensures that nothing is left out of the planning and the preparation.
Table 2-3. The Eight Steps of TLP
Step Action
1 Receive and analyze the mission.
2 Issue a WO.
3 Make a tentative plan.
4

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Chapter 3

Shoot, Move, and Communicate
The ability of an MP unit to shoot, move, and communicate ensures its ability to detect, disrupt, and defend against the enemy and immeasurably adds to its survivability and maneuverability. MP are structured to be strategically, operationally, and tactically agile to respond to the increased range of worldwide MP requirements.
SHOOT
3-1. It is important that MP understand their shooting capabilities and limitations. Just as important is the understanding of firing techniques and associated fire distribution, reacting to air and armor attacks, calling for fire, and obtaining various fire support.
UNDERSTAND FIRE TECHNIQUES
3-2. Fire techniques include fire from or at a moving vehicle, fire distribution and control,
and suppressive fire.
Fire From or at a Moving Vehicle
3-3. The key to forward maneuver is firing on the enemy. When maneuvering, the fire element-

Attempts to destroy or suppress the enemy.


Covers and protects the maneuver element as it advances.


Moves, when possible, into its firing position undetected. Fire from an unexpected direction has a greater effect than fire from a known position.

3-4. Firing on the move is less accurate than firing from a halt. However, to halt and fire takes more time and is more dangerous. A stationary vehicle is more likely to be hit than a moving vehicle. The team leader must decide whether to fire while moving or to fire from a short halt. He bases his decision on sound judgment and evaluation of the threat.
3-5. Crew-served weapons engage all targets on the move with free gunfire. To deliver this
type of fire, the gunner removes the traversing and elevating (T&E) mechanism from the
bottom of the receiver, allowing the gun to move freely in any direction. Accurate firing
with crew-served weapons while moving is affected by-

The terrain.


The vehicle's speed.


The team's proficiency.

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FM 3-19.4 Chapter 3 Page 2 of 7
3-6. When aiming from a moving vehicle or at a moving vehicle, or both, the gunner must lead the target. The speed of the firing vehicle, the time of flight, and the angle of engagement affect the amount of lead required. The time of flight is the required time it takes the projectile to move from the firing vehicle to the target. The angle of engagement is the angle found between the centerline of the vehicle and the gun when laid on the target. When a round is fired from the flank of a moving vehicle, the round drifts in the same direction and at the same speed as the vehicle. The longer the flight time and the larger the engagement angle, the greater the drift. Thus, the gunner must apply more lead to the shot. If a lead is required and the gunner is traversing left to keep on target, the gunner must lead left. If the gunner is traversing right to keep on the target, the gunner must lead right. This is true whether the firing vehicle is moving, the target is moving, or both are moving. Table 3­1 shows the responsibilities of an MP team when firing on the move.
Table 3-1. Team Responsibilities When Firing While Moving
Position Actions
Team • Directs the driver.
leader
• Keeps the gunner oriented.
• Senses the impact of the rounds-long, short, left,
I or right of the target.
• Identifies additional targets.
• Assists the gunner with reloading, if required.
• Observes the surrounding terrain.
Gunner • Develops a feel for the moving vehicle.
• Tracks the position of the target with the MK19
grenade machine gun (GMG) despite the
movement of the vehicle.
• Remains alert to the sounds of the engine and
transmission. These sounds indicate the type of
terrain over which the vehicle is traveling and
helps the gunner anticipate vehicle movements.
Driver • Tries to maintain a steady gun platform while
the gunner engages the targets.
• Attempts to time the gear and direction changes
so they occur immediately after firing and do
not interfere with accuracy.
• Informs the gunner of obstacles in the vehicle's
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path that might affect the gun's accuracy.

Announces "depression," "turn," and the like to warn the gunner of vehicle movements.


Announces, "steady" to let the gunner know when the vehicle is once again on a stable platform. The gunner assumes he has a stable platform unless the driver informs him otherwise.

Distribute Fire
3-7. MP leaders must distribute the fires of their organic weapons to destroy or suppress enemy positions. The following are the two methods to distribute fire on a target:
• Point fire. Point fire (Figure 3-0 is directed against one target (such as a machine gun position) with all the troops firing at the same target. Spreading out the base-of-fire element makes this type of fire particularly effective because the fire is directed from many sources.
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Figure 3-1. Fire Distribution
• Area fire. Area fire (Figure 3-1) permits rapid cover of an entire area with fire from the left to the right and in depth, even if the enemy cannot be seen. This method is used without command and is the quickest and most effective way to bring all parts of
http://atiam.train.anny.mil/portal/atia/adlsc/view/public/297074-1/fm/3-... 12/27/2004 a target under fire. Each member in the element is assigned a portion of the target. Fire is placed on likely locations for enemy positions rather than in a general area. If the leader wants fire on a wood line, he may shoot tracers to mark the center of the target. Soldiers to the left of the leader fire to the left of the tracers and soldiers to his right fire to the right of the tracers.
3-8. A rifleman fires his first shot on the part of the target that corresponds to his individual position. If he is left of the leader, he fires to the left of the leader's tracers. He then distributes his remaining shots over the part of the target extending a few meters right and left of his first shot. He covers the part of the target that he can hit without changing position.
3-9. A grenadier fires into the center of the target area of his team. He then distributes his shots over the remaining target area from the center to each side and from front to rear. A machine gunner covers part of the target depending on his position and how much of the target is in range. When possible, he covers the entire target of the team. When placing automatic suppressive fire on the enemy, the tendency is to shoot high. Therefore, he places the first bursts low and works up to the target. The squad leader tells the machine gunners where to shoot by assigning sectors of fire.
3-10. An MK 19 gunner engages area targets with traversing and searching fire after the leader designates the width and depth of the target. If one MK19 GMG is being fired, the gunner engages the area target by adjusting his fire on the center of the mass, then traverses and searches to either flank. When he reaches the flank, he reverses direction and traverses and searches in the opposite direction. If two MK19 GMGs are being fired as a pair, the
point of the initial lay and adjustment for both guns is on the midpoint of the target. After adjusting the fire on the center of the mass, fire is distributed by applying direction and elevation changes that give the most effective coverage of the target area. Usually, the right
gun (number 1) fires on the right half, and the left gun (number 2) fires on the left half.
Appendix G describes the MK19 qualification and familiarization tables and provides a
sample scorecard.
Control Fire
3-11. Fire control is an essential component of fire distribution. A platoon leader must know
what means he will direct the fire element to use when engaging the targets.- He will
communicate directly or use prearranged signals to identify the location of the target to the
other units. He may use sound signals (such as voice, a horn, or a whistle), but must
remember that they are only good for short distances and that their reliability and range are
reduced by battle noise, weather, terrain, and vegetation. Use a radio to direct the base-of­
fire element or adjust fires from reference points or landmarks, because a radio offers
immediate voice communication. For example, he may say, "From the burning scout
vehicle, northwest 50 meters, machine gun position." If portable radio equipment is not
available, he uses prearranged visual signals, such as smoke or flares. A smoke round from
a grenade launcher, unless it is being used for some other purpose, and a smoke canister can
be used as a signal. Use these items during reduced visibility in addition to aiming stakes,
illumination, night-vision devices, infrared chemical lights, and so forth.
Use Fire Commands
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3-12. Leaders use fire commands to direct fire. A fire command has the following six parts:

Alert. The leader alerts the soldiers to receive further instruction. He alerts the soldiers by name or unit designation, some type of visual or sound signal, personal contact, or any other practical way.


Direction. The leader tells the soldiers the general direction to the target. In some cases, he pinpoints a target. The following are the three ways the leader can give the direction to the target:

¦
Points with his armor rifle.

¦
Fires tracer ammunition at a target.

¦
Uses either target reference points (TRPS) or easily recognized man-made objects or terrain features. He gives the general direction just before giving the reference points.


Description. The leader describes the target briefly but accurately and always gives the formation of the enemy soldiers.


Range. The leader tells the soldiers the range to the target in meters.


Method of fire. The leader tells the soldiers which weapons to fire, the type and amount of ammunition to fire, and the rate of fire.


Command to fire. The leader tells the soldiers when to fire by using an oral command or visual signal. When he wants to control the exact moment of fire, he says, "At my command" (then pauses until ready to commence firing). When he wants to start firing on completion of the fire command, he just says, "Fire."

Use Subsequent Fire Commands
3-13. These commands adjust or change information given in the initial fire command. Only the elements that change are given.
Terminate Fire
3-14. Fire is terminated by the command or signal for cease fire, end of mission.

Suppress Fires
3-15. When the fire element is in position, it lays a heavy volume of fire on the enemy to
suppress them. When the leader senses that the enemy is suppressed, he instructs the fire
element to reduce its rate of fire as long as it keeps the enemy suppressed. As the movement
element nears its objective, the fire element increases the rate of fire to keep the enemy
down. This lets the movement element close enough to assault the enemy before the enemy
can react. When the assault begins, or on a signal, the fire element stops firing, shifts its fire
to another target, or walks its fire across the objective in front of the movement element,
and then shifts or ceases fire.
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3-16. Positions for fire elements are located so that movement of the maneuver element
does not mask their fires. Fire element positions are often higher and usually to the flank of
the maneuver element. The maneuver element neither masks the fire of the fire element nor
moves outside the protective umbrella provided by the fire. A platoon or squad can point
fire at one target or an area of several targets. In both cases, the leader must control the fire.
He must ensure that the fire is directed on the enemy, not on the maneuver element.

Use Nonlethal Weapons (NLW)
3-17. The Department of Defense (DOD) defines NLW as weapons that are explicitly
designed and primarily employed to incapacitate personnel or material while minimizing
fatalities, permanent injury to personnel, and undesired damage to property and the
environment. Unlike conventional weapons that destroy the targets principally through
blast, penetration, and fragmentation, NLW employ means other than gross physical
destruction to prevent the target from functioning.
3-18. NLW doctrine and concepts of operation are designed to reinforce deterrence and
expand the range of options available to commanders. They enhance the capability of US
forces to accomplish the following objectives:

Discourage, delay, or prevent hostile actions.


Limit escalation.


Take military action in situations where use of lethal force is not the preferred option.


Protect US forces.


Disable equipment, facilities, and personnel temporarily.

NOTE: The zero probability of producing fatalities or permanent injuries is not a
requirement of NLW. However, while complete avoidance of these effects is not
guaranteed or expected, when properly employed, NLW significantly reduce them as

compared with physically destroying the same target.
3-19. When drafting the ROE, it must be clearly articulated and understood that the role of
NLW is an additional means of employing force for the particular purpose of limiting the
probability of death or serious injury to noncombatants or belligerents. However, the use of
deadly force must always remain an inherent right of individuals in instances when they,
their fellow soldiers, or personnel in their charge are threatened with death or serious bodily
harm. NLW add flexibility to the control of disturbances within the I/R facility and provide
an environment where guard forces can permissively engage threatening targets (Figure 3­
2) with limited risk of noncombatant casualties and collateral damage. Refer to FM 90-40 .

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gronada..
Figure 3-2. Range of Munitions Contained in a Nonlethal Capability Set
3-20. The use of lethal force, employed under-the standing ROE, will never be denied. At no time will forces be deployed without the ability to defend themselves against a lethal threat, nor will they forego normal training, arming, and equipping for combat. Nonlethal options are a complement to, not a replacement for, lethal force and seek to expand a proactive response across the range of military operations. Refer to FM 90-40 .
3-21. The decision to use NLW against an adversary during a confrontation is delegated to the lowest possible level, preferably to the platoon or the squad. However, this requires that all personnel, not just the leaders, have a clear understanding of the ROE and the commander's intent. Refer to FM 90-40 .
3-22. Commanders and public affairs officers must be prepared to address media questions and concerns regarding the use and role of NLW, and they must make it clear that the presence of NLW in no way indicates abandoning the option to employ deadly force in appropriate circumstances.
-
3 23. Advantages of Employing Nonlethal Weapons . NLW provide the commander with
the flexibility to influence the situation favorably with reduced risk of noncombatant fatalities and collateral damage.
3-24. NLW can be more humane, b
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Chapter 4

Combat Operations
This chapter provides the MP leader with the information needed to successfully complete a combat mission. When MP platoons conduct the tasks addressed in this chapter, they will mirror the actions of the company.
PREPARE FOR COMBAT
4-1. Units that are not directly engaged in combat often find it necessary to travel in order to position themselves for combat operations. During these movements, the battalion supports the company and the company supports and monitors the platoons with the movement plan. The move's success depends on the unit's discipline and ability to execute the plan. (Refer to Appendix E for precombat inspection checklists.)
MAINTAIN AND MOVE A COMBAT LOAD
4-2. Combat load is the quantity of supplies, in all classes, that the company must have on hand to sustain operations for a prescribed number of days. The company must be capable of moving the combat load, using organic transportation assets, into combat in a single delivery. To save time, the company combat loads vehicles while the quartering party readies the new site. The combat load ensures that a unit is ready for combat even when it ison the move.
4-3. The principles of combat loading are standard. All equipment, ammunition, and gear are loaded on the vehicles in a logical order and put in predesignated places. Knowing the location of each item allows for quick retrieval during the move. Combat loading also lends to a fast set up at the new site. Like the basic lcad, the company's combat load is mission­dependent. No single load plan can satisfy all the situations. MP leaders must consider the following:

METT-TC.


Vehicle and trailer capacities.


Weight limits of the unit's vehicles and trailers, being careful not to overload them.


Whether or not the equipment will fit (cube out). For equipment data, see the applicable technical manual (TM).

4-4. Unit SOPs has load plans tailored for various mission activities. Having a choice of
load plans for various deployments reduces the load time .. Load plans and diagrams are
modified to suit METT-TC and vehicle and trailer capacities. The modifications are shown
on the load diagram in the vehicle. HMMWVs may be loaded in many configurations,
which include-
• Loading the basic equipment in the mounted standard brackets on the vehicle. _
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• Modifying and moving the brackets to meet mission or unit requirements.
PLAN A TACTICAL ROAD MARCH
4-5. The basic considerations in planning any road march are the METT-TC factors (especially the enemy situation and the mission); the march order; and the type, number, and characteristics of vehicles available for the movement. A company conducts a tactical road march for relocating and facilitating rapid movement of the vehicles with a prescribed speed and interval between the vehicles. When preparing for a tactical road march, the company uses the following planning sequence when time permits:

Prepare and issue the WO as early as possible to allow maximum time for preparation.


Prepare an estimate of the situation, specifying the organization of the march column.


Organize and dispatch reconnaissance and quartering parties.


Prepare detailed movement plans based on the organization of the march column and a review of the available reconnaissance information.


Use the reconnaissance information to-

• Choose sites for halts and RPs.
¦
Spot problem areas along the route.

¦
Select bypasses or alternate routes.


Select fairly secure locations for halts ;


Choose areas that provide cover and concealment.


Avoid choosing highly populated areas, curves in the road, or other hard-to-secure areas.


Plan the timing so that the unit arrives at the SP just before it is scheduled to cross it. The time a unit must cross the SP is provided to the unit. As other units may be planning to use the route, each unit must cross the SP on time.


Prepare and issue the march order.


Prepare the overlays and issue them to the vehicle commanders and subordinate leaders. The road march overlay includes, at a minimum, the location of the SP, RP, scheduled halts, and checkpoints at critical points along the route.

COORDINATE AND DIRECT THE MARCH
4-6. The chain of command controls the column. The march leader-

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Coordinates the road march through the chain of command with the local movement control unit.


Determines if the convoy needs a movement credit or a clearance to use the given route. If so, the march leader submits a Department of Defense (DD) Form 1265 through the appropriate movement control center.


Informs higher HQ and the supported units of the dates and times that the operations will stop at the old site and begin at the new site.


Tasks subordinate leaders to attend a briefing to discuss unit readiness and load plans and forecast support requirements.


Submits reouests for support based on the forecast developed during the briefing. Requests may include fire support, refueling, vehicle recovery operations, and other support needed to complete the march.


Issues an OPORD for the movement.


Requests HQ personnel to prepare a movement table. Refer to Appendix E of FM 55-10 for detailed information on the movement tables.


Requires unit personnel to analyze the route reconnaissance information looking for likely enemy ambush sites.


Ensures that a strip map, which may be included as an annex to the OPORD, is prepared. The strip map shows SPs; RPs; route numbers; place names; critical points; directional arrows; distances between the points; scheduled halt locations; and petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) refill points. Give copies to the unit drivers.


Ensures that the drivers and assistant drivers are briefed.


Ensures that radio communication is kept to a minimum during movement.


Tasks subordinates to ensure that the road march plan is followed.


Ensures that safety briefings are conducted and understood.

CONDUCT THE MARCH
4-7. The commander sets the conditions under which military traffic moves at night. The
march leader ensures that personnel are aware of and abide by the set lighting conditions
when the company moves at night. Conditions that are more restrictive may be imposed
contingent on the threat environment (such as air raids). Lighting conditions may include
normal lighting, reduced lighting, or blackout. If the situation warrants, travel by total
blackout (use of night-vision goggles [NVGs]) may be prescribed. More often, travel is
under partial blackout, using only enough light to see the road and to be seen by other road
users. Minimal lighting reduces visibility from the air while it permits drivers to-
• Travel as quickly and safely as possible.
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Apply brakes in time.


See the side of the road.

Movement Techniques
4-8. During a tactical road march, the unit leaders (such as the march leader and the platoon
sergeant) travel in separate vehicles. This decreases the chance of a unit's primary leaders
being lost in one enemy action. The convoy moves en route by close or open column march
or by infiltration. In dusty conditions, space the vehicles so that the dust from one vehicle
does not blind the driver of the next.
4-9. Close Column. In a close column, the elements are close together. Use a close column
for marches during limited visibility, blackout conditions, and radio silence. Under these
conditions, space the vehicles so that the driver can see the two lights in the blackout
marker of the vehicle ahead. Visibility determines the set distance between the vehicles. A
close column-

Reduces the time it takes for the column to pass points on the route.


Requires fewer guides, escorts, and markers for control than an open column does.


Enhances movement through congested areas or over poorly marked routes.

4-10. Open Column. In an open column, elements are widely spaced as a passive defense measure. Generally, an open column is used during daylight, but may be used at night with infrared lights, blackout lights, or night-vision equipment. A distance of 50 to 100 meters or more may be designated between vehicles depending on METT-TC. Use an open column-

When enemy contact is likely.


To enhance security.


Over dusty roads. Reducing dust is especially important when moving through areas contaminated by radioactive fallout.

4-11. Infiltration. Infiltration is the best passive defense against enemy observation and
attack, although it may be difficult to control. To move by infiltration, vehicles are
dispatched one at a time or in small groups at irregular intervals to keep traffic density low
and to prevent undue massing of vehicles. Use infiltration-

When time and road space allow.


When maximum security, deception, and dispersion are needed.


To maintain security during the march. When the unit approaches likely danger areas (such as bridges and tunnels), have one or more teams dismount. The teams check both sides of the road before the vehicles pass. This is critical when only a map reconnaissance was conducted before the move.

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Movement Considerations
4-12. Consider events and control measures that are used during the move in order for the
tactical road march to be successful. These measures include the SP and RP, checkpoints,
restrictions, speed control, halts, disabled vehicles, and mined areas.
4-13. Start Point. A SP gives the vehicles of a march column a common point for starting their movement. When vehicles use more than one route, each route has an SP. The SP is a recognizable place along the route of march (such as a road intersection). It should not be in a defile, on a hill, or at a sharp curve in the road that could cause movement to slow. Ensure that the SP is far enough away from the AAs to allow the vehicles to be organized and move at the prescribed speed when they reach it. Elements of the company reconnoiters the route to the SP to determine the times needed for the serial to arrive at and clear the SP before starting the march.
4-14. Release Point. A RP provides all the vehicles of the march column with a common point for reverting to the commander's control. It is a point on the march route that is easy to recognize on the map and on the ground. Guides meet the vehicles as they arrive at the RP and lead them to their new positions, usually in an AA. Multiple routes and cross-country movement from the RP to the assembly areas allow vehicles to disperse rapidly. When leaders select a RP, avoid hills, .defiles, and sharp curves that may cause elements to slow or stop on the route. Ensure that vehicles are not required to countermarch or pass through another element to reach their new position.
4-15. Checkpoints. Use checkpoints on a route for reference when providing instructions
and identifying places where interference with movement might occur or timing may be
critical.
4-16. Restrictions. Restrictions are points along the march route where the movement may be limited or obstructed during certain time periods (such as bridges, intersections, ferries, or bypasses). The march planner-
• Starts the move early enough to pass such a point before a restr

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Chapter 4

Combat Operations
This chapter provides the MP leader with the information needed to successfully complete "a combat mission. When MP platoons conduct the tasks addressed in this chapter, they will mirror the actions of the company.
PREPARE FOR COMBAT
4-1. Units that are not directly engaged in combat often find it necessary to travel in order to position themselves for combat operations. During these movements, the battalion supports the company and the company supports and monitors the platoons with the movement plan. The move's success depends on the unit's discipline and ability to execute the plan. (Refer to Appendix E for precombat inspection checklists.)
MAINTAIN AND MOVE A COMBAT LOAD
4-2. Combat load is the quantity of supplies, in all classes, that the company must have on hand to sustain operations for a prescribed number of days. The company must be capable of moving the combat load, using organic transportation assets, into combat in a single delivery. To save time, the company combat loads vehicles while the quartering party readies the new site. The combat load ensures that a unit is ready for combat even when it ison the move.
4-3. The principles of combat loading are standard. All equipment, ammunition, and gear are loaded on the vehicles in a logical order and put in predesignated places. Knowing the location of each item allows for quick retrieval during the move. Combat loading also lends to a fast set up at the new site. Like the basic load, the company's combat load is mission­dependent. No single load plan can satisfy all the situations. MP leaders must consider the following:

METT-TC.


Vehicle and trailer capacities.


Weight limits of the unit's vehicles and trailers, being careful not to overload them.


Whether or not the equipment will fit (cube out). For equipment data, see the applicable technical manual (TM).

4-4. Unit SOPs has load plans tailored for various mission activities. Having a choice of
load plans for various deployments reduces the load time. Load plans and diagrams are
modified to suit METT-TC and vehicle and trailer capacities. The modifications are shown
on the load diagram in the vehicle. HMMWVs may be loaded in many configurations,
which include-
• Loading the basic equipment in the mounted standard brackets on the vehicle.
DODDOA-00979 1
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• Modifying and moving the brackets to meet mission or unit requirements.
PLAN A TACTICAL ROAD MARCH
4-5. The basic considerations in planning any road march are the METT-TC factors (especially the enemy situation and the mission); the march order; and the type, number, and characteristics of vehicles available for the movement. A company conducts a tactical road march for relocating and facilitating rapid movement of the vehicles with a prescribed speed and interval between the vehicles. When preparing for a tactical road march, the company uses the following planning sequence when time permits:

Prepare and issue the WO as early as possible to allow maximum time for preparation.


Prepare an estimate of the situation, specifying the organization of the march column.


Organize and dispatch reconnaissance and quartering parties.


Prepare detailed movement plans based on the organization of the march column and a review of the available reconnaissance information.


Use the reconnaissance information to-

• Choose sites for halts and RPs.
¦
Spot problem areas along the route.

¦
Select bypasses or alternate routes.


Select fairly secure locations for halts.


Choose areas that provide cover and concealment.


Avoid choosing highly populated areas, curves in the road, or other hard-to-secure areas.


Plan the timing so that the unit arrives at the SP just before it is scheduled to cross it. The time a unit must cross the. SP is provided to the unit. As other units may be planning to use the route, each unit must cross the SP on time.


Prepare and issue the march order.


Prepare the overlays and issue them to the vehicle commanders and subordinate leaders. The road march overlay includes, at a minimum, the location of the SP, RP, scheduled halts, and checkpoints at critical points along the route.

COORDINATE AND DIRECT THE MARCH
4-6. The chain of command controls the column. The march leader
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Coordinates the road march through the chain of command with the local movement control unit.


Determines if the convoy needs a movement credit or a clearance to use the given route. If so, the march leader submits a Department of Defense (DD) Form 1265 through the appropriate movement control center.


Informs higher HQ and the supported units of the dates and times that the operations will stop at the old site and begin at the new site.


Tasks subordinate leaders to attend a briefing to discuss unit readiness and load plans and forecast support requirements.


Submits requests for support based on the forecast developed during the briefing. Requests may include fire support, refueling, vehicle recovery operations, and other support needed to complete the march.


Issues an OPORD for the movement.


Requests HQ personnel to prepare a movement table. Refer to Appendix E of FM 55­10 for detailed information on the movement tables.


Requires unit personnel to analyze the route reconnaissance information looking for likely enemy ambush sites.


Ensures that a strip map, which may be included as an annex to the OPORD, is prepared. The strip map shows SPs; RPs; route numbers; place names; critical points; directional arrows; distances between the points; scheduled halt locations; and petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) refill points. Give copies to the unit drivers.


Ensures that the drivers and assistant drivers are briefed.


Ensures that radio communication is kept to a minimum during movement.


Tasks subordinates to ensure that the road march plan is followed.


Ensures that safety briefings are conducted and understood.

CONDUCT THE MARCH
4-7. The commander sets the conditions under which military traffic moves at night. The
march leader ensures that personnel are aware of and abide by the set lighting conditions
when the company moves at night. Conditions that are more restrictive may be imposed
contingent on the threat environment (such as air raids). Lighting conditions may include
normal lighting, reduced lighting, or blackout. If the situation warrants, travel by total
blackout (use of night-vision goggles [NVGs]) may be prescribed. More often, travel is
Wider partial blackout, using only enough light to see the road and to be seen by other road
users. Minimal lighting reduces visibility from the air while it permits drivers to-
• Travel as quickly and safely as possible..
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Apply brakes in time.


See the side of the road.

Movement Techniques
4-8. During a tactical road march, the unit leaders (such as the march leader and the platoon
sergeant) travel in separate vehicles. This decreases the chance of a unit's primary leaders
being lost in one enemy action. The convoy moves en route by close or open column march
or by infiltration. In dusty conditions, space the vehicles so that the dust from one vehicle
does not blind the driver of the next.
4-9. Close Column. In a close column, the elements are close together. Use a close column
for marches during limited visibility, blackout conditions, and radio silence. Under these
conditions, space the vehicles so that the driver can see the two lights in the blackout
marker of the vehicle ahead. Visibility determines the set distance between the vehicles. A
close column-

Reduces the time it takes for the column to pass points on the route.


Requires fewer guides, escorts, and markers for control than an open column does.


Enhances movement through congested areas or over poorly marked routes.

4-10. Open Column. In an open column, elements are widely spaced as a passive defense measure. Generally, an open column is used during daylight, but may be used at night with infrared lights, blackout lights, or night-vision equipment. A distance of 50 to 100 meters or more may be designated between vehicles depending on METT-TC. Use an open column-

When enemy contact is likely.


To enhance security.


Over dusty roads. Reducing dust is especially important when moving through areas contaminated by radioactive fallout.

4-11. Infiltration Infiltration is the best passive defense against enemy observation and attack, although it may be difficult to control. To move by infiltration, vehicles are dispatched one at a time or in small groups at irregular intervals to keep traffic density low and to prevent undue massing of vehicles. Use infiltration-

When time and road space allow.


When maximum security, deception, and dispersion are needed.


To maintain security during the march. When the unit approaches likely danger areas (such as bridges and tunnels), have one or more teams dismount. The teams check both sides of the road before the vehicles pass.. This is critical when only a map reconnaissance was conducted before the move.

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Movement Considerations
4-12. Consider events and control measures that are used during the move in order for the tactical road march to be successful. These measures include the SP and RP, checkpoints, restrictions, speed control, halts, disabled vehicles, and mined areas.
4-13. Start Point. A SP gives the vehicles of a march column a common point for starting their movement. When vehicles use more than one route, each route has an SP. The SP is a recognizable place along the route of march (such as a road intersection). It should not be in a defile, on a hill, or at a sharp curve in the road that could cause movement to slow. Ensure that the SP is far enough away from the AAs to allow the vehicles to be organized and move at the prescribed speed when they reach it. Elements of the company reconnoiters the route to the SP to determine the times needed for the serial to arrive at and clear the SP before starting the march.
4-14. Release Point. A RP provides all the vehicles of the march column with a common point for reverting to the commander's control. It is a point on the march route that is easy to recognize on the map and on the ground. Guides meet the vehicles as they arrive at the RP and lead them to their new positions, usually in an AA. Multiple routes and cross-country movement from the RP to the assembly areas allow vehicles to disperse rapidly. When leaders select a RP, avoid hills, defiles, and sharp curves that may cause elements to slow or stop on the route. Ensure that vehicles are not required to countermarch or pass through another element to reach their new position.
4-15. Checkpoints. Use checkpoints on a route for reference when providing instructions and identifying places where interference with movement might occur or timing may be critical.
4-16. Restrictions. Restrictions are points along the march route where the movement may
be limited or obstructed during certain time periods (such as bridges, intersections, ferries,
or bypasses). The marcn planner-

Starts the move early enough to pass such a point before a restriction begins.


Delays the start of the move to pass a restriction after it has ended.


Plans to halt the column along the route until the restriction is lifted.

4-17. Speed Control. Vehicles in a column of any length may simultaneously encounter different types of routes and obstacles. This causes sections of the column to move at different speeds at the same time, producing an undesirable accordion or whip effect. The movement order specifies the march speed, march rate, and the maximum safe catch-up speed to reduce column whipping . The lead vehicle must not exceed the authorized maximum speed of the slowest vehicle in the column. To minimize vehicle congestion on the nearside of an obstacle, vehicle commanders and drivers must be alert and maintain the prescribed minimum following distance. Vehicles should make only gradual speed changes while maintaining their prescribed interval. Vehicle commanders must constantly be aware of the vehicle interval to their front and rear and adjust their speed accordingly.
4-18. Halts. Halts are conducted for various reasons. They-
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Allow following traffic to pass.


Provide time for rest, mess activities, and personal comfort and relief.


Permit refueling and maintenance of vehicles.


Provide for maintenance and inspection of equipment.


Allot time for adjustments in the schedule.

4-19. The time and duration of the halts are usually specified in the movement order or prescribed in the unit SOP. The SOP prescribes actions to take during halts. A short rest halt
of 15 minutes is usually taken after the first hour of marching. A 10-minute short halt is taken every 2 hours thereafter. The prescribed march rate includes the time required for short halts. When possible, march elements using the same route should stop at the same time. Route characteristics may make it necessary to halt at a particular point on the route rather than simultaneously at a fixed time.
4-20. Long halts are planned in advance. The length of the halt is added to the total travel time. Locations for long halts are normally selected to allow all the vehicles to clear the road and permit proper dispersion. The unit commander schedules halts for refueling in
advance.
4-21. The herringbone formation is used to provide security for the march column during temporary halts. During temporary halts, the MP teams move their vehicles to alternate sides on or off the road in a herringbone pattern that lets vehicles pass down the center of the column. Movement commanders give permission for execution of unscheduled halts. The first priority at any halt is local security. OPs are established and sectors of fire are assigned to each vehicle. These actions should be automatic and part of the unit SOP.
4-22. Disabled Vehicles . Disabled vehicles must not obstruct traffic. Their crews must move them off the road and report their status immediately to the PSG. Crews must immediately signal the follow-on vehicles to bypass and continue movement. They then establish security and post guides to direct traffic. If possible, crews repair their vehicles and rejoin the rear of the column just ahead of the trail element. Vehicles that have dropped from the column return to their positions only when the column has halted. The trail party recovers vehicles that cannot be repaired by their crews.
4-23. Mined Areas . When a company encounters mined areas, it must remember that the safety of the unit is the most important factor. It bypasses mined areas whenever possible, but considers how the delay will affect the outcome of the mission. Remember to-

Be cautious. Mines may be used to force an element to take an alternate route into an
ambush site.


Screen the bypass route, if possible, before diverting an element.

NOTE: Refer to Appendix H for countermine operations. DODDOA-009796
4-24. Ensure that all efforts are made to bypass mined areas; however, if the element must
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cross a mined area when engineer assets are not available to breach the minefield, act quickly and cautiously. Mined areas, like other obstacles, are often covered by enemy fire. Before crossing-

Detonate mines from a protected position.


Detonate mine trip wires by rigging an object near the trip wire to fall on the wire.


Use a hand grenade or direct fire to detonate mines.


Detonate pressure-sensitive mines by rigging an A-frame over the mine and placing a heavy object, attached to a rope, over the mine. Take cover and allow the object to fall on the mine.


Devise other methods to detonate the detected mines.


Send a report to the next higher command when mines have been neutralized. Refer FM 20-32 and FM 21-75 for information on mines and countering mines.

ESTABLISH A NEW OPERATIONAL SITE
4-25. MP elements most often will collocate as part of an established base or base cluster.
On occasion, MP may need to set up a base of their own. To set up at a new location,
whether as part of an established base or base cluster or separately as a company or a
platoon base, you must-

Reconnoiter new sites.


Pick the most favorable site and its alternate. Choose a site that-

¦
Is easily accessible.

¦
Can accommodate all the unit's vehicles and equipment.

¦
Has a firm, well-drained surface.

¦
Has some natural cover and concealment.

¦
Is relatively easy to defend.


Prepare and secure the site.


Complete the move and establish communication.


Establish local security to sustain survivability.

USE A QUARTERING PARTY DODDOA-009797
4-26. A quartering party is needed whenever a unit relocates. The quartering party's mission
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is tO-

Reconnoiter the area for enemy presence, booby traps, NBC contamination, and other hazards.


Establish the dismount point and perimeter security.


Establish communication.


Identify the company CP.


Designate vehicle locations.


Position guides at the RP to meet the main party.


Prepare the area for occupation and assist the units with occupation.

4-27. The platoon leader or PSG designates vehicles and personnel from the platoon that
will be part of a battalion or company quartering party. The entire platoon may serve as the
battalion or company quartering party.
4-28. While the unit loads for deployment, the quartering party moves to and readies the new site. The quartering party's job ends when the last vehicle in the main body arrives at the new site. The size of a quartering party is based on the tactical situation and the amount of work required to prepare the site for occupancy. A quartering party for platoon relocation would be smaller than that of a company. A company quartering party is likely to have personnel from the unit's HQ, each platoon, the maintenance and dining sections, and communications.
4-29. The quartering party leader ensures that the equipment and supplies are available to clear, secure, and set up the new site. A quartering party may need-

NBC detecting and monitoring equipment.


Mine detectors.


Saws or axes to clear the wooded areas.


White engineer tape.


Portable route signing material.

4-30. The quartering party leader assigns tasks to the teams based on the size of the
quartering party, the work to be done, and METT-TC. He ensures that each team has the
equipment needed to complete its tasks (refer to FM 7-10 ) and that they are at the proper
mission-oriented protection posture (MOPP) level if they are operating in an NBC
environment.
March Halts
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4-31. At march halts, quartering party teams set up local security. If the vehicles can leave the road, the teams form a 360-degree perimeter around the convoy. If the vehicles cannot leave the road, they are parked at an angle so alternate vehicles face opposite sides of the road. Each team is assigned a sector to observe, with sectors overlapping between the vehicles. Each team member has a specific area of responsibility. The troops remain alert and ready to take action on contact with the enemy. All personnel watch for enemy aircraft.
Site Arrival
4-32. When the quartering party arrives at the site, it clears and then secures the site. One or more teams, after dismounting their vehicles, search the area for mines, booby traps, items of intelligence value, or other signs of enemy presence.
4-33. If nuclear weapons have been used at least one team using radiation detection_ , indication, and computation (RADIAC) meters monitors the site for radioactive contaminants. Monitoring for chemical and biological agents must be continuous because it is difficult to detect their first dispersal.
4-34. In urban areas, team members clear buildings that will be used by the unit. Team members clear the structures outside the perimeter if there is a possibility of enemy presence. The priority of buildings to be cleared and the number of teams needed are based on METT-TC. Refer to FM 90-10-1.
4-35. When the area is cleared, one or more teams perform the following functions:

Set up the OPs and the LPs.


Set up defensive positions on likely enemy avenues of approach. These positions provide early warning and limited protection during the occupation of the new site.


Prepare the new site for the main body's arrival.

Company Move
4-36. When setting up a company site, the quartering party-

Chooses a tentative location for the company CP.


Sets up the company CP where it can best control the company, be well defended, and have LOC to the subelements.


Uses buildings (in an urban area) to conceal the CP.


Considers cover and concealment when choosing the CP location.

.DODDOA-009799

Makes use of natural cover and concealment when possible.


Uses camouflage screens and man-made cover and concealment where needed.


Sets up the wire communication net. Marks those areas where other unit elements will

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be positioned, using signs or materials that cannot be easily seen by the enemy.

Picks roads and trails that permit an easy flow of traffic.


Chooses alternate exits and marks them for use as emergency exits.


Designates parking areas for the heaviest, most awkward vehicles, such as 5-ton trucks.


Selects a troop area and-

¦
Marks the areas where latrines, garbage dumps, and tents will go.

¦
Uses ground guides for vehicle movement in areas where troops are sleeping. (For safety, unit personnel should sleep only in the troop area).

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Chooses a structure (in an urban area) that protects the troops from natural elements and has adequate latrine facilities.


Locates the following:

¦
The food service section inside the perimeter, well away from interior roads to keep dust from contaminating the food. Locate the serving line to take advantage of cover and concealment. In urban areas, select a building for service and meal activities.

¦
The latrines away from the bivouac area. Place latrines at least 30 meters down slope from wells or other water sources, and at least 100 meters from the dining facility, downwind and down slope, if possible. In urban areas, use existing latrines if they can serve at least 8 percent of the unit at one time.

¦
The maintenance section where vehicles can arrive easily from the main road through the site. Ensure that vehicles are able to enter the maintenance tent at one end and exit at the other. Use existing garages for maintenance operations in urban areas.

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The supply section to meet space, roadway access, and drainage needs. In urban areas, use warehouse-type buildings for supply operations.

¦
The tactical communication section where it has space enough to support the whole operation. Usually it collocates with the maintenance section or the operations section.

4-37. When the main body arrives, the quartering party-
• Maintains security as the main body moves into the site.

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Maintains noise and light discipline.


Ensures that the vehicles rapidly clear the approach route while maintaining vehicle

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intervals.

Dismounts all personnel except drivers at the dismount point.


Briefs the leader of the main body on the situation and the operational status.

4-38. The leader of the main body informs the higher HQ that the move has been completed. He reports the location coordinates for both the CP and the alternate CP by messenger or other secure means. The leader ensures that the entire party prepares fighting positions and other defensive measures.
Platoon Relocation
4-39. A quartering party, in advance of the platoon's relocation, has the same considerations scaled to size and need, as one in advance of a company. An MP platoon may collocate with a company HQ or an existing base. However, more often, a platoon's base must be set up where a platoon HQ can best-

C2 its squads.


Communicate easily with its squads and higher HQ.


Link squads, the company CP, and the supported unit.

4-40. The platoon HQ can operate from a static base or vehicles. If the platoon elements are going to operate in one location (as they would for an EPW holding area), the platoon leader sets up a static platoon HQ base. If the platoon elements must operate dispersed over a large area, the platoon leader must remain mobile. In such cases, a platoon leader could elect to set up a temporary platoon base as a rally point to report, resupply, and reorganize the platoon's resources.
4-41. The platoon bases are set up the same. The PSG selects a site that offers good cover and concealment. The site must be defendable and allow the HQ vehicle to be located near the tent. A small tent houses the platoon's HQ. Use a radio set control group to relay remote communication into the tent. An antenna increases the transmission distance and is located based on OPSEC principles. Wire communication is limited to the platoons that can hook into an existing wire net.
CONDUCT MILITARY POLICE BASE SELF-DEFENSE
4-42. When collocated with a base or a base cluster, the platoon is integrated into that base's or base cluster's self-defense planning and operations. Although bases and base clusters are more prevalent at corps and echelon above corps (EAC), the same principle applies to MP located at the division or brigade support areas. When an MP base is set up on its own, the base is responsible for its own security and protection.
.

Collocated DODDOA-009801
4-43. An MP platoon collocates with a base or a base cluster for logistical support and a means to conduct operations. When collocated, the platoon leader coordinates with the base
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defense operations center (BDOC) and the base cluster operations center (BCOC) to integrate the platoon's efforts with the base's and base duster's efforts. The platoon's portion of the base's or base cluster's defense is to help provide early warning of the threat by area security and/or maneuver and mobility support in the area near the base or the base cluster. Because MP resources are austere, the platoon only shares sector efforts on the base's perimeter. MP are used as static posts (such as gates) only under extreme conditions. An MP platoon may be tasked to serve or augment the base cluster's response force. Before the platoon leader accepts this tasking, he consults with the company commander to-

Ensure that the company commander knows that he may have one less platoon if he is tasked for the TCF or response force for the battalion.


Allow the company commander to advise the base commander that the MP platoon could serve as a response force to the base if it is not committed.

4-44. Each base has a BDOC that plans, coordinates, and supervises base defense operations. The BDOC initiates contingency planning that enables the base to-

Increase the manning posture of the base contingent on the threat.


Detect and defeat the threat within their capabilities.


Hold against heavier enemy forces until response forces arrive.


Maintain control of the fight within the base.


Support the fire and movement of the response force operating outside the base.

4-45. Each base cluster has a BCOC to monitor base defense plans and establish the base cluster reaction force. The BCOC-

Provides C2 of the resources for planning, coordinating, and supervising the base cluster's defense.


Coordinates base defense operations.


Maintains communication with bases within the cluster as well as MP, BDOCs, and the sustainment area operations center. A great deal of intelligence is provided to a BDOC and BCOC through the rear operations net, which helps in planning the defense.

4-46. The platoon's plans for the interface of MP support into the base's self-defense plans address-
. • Cover and concealment of personnel and equipment.

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Signal security.


Reliable and redundant communication systems at all guard locations (such as land lines, radio links to the BDOC, and telephone hookups to the center switch).

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Deception.


Contingency planning.


Improvement of base defense positions.


Assistance of the area MP.


Coordination with the BCOC or rear-area operation center (RAOC), as required.


OPs/ LPs.


Noise and light discipline.


Immediate reaction to enemy threat or attack.


Rehearsals of defense measures.

4-47. All plans and overlays depicting MP support are forwarded to the BCOC. There they
are consolidated and forwarded to the RAOC. (If a base is not part of a base cluster, the
base forwards all the plans and overlays directly to the RAOC.)
Separate Setup
4-48. Set up an MP platoon separately only when there is no other alternative. This is the least desirable means for a platoon to set up. When the platoon sets up as a base separately, it must be able to defend against a wide range of enemy activity. It integrates the defense of its base (including indirect-fire systems, air defense artillery, and tactical aircraft) with the defense efforts of other bases in the sustainment area. Engineers, dismounted troops, armored vehicles, and helicopters contribute to the overall security of the bases. Bases coordinate and synchronize their defense efforts to enhance their strengths and reduce their vulnerabilities. A base's defense priorities include-

Establishing initial base security.


Positioning crew-served weapons and troops on assigned sectors of fire.


Clearing fields of fire and preparing range cards.


Preparing fighting positions.


Installing communication.


Emplacing obstacles and mines.


Improving primary fighting positions to include overhead cover.


Preparing alternate and supplementary positions.


Stockpiling ammunition, food, and water.

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Preparing routes and trenches between positions.


Developing a counterattack plan.

4-49. Using the IPB process can help the platoon predict threats to base security. Platoons must be aware of the enemy's location, organization, direction of movement, and strength. In the same regard, platoons must have effective OPSEC to deny similar friendly information to the enemy. Platoons can continually improve base defenses by considering what avenues of approach and methods of attack the enemy could use, given the vulnerabilities of the platoon's base. The base defense plan must have overlays depicting weapons positions, sectors of fire, final protective fires, and reaction force contingencies. Plans are updated as often as possible.
4-50. The base's reaction force efforts are coordinated with the designated-area response force. Platoon leaders develop detailed employment plans and exchange as much information as possible with the response force and TCF commander before they are needed. Although the base's reaction force usually would not fight beyond the perimeter of the base, the reaction force must be ready to assist the response force or TCF when it arrives. The following should be considered:

Command relationships before, during, and after linkup.


Coordination of fire support before, during, and after linkup.


Recognition signals and communication procedures to be employed.


Follow-on operations required.


Area damage control.

Setup in a Hide Position (Temporary Defensive Position)
4-51. If the platoon steps down from sustained continuous operations and cannot return to its base or base cluster, it may need to operate briefly from a temporary defensive position. When used properly, a temporary defensive position can enable the platoon to rest, recover, repair damaged equipment, and plan for future operations. It offers concealment with little chance of detection by the enemy. Platoons want to get the best security they can while tasking a minimum of soldiers to provide security. When the platoon leader decides to operate from a temporary defensive position, he notifies the company HQ.
4-52. Locate the position in or near the area of normal operations so that sustained operations can be resumed immediately, on order. METT-TC should be a primary concern.
Easily defendable positions are preferred over those that are more difficult to defend.
Ensure that the position has more than one exit route and provides communication with the
next higher HQ that are enhanced or at least not interfered with by terrain. While built-up,
urban areas afford suitable concealment for temporary defensive positions, it is essential
that the capability to communicate be assessed before the selection of such a site. Other

considerations of a temporary defensive position include-
• Keeping vehicles secure and available in a nearby location. .
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Positioning vehicles so that key equipment can be moved or removed without displacement of the entire unit.


Concealing equipment from the sides and overhead. This prevents detection from aerial observers and some side-looking airborne radar.


Covering and concealing to reduce security and/or defense requirements.


Providing enough space between vehicles to allow a vehicle to bypass another vehicle that is inoperable.


Ensuring that the platoon follows signal security and uses noise and light discipline.


Setting up fighting positions if the situation calls for them.

SET UP LOCAL SECURITY
4-53. Self-defense planning and coordination is done as soon as the base is set up. Prior planning and mission analysis are essential elements of a base defense. MP must be able to defend the site even before occupation is complete. When an MP element is located as part of an established base, it helps defend a portion of the larger unit's perimeter. Elements that set up separately usually defend their sites by deploying in a 360-degree perimeter. The techniques and principles of defense are the same for defending a separate squad, platoon, company, or base. To plan a perimeter defense, evaluate the situation. Analyze the terrain in terms of observation and fields of fire, cover and concealment, obstacles, key terrain, and avenues of approach (OCOKA). Defenses are placed where the threat is greatest.
4-54. The platoon leader establishes the CP and the OP. He locates the CP and the OP where he can best see and control the platoon. If this is not possible, he locates it where it can cover the most likely avenue of enemy approach. An alternate CP and OP, operated by the PSG, is placed where it can control the portion of the perimeter that cannot be seen or controlled by the main CP and OP. The platoon leader then decides what other security measures and means of communication to use.
4-55. Platoon leaders must plan more than cover and concealment to counteract threat
infrared, radar, thermal, and other sensors. The platoon leader uses the principles of
camouflage and counters the recognition factors that make an object stand out from its
background by-

Locating soldiers, equipment, or structures where they are least discernible. This alone can reduce or eliminate many recognition factors.


Using any mix of hiding, blending, disrupting, or disguising that conceals visibility.


Maintaining camouflage discipline continuously.


Vary the size of the defensive sectors. .

4-56. When the number of soldiers that will defend a 360-degree perimeter is small, theplatoon leader must--
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Identify alternate fighting positions.


Retain flexibility of thinking.


Decide what equipment-

¦
Is needed to set up a perimeter defense.

¦
Should stay in the vehicles.

¦
Must be requisitioned or picked up later.

4-57. The equipment to improve defensive positions includes concertina wire, sandbags and tape (for cover and concealment), trip flares, pyrotechnic devices, mines, or PEWS, and other lethal and nonlethal technologies.
4-58. Platoons must be able to defend during day or night, in reduced visibility, and in a variety of weather conditions. The platoon leader or sergeant ensures that the platoon has the equipment it needs to defend under these conditions. The platoon must know how and when to use the equipment. During reduced visibility-

Take steps to keep the enemy from observing or surprising the platoon.


Require OPs and LPs. There should be at least one OP and one LP per squad. OPs and LPs report the enemy's advance and call for illumination and supporting fire. As in a daylight defense, MP manning OPs and LPs withdraw before they become engaged in close combat.


Use patrols, illumination, PEWSs, and NVDs to help detect the enemy's advance.


Use trip flares to provide warning and give some illumination. As a rule, do not fire until the targets are visible.


Use camouflage, movement control, and light and noise discipline.


Limit radio traffic to essential information.


Ensure strict fire control to keep from disclosing the fighting positions.


Ensure that gunners with crew-served and antiarmor weapons use NVDs.


Provide illumination by using handheld flares or grenade launchers with illuminating rounds. Added light may be provided by fire support.


Ensure that platoon leaders plan the use of messengers, visual signals, personal contact, or whistles to communicate with the squad leaders. Squad leaders plan to communicate with their team leaders and teams using personal contact or sound andvisual signals.

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CONSTRUCT FIGHTING AND SURVIVABILITY POSITIONS
4-59. Fighting positions help protect soldiers and their equipment from the enemy and from the enemy's small-arms fire and fragmentation weapons, while allowing soldiers full
weapon system engagement. A fighting position provides cover and concealment from which to engage or defend against the enemy. See FM 7-8 for individual fighting position construction.
4-60. Fighting positions do not protect against the destructiveness of artillery and other area
weapons. Nevertheless, a dug-in fighting position may be the key to survivability. Digging
in cannot remove a soldier's vulnerability by itself. It does reduce exposure to the enemy's acquisition, targeting, and engagement systems. Platoons must be able to construct their survivability positions, often without engineer assistance.
4-61. Locate fighting positions for crew-served weapons where gunners can stop
dismounted attacks. The sectors of fire must cover infantry avenues of approach and
provide the most grazing fire across the platoon or squad front. Overlap the sectors of fire
with each other and those of adjacent squads. Prepare fighting positions so that their
primary sectors of fire have the guns firing across the front of the unit. Prepare secondary
sectors of fire so that the guns fire to the front.
4-62. Usually, one MP team occupies an M249 or MKI9 fighting position. One member is
the gunner, one is the assistant gunner, and one is the ammunition bearer or rifleman. Each
gunner has a primary and a secondary sector of fire. The gunner fires in the secondary
sector only on order or when there are no targets in the primary sector. Each gunner uses
aiming stakes to set his weapon for a final protective line (FPL) or a principal direction of
fire (PDF) within the primary sector. The FPL and PDF are control measures to help defend
a position. In an attack, the gunner knows the primary areas. He engages the greatest threat
and, on the order of the platoon leader or PSG, fires the FPL.
PREPARE SECTOR SKETCHES
4-63. After the crew-served weapons are in position, the squad leader positions the remaining MP to protect the gunners and to cover areas not covered by the gunner's. Using the range cards, the squad leader makes a squad sector sketch. He includes a rough sketch of the terrain around the weapon (Figure 4-1) . The squad sector sketches are used to plan defense and to control fire. Squad sector sketches show the following:

The main terrain features in each sector of fire and the ranges to the features.


Each primary fighting position.


The primary and secondary sectors of fire for each position.


MK19 and M249 FPL or PDF.


The type of weapon at each position.

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The OP and LPs and squad leaders' positions.


Dead space.


Mines and obstacles.

Figure 4-1. Squad Sector Sketch
4-64. The squad leader checks the range cards and the squad sector sketch for gaps or other flaws in the fire plan. He adjusts the weapons or the sectors as necessary. If the squad leader finds dead space, he takes steps to cover it with mines, grenade-launcher fire, or indirect fire. He then prepares two copies of the squad sector sketch. He keeps one copy and forwards the other copy to the platoon leader who makes a platoon sector sketch (Figure 4­2). The platoon sector sketch shows the following:

Squad sectors of fire.


The crew-served and antiarmor weapons positions and sectors of fire, including FPL or PDF for the crew-served weapons and target reference points for the antiarmor weapons.


Positions of the mines and the obstacles.


Indirect fire planned in the platoon's sector of fire.


The OP and LPs and patrol routes (if any).


The platoon CP and OP.

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-
-
Figure 4-2. Platoon Sector Sketch
4-65. The platoon leader coordinates with the nearby units. He usually coordinates from left
to right and from front to rear. The fires of units within the perimeter must be closely
coordinated with the platoon's defensive fire plan. Squad leaders coordinate their fire plans
with adjacent squads. All positions and units near the platoon are mutually supporting. The
platoon leader makes sure gaps between the units are covered by fire, observation, patrols,
OPs and LPs, or sensors. The units exchange information on-

The location of dead space between the elements and how to cover it.


The locations of primary, alternate, and supplementary positions and sectors of fire for automatic weapons, antiarmor weapons, and subordinate elements.


The locations of the OPs and LPs.


The locations and types of obstacles and how they are covered by fire.


Any patrols to be conducted, giving their size, type, times of departure and return, and routes.

PREPARE RANGE CARDS. DODDOA-009809
4-66. The FPL for the M249 is the line where an enemy assault is to be checked by interlocking fire from all weapons. Use the M249 on the FPL for grazing fire no more than 1 meter above the ground, about hip high, across the front of the element. Use the MK19 or M203 to cover the dead space. To figure the dead space on the FPL, the gunner watches a person walking down the FPL and marks spaces that cannot be grazed. The gunner records all the dead space data on the range card (Egure 4-3). He prepares at least two copies of the range card, keeping one card at the position and giving one copy to the squad leader.. Fire on a gunner's FPL is its final protective fire (FPF). FPF is usually used as a last resort to stop
http://atiam.train.arrnv.milinortaliatia/adlsciview/nublic/297074-1 /fm/1-14 4/ehart4 hon,.1107/1(104 an enemy assault. All weapons fire on command, continuously, until the call to stop FPF is
given..•
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DODDOA-009810
Figure 4-3. Standard Range Card
4-67. When terrain prevents the use of an FPL, the gunner uses a PDF instead. He directs
his fire toward the most threatening avenue of approach that leads to his position. His
weapon is positioned to fire directly on this approach rather than across the squad's front.
4-68. Construct fighting positions for the MK19 like M249 fighting positions. However, be
aware that it takes added effort to keep the M3 tripod from moving because of the recoil of
the MK19. If gunners are using the M249 machine gun, they should use the tripod when
firing at an angle and the bipod when firing to the front. When gunners change their fires
from the oblique to the front, they must move the machine gun, but leave the tripod in
place. If gunners are using the MK19, they position the tripod toward the primary sector of
fire. However, because there is no bipod for the MK19, gunners must be prepared to adjust
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both the weapon and the tripod to the secondary sector, if required. After a crew is
positioned and is assigned an FPL or a PDF, the team-

Marks the tripod's position and the limits of their sectors of fire with aiming stakes.


Outlines the hole.


Digs the firing platform first. This lessens their exposure if they have to shoot before the position is completely constructed. Dig the firing platform at a level that allows the gun to traverse the sectors of fire.


Lowers the gun to reduce the gunner's profile. This also reduces the height of the frontal cover needed.


Digs the hole deep enough to protect itself and still allow the gunner to shoot in comfort (usually about armpit deep).


Places the dirt where frontal cover is needed.


Uses the rest of the dirt to build the flank and rear cover when the frontal cover is high enough and thick enough. Sandbags, wire, hatchets, or saws can be useful for building overhead cover or improving the fighting positions.

4-69. The ammunition bearer digs a one-man fighting position to the flank. He positions
himself where he can see and shoot to the front and the oblique. Usually the ammunition
bearer is on the same side as the FPL or the PDF. From there he can see and shoot into the
machine gun's secondary sector. He can also see the gunner and the assistant gunner. The
ammunition bearer connects his position to the machine gun position by a crawl trench.
This allows him to provide ammunition or replace one of the gunners.
SELECT FIGHTING POSITIONS IN BUILT UP AREAS
-
4-70. Planning a defense of a platoon on urban terrain is similar to planning a defense in the countryside. Defensive positions must cover likely enemy avenues of approach, be mutually supporting, and provide cover and concealment. Use AT weapons on mounted avenues of approach. Machine guns cover dismounted approaches. AT4s and M203 grenade launchers work well in built-up areas. They are likely to hit enemy armored vehicles on the top or the side where armor is thin.
4-71. The method of defense (such as in-depth or linear) in the two areas is based on the
same considerations. Use obstacles to canalize the enemy into kill zones or to deny key
terrain. Orders must be very specific. Due to limited resources, use obstacles to channel,
divert, or impede movement.
Position Locations
4472. Select defensive positions in urban areas based on METT-TC. Often a squad occupies a building, but larger buildings may be defended by a platoon. Select buildings that-

Are well built. Concrete and steel construction is preferred. .


Have strong floors to keep the structure from collapsing under the weight of debris.


Have thick walls and floors so that the enemy cannot shoot through roofs and walls to kill defenders.


Are constructed of nonflammable material. Avoid wood. Strong, fireproof construction provides protection from a nuclear attack as well as conventional firepower.


Have few glass windows (or break and remove the glass).


Provide good fields of fire. Buildings located next to vacant lots, alleys, and parks allow better fields of fire than buildings located next to other buildings.


Allow mutual support between the buildings. No building should be subject to attack without troops in another building being able to provide supporting fire.

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4-73. Locate positions so as not to establish a pattern. Avoid obvious firing locations like church steeples (remember the elements of OCOKA) by—

Placing MK19s in the building where they can cover assigned sectors of fire and FPL.


Having the squad automatic riflemen and grenadiers cover enemy approach routes to the building.


Placing most rifle positions at or near ground level to have overhead protection and provide grazing fire on approaches.


Positioning some MK19 gunners higher to get a longer range. In addition, they can fire into areas that would be dead space for ground-level weapons.


Positioning AT4s (remember the back blast) so that they can fire down on tracked infantry fighting vehicles and wheeled scout reconnaissance vehicles.

Building Improvement 4-74. Change the outside of the building as little as possible, but inside the building-

Improve the fighting positions to provide overhead and frontal cover. Use firing ports to avoid enemy observation.


Cut or blow holes between rooms and floors so the soldiers can move quickly by a covered and concealed route to other firing positions in the building.

. Seal off unused basements to prevent enemy entry.. DODDOA-009812

Ban-icade doors, halls, and stairs and take down fire escapes to keep the enemy out of the building.


Reinforce positions with sandbags, solid debris, beds, furniture, and so forth.


Screen or block windows and other openings. This keeps the enemy from seeing which windows are manned and throwing hand grenades into the building. When firing from the windows or holes in the walls, be sure the muzzle of your weapon does not protrude beyond the wall. This conceals the muzzle flash.


Remove combustible materials to limit the danger of fire.


Turn off electricity and gas.


Stockpile water and dirt to fight fires.


Wear armored vests, earplugs, and goggles for protection from dust and debris.

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Other Considerations
4-75. Operating in urban terrain can be challenging, so consider the following:

The employment of weapons is different (shorter ranges).


The position locations are different, such as LAWs and AT4s go on the upper floors of the buildings (refer to FM 23-25 for the safety considerations).


The target acquisition is more difficult (such as, aiming stakes and layered fires are used extensively).


The CSS will center more on stockpiling materials in positions rather than on traditional resupply methods.


Controlling indirect fire is more difficult.


Primary communication must be by messenger, wire, or visual signs rather than radio.


Avenues of approach are more canalized.


The three dimensions of the enemy (aboveground, ground level, or below ground) may be in use. The enemy can easily isolate subordinate units.


Civilians and fire hazards may be present.

ESTABLISH AND OPERATE AN OBSERVATION POST/LISTENING POST
4-76. OPs/LPs are selected locations from which to look and listen for enemy activity within an assigned area of observation. The OPs/LPs, the primary means of maintaining surveillance of an assigned avenue or a named area of interest (NAI), are positions from which MP observe the enemy and direct and adjust indirect fires against him. From the OPs/LPs, MP send SALUTE reports (Figure 4-4) to the commander when observing enemy activity. Use OPs/LPs for the following:
• On key terrain when the surveillance of a specific area is required.
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To prevent the enemy from a surprise attack on other friendly forces.


As an early warning security measure in a defensive perimeter.


For the monitoring of likely enemy avenues of approach, drop zones (DZ), and landing zones (LZ).

SIZE: Give the size of the enemy unit as the number of troops or vehicles seen. Report 10 enemy infantrymen (not an infantry squad). Report three enemy tanks (not an enemy tank platoon).
ACTIVITY: Report what the enemy was doing. 'They are emplacing antipersonnel mines in the road."
LOCATION: Report where the enemy was seen. Report the grid
coordinates and the direction the enemy was heading. If a map is not available, relate the location to key terrain, such as the
enemy's location is "on the Hahn Road, 300 meters south of the
Kell River Bridge."
UNIT: An enemy soldier's unit may be hard to determine. Report markings or other distinctive features seen on the vehicles. Some countries have special uniforms and headgear. Some have coloredtabs on the uniforms to show the type of unit. or the unit's actions may show its type. The kind of equipment it has may be peculiar to a certain type of unit. For example, a scout reconnaissance vehicle may indicate a reconnaissance unit: an amphibious trackedinfantry-fighting vehicle may indicate an airborne unit.
TIME: Report the time the enemy was seen. not the time you arereporting.
EQUIPMENT: Report all the equipment the enemy is wearing or
using. If you do not recognize an item of equipment or a type of
vehicle. sketch it. Submit the sketch with the report.
Figure 4-4. Salute Report
4-77. OPs/LPs can be performed either mounted or dismounted. A dismounted OP provides
maximum stealth and has the greatest likelihood of remaining undetected by the enemy. The
disadvantage of the dismounted OP is the time it takes to remount and move if necessary. If
rapid movement or displacement is anticipated, the OP mounts or remains mounted.
4-78. A mounted OP/LP offers the advantages of rapid movement and protection because the enemy can easily detect them; however, it is potentially much less effective than adismounted OP/LP.
.
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SELECT OBSERVATION POST/LISTENING POST SITES
4-79. The platoon leader selects the general location for the platoon's OP/LP after analyzing
METT-TC factors. From his analysis, he determines how many OPs and LPs to establish.
He decides where they must be positioned to allow long-range observation along the
avenues of approach assigned by his commander and to provide depth through the sector.
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Section and squad leaders select the exact positions for each OP/LP on the ground. The OP/LP must have the following characteristics:

Covered and concealed routes to and from the OP/LP. Ensure that MP can enter and leave their OP/LP without being seen by the enemy.


Unobstructed observation of the assigned area or sector. Ideally, the fields of observation of adjacent OPs/LPs overlap to ensure full coverage of the sector.


Covered and concealed positions that are effective. MP select positions with cover and concealment to reduce their vulnerability on the battlefield. MP may need to pass up a position with favorable observation capability, but with no cover and concealment, to select a position that affords better survivability.


Located where they will not attract attention. Do not locate OPs/LPs in such locations as a water tower, an isolated grove of trees, or a lone building or tree; these positions draw enemy attention and may be used as enemy artillery TRPs.


Located where they are not silhouetted. Avoid hilltops and position OPs/LPs further down the slope of the hill or on the side, provided there are covered and concealed routes into and out of the position.

MAN THE OBSERVATION POST/LISTENING POST
4-80. Ideally, an MP team should man an OP/LP to maintain team integrity. Position
OPs/LPs down the slope or on a flank of a hill, if there are covered withdrawal routes. Each
of the OP's/LP's fields of observation overlap those of adjacent OPs/LPs. MP may have to
selectively clear fields of observation. Ensure that MP are not seen when entering and
leaving an OP/LP. Equip OP/LP teams to observe the area, report information, protect
themselves, and call for and adjust indirect fire. OPs/LPs on a defensive perimeter need
secure communications. Use of field phones or secured radios are usually best. However,
messengers can be used. OPs/LPs may use portable radios to supplement wire
communication. One MP observes the area while a second MP provides local security and
records and reports information. The third MP rests or provides backup security. The team
members switch jobs every 20 to 30 minutes because the observer's effectiveness decreases
quickly after that time. The observer needs-

A map of the area.


A compass.


Communication equipment (wire and radio).


Observation devices, such as binoculars, observation telescope, and NVDs.


An SOI extract.

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The report formats contained m the SOP. .


A radio (this may be the only means of communication from a remote site like a DZ

htto://atiam.train.armv.mil/nortal/atia/adlse/view/nithlirt747(174-1 ./1-10 4./r hartzt.11/17/1AAA or an LZ).
POSITION OBSERVATION AND LISTENING POSTS
4-81. Place OPs/LPs either in a linear configuration or in-depth. Linear placement (Figure 4-5) allows the platoon to observe the assigned sector from several OP/LP sites, reducing the chance of the enemy entering the sector without being observed. This method works well when the platoon has been assigned a large sector with few avenues of approach or is in desert-type terrain. In-depth OP/LP placement (Figure 4-6) allows the platoon to observe the entire sector by placing OP/LP sites where the platoon can observe the most likely avenues of approach in the sector as well as along the sector flanks. This method works well when the platoon is assigned a sector with several avenues of approach or is in heavily wooded terrain. In-depth placement allows for redundancy in observation and better sector coverage.
Figure 4-5. Linear OP/LP Placement
Figure 4-6. In-Depth OP/LP Placement
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4-82. OP/LP team emplacement at night depends on METT-TC factors. The platoon leader places OPs/LPs close to the perimeter and within direct fire range of the defensive perimeter for protection. The team leader designates a specific location and primary direction of fire for the crew-served weapon. The OP/LP team builds a hasty-fighting position or a prepared­fighting position depending on METT-TC. The team leader designates a covered and concealed location behind OPs/LPs for the vehicle. The OP/LP team has a covered and concealed withdrawal route to the vehicle from the fighting position. The team camouflages the OP/LP and their vehicle while the gunner clears a field of fire and prepares a range card. The squad leader establishes communication with higher HQ and tells the team when and how to report. He tells them-

If and when they should fire at the enemy.


How to get back to the squad if they must withdraw.


What reentry signals to use.


When they will be replaced, if known.


To fight or withdraw according to his instructions.


To be careful not to be drawn away by a small enemy element while the main element attempts to penetrate the perimeter.


When to pull back or under what conditions they can withdraw without his order.

4-83. The frequency of relief for the OP/LP team depends on the team's physical condition and morale, the weather, the number of troops available, and the next operation. The squad leader carefully plans how each soldier receives rest. When OP/LP team is part of a defensive perimeter, it-

Ensures that it has rearward cover.


Builds fighting positions for protection and concealment.


Uses trip flares, noisemaking devices, and NVDs to detect the enemy.


Emplaces claymore mines for added protection.


Coordinates with the perimeter on the reentry procedures to the perimeter from the withdrawal route.

DEFEND A SITE. DODDOA-009817
4-84. Vigilance is the watchword for local security. When the OPs/LPs detect enemy
elements, they notify their superior who calls for indirect fire, if it is available. When the
enemy's advance threatens the OP/LP, order the OP/LP to withdraw. As the enemy
approaches platoon positions, have the platoon increase its volume of fire. The platoon
leader determines if the platoon can destroy the enemy from its assigned positions. If the
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platoon leader determines that the platoon can destroy the enemy, the platoon continues to fight with the following actions:

The platoon leader or the FO continues to call for indirect fire as the enemy approaches. The platoon normally begins engaging the enemy at the maximum effective range. It attempts to mass fire and initiate them at the same time to achieve surprise. Long-range fire should disrupt enemy formations, channelize the enemy toward engagement areas, prevent or severely limit the enemy's ability to observe the location of friendly positions, and destroy the enemy as it attempts to breach tactical obstacles.


The leaders control fire using standard commands, pyrotechnics, and other prearranged signals. The platoon increases the intensity of fire as the enemy closes within range of additional weapons. Squad leaders work to achieve a sustained rate of fire from their positions by having buddy teams fire their weapons so that both are not reloading them at the same time.


The platoon and squad leaders consider the following when controlling and distributing fires:

¦
The enemy's range.

¦
The priority of the targets (what to fire at, when to fire, and why).

¦
The nearest or most dangerous targets.

¦
Shifts to concentrate fires on their own or as directed by higher HQ.

¦
The ability of the platoon to engage dismounted enemy with grazing fires, and flank shots against enemy vehicles.


The platoon leader initiates FPF as the enemy closes on the platoon's perimeter. The following actions occur at the same time:

¦
The automatic weapons fire along interlocking PDF or FPLs. Other weapons fire at designated PDF. The M203 grenade launchers engage enemy in dead space or against enemy attempts to breach the protective wire.

¦
The platoon continues the fight with claymore mines and hand grenades.

¦
The platoon leader requests indirect FPF in support of his positions, if applicable.

¦
The platoon continues to defend until the enemy is repelled or until the platoon is ordered to disengage.


Reports the situation to the company commander.

4-85. If the platoon leader determines that the platoon can not destroy the enemy, he-
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• Repositions the platoon to-
¦
Continue fires into the platoon sector (engagement area).

¦
Shift to alternate or supplementary positions.

¦
Reinforce other parts of the company.

¦
Counterattack locally to retake lost fighting positions.

¦
Withdraw from an untenable position using fire and movement to break contact. (The platoon leader should not move his platoon out of position if it will destroy the integrity of the company's defense.)

NOTE: In any movement out of a defensive position, the platoon must employ all direct and indirect fire means available to suppress the enemy long enough for the
platoon to move.
4-86. The platoon reorganizes after it has completed the initial battle with the enemy or relocated. The platoon positions key weapons, reestablishes security, provides first aid and prepares wounded soldiers for evacuation, and redistributes ammunition and supplies. The platoon relocates selected weapons to alternate positions if the leaders believe that the enemy may have pinpointed them during the attack and adjusts other positions to maintain mutual support. The platoon also reestablishes communication. It reoccupies and repairs positions and prepares for renewed enemy attack. The platoon repairs damaged obstacles and replaces mines and booby traps. When the platoon reorganizes, it performs the following actions:

The squad and section leaders provide ammunition, casualty, and equipment (ACE) reports to the PSG. Team leaders provide fuel status. The PSG consolidates the ACE reports, reviews the consolidated ACE report with the platoon leader, and forwards it to the company commander.


The platoon leader reestablishes the platoon's chain of command.


The PSG coordinates for resupply and supervises the execution of the casualty and EPW evacuation plan.


The platoon continues to improve positions. The platoon quickly reestablishes the OP/LP resumes patrolling as directed.

4-87. If the enemy gets through the FPF, repel it by 'close combat. If the perimeter is penetrated, move teams to block the penetration and cover friendly troops moving to alternate or supplementary positions. Even though the counterattack capability is limited, try to restore the perimeter. When the enemy is repelled-

Reestablish security.


Send patrols forward to maintain contact.

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Call for indirect fire on areas where the enemy is likely to regroup.


Reorganize squads.


Evacuate seriously wounded MP.


Redistribute and resupply ammunition.


Repair positions and continue to improve them.


Keep the next higher commander informed throughout the conduct of the defense.

LAY HASTY PROTECTIVE MINEFIELDS
4-88. When possible, lay a hasty protective minefield as part of the unit's defensive
perimeter. It can stop, delay, or restrict movement. MP often lay mines to restrict enemy
movement near a defensive perimeter or at ambush sites. In the defense, platoons and
squads lay hasty protective minefields to supplement weapons, prevent surprise, and give
early warning of enemy advance. Hasty minefields must be covered by fire. Ensure that
adjacent units are informed of the mine locations.
4-89. Platoons and squads must have permission from higher HQ to install hasty protective
minefields. Higher HQ may, however, delegate approval authority to the company
commander for emplacement of a hasty protective minefield. Requests for permission go
through the normal chain of command.
4-90. If the company is not authorized mines in its basic loads, a special request may be
needed. The enemy threat to the rear area requires commanders to issue mines as an
additional protective measure. The M18A1 antipersonnel mine (claymore) and the M21 AT
mine are the two mines most likely to be available to rear area units for a hasty protective
-
minefield. Refer to FM 20-32 and FM 21 775 .
4-91. MP generally will have claymores available to them, which is mainly a defensive
weapon. However, the ways in which the claymore is used is limited only by the
imagination. Plan the use of claymore mines to suit METT-TC. Emplace the mines-

On likely dismounted avenues of approach.


To cover dead space not covered by FPF of crew-served weapons.


Outside the hand grenade range, but within the range of small-arms weapons.


Where they are covered by observation and fire.


Where back blast will not injure friendly forces.

• Beside buildings or other sturdy structures in urban terrain.
• Strapped to boards (for detonation from around corners).
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4-92. MP record the exact location of the mines on DA Form 1355-1-R (Figure 4-7) when
emplacing the minefield. This enables anyone to recover them. If possible, the unit should
recover the mines before the unit relocates, and the same persons who emplaced them
should recover them.
NASTY PROTECTIVI ROW ~ELI) MOM
kr..1.1n. qpiw. 11 MOOG
Figure 4-7. Sample DA Form 1355-1-R

PATROLS
4-93. MP are organized and equipped to conduct mounted operations. The primary
offensive weapon system is the MK19. It is designed as a mounted or static position
weapon. However, an MP platoon may conduct limited dismounted operations with its
other organic weapons. Refer to FM 7-8 for more information about patrol operations,
including organization, planning, and execution. In general, an MP platoon may be required
to conduct reconnaissance and combat patrols.
RECONNAISSANCE PATROLS
4-94. Dismounted reconnaissance patrols are directed by higher HQ and conducted to gather detailed information on the enemy, terrain, specific NAIs, or avenues of approach. When executed as part of a screen or other security mission, a reconnaissance patrol can ensure the security of an OP/LP or the platoon's defensive perimeter. This is also referred to as a security patrol. Refer to Chapter 6 for area and zone reconnaissance.
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COMBAT PATROLS
4-95. An MP platoon may conduct a combat patrol to establish an ambush on a dismounted enemy avenue of approach.
Ambush
4-96. MP elements, normally no smaller than a platoon, use an ambush along suspected enemy routes and elsewhere against Level II threats in the rear area. An ambush enables a small unit with light weapons to harass or destroy a larger, better-equipped unit. An ambush may be a surprise attack from a concealed position on a moving or temporarily halted target or an attack by fire only. A successful ambush requires the following:

Surprise. The platoon must seize and maintain control of the situation.


Coordinated fire. The platoon must deliver a large volume of fire into the kill zone, using individual and crew-served weapons, mines, demolitions, and indirect fire (if available), and isolate the kill zone to keep the enemy from escaping or being reinforced.


Control. Before, during, and after the ambush all elements must be able to communicate effectively with the platoon leader, primarily by using hand and arm signals.

4-97. The platoon leader organizes the platoon into assault, support, and security elements.
An ambush is laid on an enemy's expected approach route. The platoon leader selects the
site and members are positioned to provide—

Good visibility of the avenues of approach and the kill zone.


Good fields of fire into the kill zone.


Cover and concealment.


Obstacles between the teams and the kill zone.


Covered and concealed withdrawal routes.

4-98. A good ambush site restricts the enemy's movement to one flank by natural or man­made obstacles. Natural obstacles include cliffs, steep embankments, swamps, steep grades, sharp curves in the road, narrow trails, streams, and heavily wooded areas. Man-made obstacles can include mines, booby traps, and roadblocks. The ambush is configured to suit the—

Type of ambush.


Terrain.


Troops available.

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Weapons.


Equipment.


Ease of control.


Overall combat situation.

4-99. To conduct an ambush, the platoon leader is positioned so he can best control the ambush elements, normally with crew-served weapons or the AT4, especially if the enemy has armor. The platoon leader-

Positions the flank security elements.


Emplaces obstacles and mines.


Improves fighting positions, if time permits.


Places a crew-served weapon to cover the left and right limits of the kill zone. These
weapons must ensure that once an element is in the kill zone, it cannot leave it
laterally.


Reports to higher HQ when the ambush is in place.

4-100. The platoon leader initiates the ambush with a casualty-producing weapon, such as a claymore mine or a crew-served weapon. He ensures that there is a back-up method in case the primary means fails. The remainder of the platoon opens fire once the ambush has begun.
4-101. Most often, platoons will deploy a squad-size element for an attack on a single kill zone (a point ambush). If the company is deploying a platoon-size force to conduct a number of coordinated, related ambushes (an area ambush), the principles are the same. An area ambush works best where close terrain keeps enemy movement largely limited to trails or roads. For an area ambush-

Choose one central ambush site around which you can control and organize the
outlying ambushes.


Select outlying ambush sites on the enemy's possible avenues of approach and escape
from the central site.

.
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Set up and maintain communication with all the outlying sites.


Assign the general locations of the outlying sites to the squad leaders. They will each
set and conduct a point ambush.


Direct the squad leaders to let the enemy pass through the kill zones until the central
ambush begins.


Provide specific instructions to the squad leaders in case the enemy detects an

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outlying site before the central ambush begins.
Ambush Types
4-102. There are three types of ambushes. They are the line and L-shaped ambush
formations and the antiarmor ambush (refer to FM 7-8 for more information).
4-103. Line Ambush Formation . A line formation (refer to FM 7-8 for more information) is easy to control and is useful in all levels of visibility. The assault and support elements parallel the long axis of the kill zone to engage the enemy with flanking fire. The target may be so dispersed that it extends beyond the kill zone. Leaders must-

Position the assault and support elements parallel to the enemy's movement route (such as on a road or trail or at a stream).


Limit the kill zone to the size area that the ambush can cover with a great volume of fire.


Place obstacles (such as claymore mines or existing natural obstacles) between the kill zone and the ambush element to prevent counter-ambush actions.


Leave access lanes through the obstacles so the kill zone can be assaulted (if directed).

4-104. L-Shaped Ambush Formation . An L-shaped formation is useful on a straight stretch of a trail, road, or stream. It also works well at a sharp bend in a trail, road, or stream. The assault element is the long leg of an "L," paralleling the kill zone to provide flanking fire. The support element is the short leg, capping the end of the kill zone at a right angle to the assault element. The support element provides enfilade fire to interlock with fire from the other leg.
4-105. Antiarmor Ambush . The principles for an antiarmor ambush are the same as for an area or point ambush. MP are likely to encounter bypassed enemy armor in the rear area. The primary antiarmor weapon for MP is an AT4. This is a light antiarmor weapon with limited capability against medium and heavy armor vehicles. However, MP may be required to set up a hasty antiarmor ambush to destroy one or two light enemy armor vehicles. An antiarmor ambush is best performed by a platoon. The platoon leader positions the antiarmor weapons where they can engage the target from the rear, flank, or top. Multiple AT4s are used to ensure destruction. The platoon provides support and security.

CLEARING TECHNIQUES
HIGH-INTENSITY VERSUS PRECISION CLEARING TECHNIQUES
4-106. Precision clearing techniques do not replace other techniques currently being used to
conduct building and room clearing during high-intensity combat. Specifically, they do not
replace the clearing technique in which a fragmentation or concussion grenade is thrown
into a room before US forces enter. Use precision room clearing techniques when the
tactical situation calls for room-by-room clearing of a relatively intact building in which
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enemy combatants and noncombatants may be intermixed. They involve increased risk in order to clear a building methodically, rather than using overwhelming firepower to eliminate or neutralize all its inhabitants.
4-107. From a conceptual standpoint, standard high-intensity room-clearing drills can be thought of as a deliberate attack. The task is to seize control of the room, with neutralization of the enemy in the room the purpose. The fragmentation or concussion grenade can be thought of as the preparatory fire used before the assault. As in a deliberate attack against any objective, the assaulting element moves into position using covered and concealed routes. The preparatory fire is initiated when the assaulting element is as close to the objective as it can get without being injured by the enemy. The assault element follows the preparatory fire (fragmentation or concussion grenade) onto the objective as closely as possible. A rapid, violent assault overwhelms and destroys the enemy force and seizes the objective.
4-108. Compared to the deliberate attack represented by high-intensity room-clearing techniques, precision room-clearing techniques are more conceptually akin to a reconnaissance in force or perhaps an infiltration attack. During a reconnaissance in force, the friendly unit seeks to determine the enemy's locations, dispositions, strength, and intentions. Once the enemy is located, the friendly force is fully prepared to engage and destroy it, especially if surprise is achieved. The friendly force retains the options of not employing preparatory fire (fragmentation or concussion grenades) if it is not called for (the enemy is not in the room) or if it is inappropriate (there are noncombatants present also). The attacking unit may choose to create a diversion (use a stun-hand grenade) to momentarily distract the defender while it enters and achieves domination of the objective.
4-109. The determination of which techniques to employ is up to the leader on the scene
and is based on his analysis of the existing set of METT-TC conditions. The deliberate
attack (high-intensity techniques), with its devastating suppressive and preparatory fire
neutralizes everyone in the room and is less dangerous to the assaulting troops. The
reconnaissance in force (precision techniques) conserves ammunition, speeds up the
clearing process, reduces damage, and minimizes the chance of noncombatant casualties.
Unfortunately, even when well executed, it is very stressful and hazardous for friendly
troops.
4-110. Certain precision room-clearing techniques, such as methods of squad and fire team movement, the various firing stances, weapon positioning, and reflexive shooting, are useful for all combat in confined areas. Other techniques, such as entering a room without first neutralizing the known enemy occupants by fire or explosives, are appropriate in only some tactical situations.
4-111. Generally, if an alerted enemy force that is determined to resist occupies a room or
building, and if most or all noncombatants are clear, employ overwhelming firepower to
avoid friendly casualties. In such a situation, use supporting fires, demolitions, and
fragmentation grenades to neutralize a space before friendly troops enter.
4-112. In some combat situations, the use of heavy supporting fire and demolitions would cause unacceptable collateral damage or unnecessarily slow the unit's movement. In other situations, often during stability and support operations, enemy combatants are so intermixed with noncombatants that US forces can not in good conscience use all available supporting fire. At such times, room-by-room clearing may be necessary and precision
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room-clearing techniques are most appropriate.
-
PRINCIPLES OF PRECISION ROOM CLEARING
4-113. Battles that occur at close quarters, such as within a room or hallway, must be planned and executed with care. Units must train, practice, and rehearse precision room­clearing techniques until each fire team and squad operates smoothly. Each unit member must understand the principles of precision room-clearing, such as surprise, speed, and controlled violence of action.
Surprise
4-114. This is the key to a successful assault at close quarters. The fire team or squad clearing the room must achieve surprise, if only for seconds, by deceiving, distracting, or. startling the enemy. Sometimes stun grenades are used to achieve surprise. These are more effective against a nonalert, poorly trained enemy than against alert, well-trained soldiers.
Speed
4-115. This provides a measure of security to the clearing unit. Speed allows soldiers to use the first few vital seconds provided by surprise to their maximum advantage. In precision room clearing, speed does not mean incautious haste. It can best be described as a careful hurry.
Controlled Violence of Action
4-116. This eliminates or neutralizes the enemy while giving him the least chance of inflicting friendly casualties. Controlled violence of action is not limited to the application of firepower only. It involves a soldier's mind-set of complete domination. Each of the principles of precision room-clearing has a synergistic relationship to the others. Controlled violence coupled with speed increases surprise. Hence, successful surprise allows increased speed.
FUNDAMENTALS OF PRECISION ROOM CLEARING
-
4-117. The ten fundamentals of precision room-clearing address actions soldiers take while moving along confined corridors to the room to be cleared, while preparing to enter the room, during room entry and target engagement, and after contact. Team members should-
• Move tactically and silently while securing the corridors to the room to be cleared. Carry only the minimum amount of equipment.
NOTE: Rucksacks and loose items carried by soldiers tire them, slow their pace, andcause noise.

Arrive undetected at the entry to the room in the correct order of entrance and be prepared to enter on a single command.


Enter quickly and dominate the room. Move immediately to positions that allow complete control of the room and provide unobstructed fields of fire.

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Eliminate the entire enemy in the room by fast, accurate, and discriminating fires.


Gain and maintain immediate control of the situation and all personnel in the room.


Confirm whether enemy casualties are wounded or dead. Disarm and segregate the wounded. Search all enemy casualties.


Perform a cursory search of the room. Determine if a detailed search is required.


Evacuate all wounded and any friendly dead.


Mark the room as cleared using a simple, clearly identifiable marking according to the unit SOP.


Maintain security and be prepared to react to more enemy contact at any moment. Do not neglect rear security.

COMPOSITION OF THE CLEARING TEAM
4-118. Execute precision room-clearing techniques by the standard four-man fire team.
Because of the confined spaces typical of building- and room-clearing operations, units
larger than squads quickly become unwieldy. When shortages of personnel demand it,
conduct room-clearing with two- or three-man teams; four-man teams are preferred. Using
fewer personnel greatly increases the combat strain and risks.
BREACHING
4-119. An integral part of precision room-clearing is the ability to gain access quickly to the rooms to be cleared. Breaching techniques vary based on the type of construction encountered and the types of munitions available to the breaching element. Techniques range from simple mechanical breaching to complex, specialized demolitions.
Shotgun Ballistic
4-120. A useful method of breaching is the shotgun ballistic breach for forced entry of standard doors. Use a 12-gauge shotgun loaded with buckshot or slugs to breach most standard doors quickly. When done properly, the shotgun breach requires only a few seconds. The two standard techniques of shotgun breaching are the doorknob breach and the hinge breach. When attempting either technique, the gunner approaches the door from an angle, avoiding standing in the area directly in front of the door. While holding the stock of the shotgun in the pocket of his shoulder, the gunner places the muzzle tightly against the door, and aims down at a 45-degree angle.
4-121. Doorknob Breach . For the doorknob breach, (Figure 4-8) the aim point is a spot
halfway between the doorknob and the frame, not at the doorknob itself. The gunner fires
two quick shots in the same location, ensuring that the second shot is aimed as carefully as
the first. Weak locks may fly apart with the first shot, but the gunner should always fire
twice. Some locks that appear to be blown apart have parts still connected that will delay
entry. If the lock is not defeated by the second shot, the gunner repeats the procedure.
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Figure 4-8. Aim Points for a Shotgun Breach of a Standard Door
4-122. Hinge Breach . The hinge breach technique is performed much the same as the doorknob breach, except the gunner aims at the hinges. He fires three shots per hinge—the first at the middle, then at the top and bottom (Figure 4-8). He fires all shots from less than an inch away from the hinge. Because the hinges are often hidden from view, the hinge breach is more difficult. Regardless of which technique the gunner uses, immediately after he fires, he kicks the door in or pulls it out. He then pulls the shotgun barrel sharply upward and quickly turns away from the doorway to signal that the breach point has been cleared. This rapid clearing of the doorway allows the following man in the fire team a clear shot at any enemy who may be blocking the immediate breach site.
WARNING
Do not use small arms (5.56 or 7.62 millimeters) as a ballistic breach on doorknobs and hinges except as a last resort. It is unsafe and could result indeath.
4-123. Demolitions are often needed to defeat more elaborate barriers or to produce a desired effect to aid the initial entry.
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Chapter 5
Maneuver and Mobility Support
MMS, formerly known as battlefield circulation control, consists of those measures necessary to enhance combat movement and the ability to conduct movement of friendly resources in all environments. These measures ensure that commanders receive personnel, equipment, and supplies as needed. MMS is conducted across the full spectrum of military operations. The primary focus of MP during MMS is to ensure swift and uninterrupted movement of combat power and logistical support.
MANEUVER SUPPORT
5-1. Maneuver is the employment of forces on the battlefield in combination with fire (direct or indirect) or fire potential. It is the movement of combat forces to gain a positional advantage, usually to deliver or threaten delivery of direct and indirect fires. MP tasks that support maneuver include-

MP support to river crossings.


MP support to breaching operations.


MP support to a passage of lines.


Straggler control.


DC control (refer to Chapter 7 for more information about DC operations).

SUPPORT FOR RIVER CROSSINGS
5-2. A river is a significant obstacle that may slow, stop, or impede a unit's ability to
maneuver. Units are restricted to moving in column formations along limited routes that
come together at crossing sites. Friendly forces are vulnerable while crossing water
obstacles. The challenge is to minimize the river's impact on the commander's ability to
maneuver. The three types of river crossings include-

Hasty.


Deliberate.


Retrograde.

5-3. MP traffic control is essential to help reduce exposure time and speed units across any
obstacle. In addition, effective traffic control contributes to the flexibility of the crossing
plan by enabling commanders to change the sequence, the timing, or the site of the crossing
units. MP can switch units over different routes or hold them in waiting areas as directed by
the tactical commander. This support is vital in reducing congestion, speeding the crossing
of any obstacle (not just water), and enabling the maneuver forces to maintain momentum.
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Hasty River Crossing
5-4. A hasty river crossing is a decentralized operation using organic, existing, or expedient crossing means. It is the preferred river crossing method. Conduct a hasty river crossing as a continuation of an attack to ensure little or no loss of momentum by the attacking force. The MP platoon in direct support of a crossing maneuver brigade, may be required to support the crossing without additional support.
Deliberate River Crossing
5-5. A deliberate river crossing requires planned and augmented MP support. Conduct a deliberate river crossing when a hasty crossing cannot be made successfully, normally when offensive operations must be renewed at the river, and when enemy forces must be cleared from the area. A buildup of firepower and equipment is needed on both entry and exit banks. Normally, MP support from corps is required to augment the division MP company.
Retrograde Crossing
5-6. Closely plan and control a retrograde crossing. Massed crossing forces could slow momentum or exceed bridge classification limits. Forces moving to the rear may retrograde to defensive positions beyond the water obstacle and may be slowed as they set up to defend the exit bank. MP support retrograde crossings the same as they do deliberate crossings.
River Crossing Planning
5-7. The crossing force commander plans the river crossing operation. He prepares an
OPORD and specifies what support is required. The PM, based on the OPORD, plans MP
support for the river crossing. The plan includes how MP assets will be used and what
additional resources are needed. The MP commander supporting the operation plans and
supervises the mission based on the OPORD and guidance from the PM. The OPORD
normally gives OPCON of all units entering the crossing area to the crossing commander.
5-8. The MP leader supporting the crossing site develops a traffic control plan to support the circulation control plan. He must plan for-
• Traffic control posts (TCPs) and temporary route signs at-
¦
Major crossroads on the MSR and near crossing sites and lateral boundaries to control traffic from adjacent unit areas that could interfere with division surface movements.

¦
Staging areas and engineer regulating points (ERPs) to provide directions and information, control movement to and from staging areas according to planned times, and relay messages between traffic HQ and the moving unit.

¦
Holding areas on the entrance bank to direct traffic to crossing sites; on the exit bank, inside the traffic regulating line (TRL), to control movement; and on the exit bank, outside the TRL, to temporarily hold sections of a convoy or a unit until it can reassemble and continue its movement.

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Mobile patrols to operate along primary routes to control traffic, spot problems, guide and escort vehicles, and reroute traffic when necessary.


Temporary EPW collecting points. Set up the collecting points outside the TRL. Evacuate EPWs through the crossing areas as quickly as possible so their transit does not impede the movement of friendly forces.

5-9. For brigade crossings, the MP leader may collocate with the brigade staff to form a
small, temporary traffic control cell located at the brigade main CP or the brigade TOC. The
brigade main CP controls the maneuver support force that consists of corps engineers,
bridge companies, MP, and chemical units.
Control Measures
5-10. To ease control of large, fast-moving forces, the river crossing plan usually allots one crossing area for each maneuver brigade. The commander uses control measures to delineate areas of responsibility for subordinates and to ease traffic control. Figure 5-1 shows the following control measures.
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Figure 5-1. River Crossing Control Measures
5-11. Release Line (RL) . As used in river crossing operations, RLs are used to delineate the crossing area. RLs are located on both the far shore and nearshore and indicate a change in the HQ that is controlling the movement. RLs are normally located within 3 to 4
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kilometers of the river and on easily identifiable terrain features, if possible.
5-12. Crossing Areas . Crossing areas are controlled-access areas that decrease congestion at the river. This permits swift movement of the forces. Each lead brigade has a crossing area on both sides of the river that is defined by brigade boundaries and the RL. Crossing areas normally extend 3 to 4 kilometers on each side of the river, depending on the terrain and the anticipated battle.
5-13. Waiting Areas . Waiting areas are located adjacent to the routes or axes of advance. Commanders use the following waiting areas to conceal vehicles, troops, and equipment while waiting to resume movement or make final crossing preparations:

Staging areas. These are battalion-size waiting areas outside the crossing area where forces wait to enter the crossing area. The brigade traffic control cell handles the units' movement into the staging areas. The crossing area commander (CAC) controls movement from the staging areas into the crossing areas. MP operate TCPs at the staging areas according to the crossing and traffic circulation plans. They emplace temporary signs along the route from the staging area through the crossing area to guide the convoys. Units make crossing preparations and receive briefings on vehicle speed and spacing in the staging areas. Staging areas-

¦
Are located to support the crossing concept.

¦
Are far enough back to permit the rerouting of the battalion along other roads or to alternate crossing sites.

¦
Are easily accessible from major routes.

¦
Have enough area for dispersing a battalion-size unit.

¦
Provide concealment.


Call-forward areas. These areas are company-size waiting areas located within the crossing area. Engineers use them to organize units into raft loads; crews use them to make final vehicle crossing preparations. The CAC controls movement from the staging area to the call-forward area. The crossing site commander (CSC) directs movement from the call-forward area to the crossing site and on to the far-shore attack position. As a minimum, each CSC operates his own call-forward area. Call­forward are-

¦
Located to support the crossing plan.

¦
Company size within the crossing area.

¦
Easily accessible from routes.

¦
Planned with a minimum of one per crossing site.

¦
Collocated with ERPs.

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¦
Used to organize units into raft loads.

¦
The final preparation areas before going to the crossing site.

¦
Normally operated by engineers.


Holding areas. These areas are waiting areas that forces use during traffic interruptions. Units move into these areas when directed by TCP personnel and disperse rather than stay on the roads. Holding areas are battalion size outside of the crossing area and company size within it. Far-shore holding areas are used to organize return traffic. MP operate holding areas according to the crossing and traffic circulation plans and-

¦
Are used as call-forward areas for return traffic from the far shore.

¦
Are located to support the crossing plan.

¦
Are easily accessible from routes.

¦
Have enough area for dispersion.

¦
Provide cover and concealment.

¦
Are defensible.

¦
Maximize traffic flow with minimum control.


Attack positions. The attack positions are the last positions occupied or passed through by the assault echelon or the attacking force before crossing the line of departure. Within the bridgehead, the attack position is the last position before leaving the crossing area or bridgehead line.

¦ Assembly areas. These are the areas where forces prepare or regroup for further action.
5-14. Engineer Equipment Parks (EEPs) . These are areas located a convenient distance from bridging and rafting sites for assembling, preparing, and storing bridge equipment and material. They are at least 1 kilometer from the river and hold spare equipment and empty bridge trucks that are not required at the crossing sites. EEPs should be located where they do not interfere with the traffic to the crossing sites and where equipment can be concealed and dispersed. Ideally, routes leading from the EEPs to the crossing sites are not the same routes used by units crossing the river.
5-15. Traffic Control Posts . In river crossings, TCP personnel assist the crossing-area HQ
in traffic control by reporting and regulating the movement of units and convoys. TCP
personnel relay messages between the crossing-area. HQ and the moving units. The PM
identifies locations that need or require TCPs. MP operate TCPs on both banks of the river
to control traffic moving toward or away from it. TCPs are operated at major or critical
crossroads and road junctions, staging areas, holding areas, and ERP.
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5-16. Engineer Regulating Point . ERPs are technical checkpoints used to ensure that vehicles do not exceed the capacity of the crossing means. They help maintain traffic flow. Vehicles not allowed to cross are removed so that they do not cause a traffic backup at the actual crossing site. Engineers man the ERPs and report to the CSC. TCPs are collocated with the ERP to ensure that all vehicles clear the call-forward areas. An additional duty of ERP personnel is to give the drivers final instructions on site-specific procedures and other information, such as speed and vehicle intervals. As a minimum, each crossing site requires an ERP at its own call-forward area. If enough engineer assets are available, an ERP may be established at far-shore holding areas to regulate rearward traffic.
Route Execution
5-17. MP must be prepared to establish holding areas along movement routes on order. If
the road network sustains damage, vehicles will need to be routed into the holding areas
until traffic can be restored or rerouted. Refer to paragraph 5-104 for more information about holding areas.
5-18. MP mobile patrols operate along primary routes, monitoring traffic, spotting
problems, and rerouting traffic as necessary and conducting AS around the crossing area.
They make frequent checks of temporary signs to prevent the enemy from tampering with
them.
5-19. MP may be directed to screen the crossing unit's flanks and rear. The size of such an
element is determined by MET"T-TC. In most environments this mission requires at least a
squad. MP conduct screening missions to provide early warning of enemy approach and to
provide real-time information, reaction time, and maneuver space for the crossing unit. The
squad fights only for self-protection and remains within its capabilities. Refer to Chapter 6
for more information about screening missions.
5-20. Include at each crossing site a temporary EPW collection point. Initially the collection point will be on the entry bank. Once MP cross as part of the support force, a temporary collection point may be established on the exit bank. A division central collection point is established outside of the crossing area. Refer to Chapter 7 for more information about division forward collection points.
5-21. Rigid control of civilian movement is necessary to preclude congestion on movement routes. The PM coordinates for HN police support to ensure that the civilians who live in the crossing area are kept in place or, if necessary, quickly moved to designated areas away from the river. Normally, civilians are not allowed to cross the river or move along the edge of the river during the river crossing operation. Refer to Chapter 7 for more information about DC resettlement.
MILITARY POLICE SUPPORT TO BREACHING OPERATIONS
5-22. Breaching operations are conducted to allow maneuver despite the presence of
obstacles. Obstacle breaching is the employment of a combination of tactics and techniques
to advance an attacking force to the far side of an obstacle that is covered by fire. Breaching
operations begin when friendly forces detect an obstacle and begin to apply the breaching
fundamentals. Breaching operations end when the battle handover has occurred between the
follow-on forces and a unit conducting the breaching operation.
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Support Planning
5-23. MP support to breaching operations is similar to MP support to river crossing operations. The employment of MP is based on METT-TC, available resources, and the commander's priorities. MP support to breaching operations includes-

Operating TCPs at the breaching site and along routes leading to or departing from the breaching site.


Operating holding areas.


Providing mobile guides to escort the units.

5-24. The platoon leader coordinates with higher HQ and the engineer forces conducting the breach for essential information that includes the-

Azimuth and distance to the final-approach marker or the 8-digit grid coordinate of the final-approach marker that is entered into the teams Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver.


Lane marking pattern currently emplaced.


Type of final-approach marker used.


Traffic control plan and march order.

5-25. A combined-arms breach is a complex operation and requires precise synchronization. Breaching operations normally require the maximum use of TCPs to assist support,.breach, and assault forces to move along various lanes. Refer to paragraph 5-88 for more information about TCPs. Lanes are marked to safely pass units through the obstacle. The three levels of lane marking are-

Initial.


Intermediate.


Full.

5-26. MP may provide TCPs and guide support to lanes at any level of marking. However,
the main effort of MP support may come in later phases of the operation, when larger units
(battalion and above) are passed to subsequent objectives, and time permits marking
improvements to be made. The increase in traffic and the more diverse forces with different
levels of driver experience will increase the need for MP traffic control operations. MP
guides are simply mobile MP teams that escort units from one control measure or point to
another. Guides and TCPs are essential when there are multiple lanes. Figure 5-2 shows the
flexibility that the combinations of multiple lanes and guides or TCPs provide the
commander.
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Guide cr TCP
V.IP
• •.•.

•40•• ••••••• • •..•
•••
000 4_____4.
888
Lane 1 0 0 0 Lane 2
888E
., Distance deter- 0 0 03 mined through the 0 0 0§ 0 situation analysis 0 2 0
0 O..0 .. •
••141.

IP *. .-
Direction Guide or TCP
of attack
Figure 5-2. Multiple Lanes (Two-Way Traffic)
Movement Execution
5-27. The commander sets the priority of movement based on the situation. MP may concentrate their efforts on assisting the immediate passage of larger combat forces. Or their priority may quickly shift to ground evacuation of casualties or vehicle recovery operations. MP traffic control operations give the commander the ability to make last-minute changes in the traffic flow or lane usage
5-28. MP may be required to establish unit holding areas (battalion and company size) in
the event that traffic is disrupted on the lanes due to enemy activity or the need to do
maintenance or upgrade a lane. Refer to paragraph 5-104 for more information about
holding areas.
5-29. The commander collocates guides or TCPs at the far recognition marker when he feels the situation requires more positive control.
5-30. Guides and TCPs are briefed on this information and are kept up to date on changes to the traffic control plan and enemy activity in the AO.
5-31. The platoon leader plans for the possible need to establish a forward EPW collection
point near the breaching operation. Refer to Chapter 7 for more information about division
forward collection point. He must also plan for an increase in the number of TCPs needed
during limited visibility or in restrictive terrain. Refer to FM 3-34.2 for more information
about breaching operations.
PASSAGE OF LINES SUPPORT
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5-33. A passage of lines is a tactical event normally associated with a battle handover. A passage may be designated as a forward or rearward passage of lines. Moving a maneuver unit through the positions of an emplaced unit that is in contact with the enemy is a critical action. It requires detailed coordination; planning; and close, continuous supervision of the movement.
5-34. The main focus of MP support to a passage of lines is normally employing special
traffic control measures that include-

TCPs.


Temporary route signing.


Checkpoints and roadblocks.


Defiles.

5-35. MP may also provide guides to escort the passing unit en route to a release point or AA. Similar to MP support to breaching operations, guides provide the commander a means to change the sequence, timing, or lanes of the passing units.
Passage of Lines Planning
5-36. MP support the passage of lines operation to assist a maneuver unit in contact with the enemy to maintain movement. Depending on the scope of the operation, a division MP company may not be enough to support a passage of lines operation. METT-TC may necessitate the need for additional corps MP support.
Control Measures
5-37. When planning control measures for a passage of lines, MP leaders must consider the placement of the following:

AAs where units prepare for fiirther action.


The battle handover line (BHL) where the stationary force assumes responsibility for the sector from the covering force.

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The forward edge of the battle area.


Passage lanes along which the passing units move to avoid stationary units and obstacles.


Passage points where units will pass through one another. They are located where the commanders want the units to execute the passage of lines. Designate multiple

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passage points to help eliminate congestion.

Contact points (designate an easily identifiable terrain feature) where the units will physically meet.


SPs where unit elements com

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Chapter 7
Internment and Resettlement
UR consist of those measures necessary to guard, protect, and account for people that are captured, detained, confined or evacuated by US forces. In any military operation involving US forces, accountability and the safe and humane treatment of detainees are essential. US policy demands that all persons who are captured, interned, evacuated, or held by US forces are treated humanely. This policy applies from the moment detainees become the responsibility of US forces and continues until the time they are released or repatriated. (Refer to the Geneva Conventions and AR 190-8, AR 190-14, AR 190-47, FM 3-19.40, and FM 27-10 .)
OVERVIEW
7-1. The task areas that support the UR function are EPW and CI handling, US military prisoner handling, and populace and resource control.
7-2. Captured, detained, and protected persons fall into several different categories that include the following:

Enemy prisoners of war. EPWs are members of an enemy armed force or militia who must be guarded to prevent escape.


Civilian internees. CIs are persons who have committed an offense against or poses a threat to friendly forces and must be guarded to prevent escape, but are kept separate from the EPWs.


Dislocated civilian. DCs are persons that have been removed from their home because of war, disaster, or other reasons. They may be refugees, evacuee, stateless persons, or war victims. DCs are provided sustenance, safety, and humanitarian assistance. They are kept separate from EPWs and CIs. DCs are controlled to prevent interference with military operations and to protect them from combat or to relocate them to safety. DC operations are discussed later in this chapter.


US military prisoner. US military prisoners are members of the US armed forces being confined, awaiting trial, or waiting transportation to a confinement facility outside the AO. They must be guarded to prevent escape and cannot be confined in immediate association with EPWs and CIs, detainees, or other foreign nationals who are not members of the US armed forces. Refer to FM 3-19.40 for more information about field confinement of US military prisoners.

7-3. EPWs are more specifically defined in FM 3-19.40 and the Geneva Convention Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War, August 1949 .
ENEMY PRISONERS OF WAR AND CIVILIAN INTERNEE
7-4. MP receive EPWs and CIs as far forward as possible to prevent maneuvering units from being burdened with large numbers of prisoners. Prisoners are evacuated from the
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battle area as quickly as possible. The capturing unit is responsible for guarding prisoners until relieved. They field process captives using the Five Ss-and-T method (Table 7-1) .
Table 7-1. Five Ss-and-T Methods
Procedure Description
Search Search each captive for weapons and ammunition, items of intelligence
value, and other inappropriate items.

NOTE: When possible, conduct same gender searches; however, this
may not always be possible due to speed and security considerations.
Therefore, perform mixed gender searches in a respectful manner
using all possible measures to prevent any action that could be
interpreted as sexual molestation or assault. The on-site supervisor
must carefully control soldiers doing mixed gender searches to
prevent allegations of sexual misconduct.
Silence Do not allow the captives to speak or let anyone speak to them. Speak
only to captives to give orders.

Segregate Segregate captives by rank, gender, nationally, and status.
Speed Remove the captives from the battlefield as quickly as possible.
Safeguard Safeguard the captives according to the Geneva Convention and US
policy. Provide medical care as needed.

Tag Use DD Form 2745 and include at a minimum the following information:

Date of the capture.


Location of the capture (grid coordinates).


Capturing unit.


Special circumstances of capture (how the EPW was captured, for example, did he resist, did he give up, and so forth).

7-5. The capturing unit is usually responsible for delivering the detainees to the collecting point and the nonwalking sick or wounded detainees to the nearest medical-aid station for evacuation through medical channels. Medically evacuated EPWs and CIs must be physically segregated from friendly forces. Detainees are normally turned over to MP at the nearest EPW collecting point or holding area. However, MP must be prepared to go forward to accept EPW from capturing units.
7-6. Traditionally, MP operate collecting points in a division AO and holding areas in a corps or EAC AO. However, collecting points and holding areas should be
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Chapter 6
Area Security
MP conduct AS operations to protect critical functions, facilities, and forces. They synchronize efforts with base and base cluster defense planners within a specific AO to ensure that support and sustainment operations are not interrupted. The HN, when capable, retains responsibility for security of all areas outside US bases. However, US commanders are always responsible for the defense and security of US forces and bases regardless of FIN support. AS is conducted by MP across the full spectrum of army operations to protect the force, impose order, and ensure freedom of movement. MP activities that support AS include reconnaissance operations, ADC, base and air base defense (ABD), response force operations, and critical site asset and high-risk personnel security.
RECONNAISSANCE OPERATIONS
6-1. MP plan and conduct area and zone reconnaissance, screening and surveillance missions, and counterreconnaissance.
6-2. MP conduct reconnaissance and screening missions to obtain information about the activities and resources of an enemy or potential enemy or to secure data concerning the characteristics of a particular area. MP reconnaissance, screening, and surveillance efforts include area, zone, and route reconnaissance and counterreconnaissance. These missions may be conducted primarily in the rear area, but may occur anywhere sustaining operations are conducted. Refer to Chapter 5 for more information about route reconnaissance. MP employ NBC detection equipment to determine the absence or presence and extent of NBC contamination. Refer to Appendix J for more information about NBC reconnaissance.
AREA RECONNAISSANCE
6-3. Area reconnaissance is performed to obtain detailed information concerning the terrain or enemy activity within a prescribed area, such as a town, ridgeline, woods, or any terrain critical to the operations. MP conduct area reconnaissance to help guard against unexpected enemy attack in the rear area. Area reconnaissance and surveillance are vital to maintaining AS and contribute to the commander's intelligence collection plan. MP area reconnaissance is a composite of actions. It is initiated from observations and reports gathered over time by MP patrols and information gained through coordination with HN police and other friendly forces. Refer to FM 7-8 .
6-4. Reconnaissance patrols may differ slightly, depending on the type of reconnaissance to be performed. However, all reconnaissance patrols have a reconnaissance and security team. The size of the patrol is determined by METT-TC. Other considerations to determine the size of the patrol include-

Size and number of reconnaissance objectives.


Requirement to secure the objective rally point (ORP) and other points.


Time allowed for conducting the mission.

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information requirements. Information on enemy activity and likely avenues of approach is coordinated with military intelligence (MI). MP monitor likely enemy avenues of approach and LZ and DZ in critical areas to give early warning of rear-area enemy activity.
6-6. MP area reconnaissance plans include areas near facilities that are designated as critical by the commander, such as-

NAIs.


Air bases.


Bases and base clusters.


Communications centers.


Logistic support clusters.


Key terminals, depots, and bridges.


Critical terrain features.


High-value assets.

6-7. When leading an area reconnaissance patrol, in addition to using troop-leading steps and following the general principles for making a reconnaissance, the patrol leader-

Uses a scheme of maneuver.


Secures and occupies an ORP.


Conducts a leader's reconnaissance of the objective area to confirm or change the plan.


Returns to the ORP, completes the plan, and briefs the soldiers.

6-8. The security elements leave the ORP before the reconnaissance element. The security element leader places security teams at the ORP and on enemy avenues of approach into the objective area. The reconnaissance element conducts the reconnaissance by moving to several vantage points around the objective.
6-9. The reconnaissance element leader may have a small reconnaissance team move to each vantage point instead of having the entire element move as a unit from point to point. This reduces the chances of being spotted.
6-10. After the objective has been reconnoitered for the details outlined in the order, all elements return to the ORP. Teams share their information, consolidate it, and report it, then return to the patrol HQ or continue to the next mission.
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6-11. A zone reconnaissance is a directed effort to obtain detailed information concerning all routes; obstacles (to include chemical or radiological contamination), terrain, and enemy forces within a zone defined by boundaries. A zone reconnaissance is normally assigned when the enemy situation is vague or information concerning cross-country trafficability is desired. Zone reconnaissance techniques include the use of moving elements, stationary teams, or a series of area reconnaissance actions. Refer to FM 7-8 and FM 17-98 .
6-12. The four methods used to conduct a zone reconnaissance are-

Box method.


Fan method.


Converging routes method.


Successive sector method.

Box Method
6-13. To use the box method (Figure 6-1), the leader sends his reconnaissance and security
teams from the ORP along the routes that form a boxed-in area. He sends other teams along
routes through the area within the box. All teams meet at a linkup point at the far side of the
box from the ORP.
Figure 6-1. Box Method of Zone Reconnaissance
Fan Method
6-14. To use the fan method (Figure 6-2), the platoon leaders selects a series of ORPs
throughout the zone. At the first ORP halt and set up security. After confirmation of the
patrol's location, the platoon leaders selects reconnaissance routes out from and back to the
ORP.
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NOTE: These routes form a fan-shaped pattern around the ORP. They must overlap to ensure that the entire area has been reconnoitered.
Figure 6-2. Fan Method of Zone Reconnaissance
6-15. Once the routes have been selected, send out reconnaissance elements along the routes. Do not send out all the elements at once. The platoon leader keeps a reserve at the ORP. He sends elements out on adjacent routes to keep from making contact in twodifferent directions.
6-16. After the entire area (fan) has been reconnoitered, report the information then move the patrol to the next ORP. Repeat this action at each successive ORP.
Converging-Routes Method
6-17. To use the converging-routes method (Figure 6-3) (which incorporates the fan
method), select an ORP and reconnaissance routes through the zone and the rendezvous
point.
NOTE: The rendezvous point is a place where patrol members link up after the reconnaissance.
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Team 1
Team 88
Figure 6-3. Converging Routes Method of Zone Reconnaissance
6-18. Halt the patrol at the ORP and set up security. Confirm the patrol's location. Designate a route for each reconnaissance element, a location for the rendezvous, and a linkup time at the rendezvous point. Send a reconnaissance element to reconnoiter each route (usually using the fan method). The leader moves with the center element.
6-19. At linkup, the patrol secures the rendezvous point as it did the ORP. While at the
rendezvous point, information gained by each member is exchanged with all the other
members. This provides backup to ensure that all information is passed onto higher HQ.
The patrol then returns to friendly lines or continues on to another mission.
Successive-Sector Method
6-20. To use the successive-sector method (Figure 6-4), build on the converging-routes method. Select an ORP and a series of reconnaissance routes and rendezvous points. Use the converging-routes method from each ORP to each rendezvous point.
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Figure 6-4. Successive Sector Method of Zone Reconnaissance
6-21. Each rendezvous point becomes the ORP for the next phase. Designate reconnaissance routes, a linkup time, and the next rendezvous point when the patrol links up at the rendezvous point. Continue this action until the entire zone has been reconnoitered.
6-22. Regardless of the type of method used, report the information through proper MP channels as soon as possible. Commanders rely on fast, accurate reconnaissance information to plan successful operations.
SCREENING MISSIONS
6-23. Screening missions are defensive in nature and largely accomplished by establishing a series of OPs and coliducting patrols to ensure adequate surveillance of the assigned sector. Division cavalry units normally conduct security missions that include a screen for maneuver units during offensive operations.
6-24. MP conduct screening missions for friendly forces in the rear area to provide early
warning of enemy approach and to provide real-time information and reaction time for
stationary units. In the event of a Level III threat, MP may come under the OPCON of a
TCF, which is also referred to as a combined-arms maneuver unit. In this role MP may
provide limited security missions, such as a screen to the flank or rear of the main body,
with the primary mission of providing early warning and disrupting or destroying enemy
reconnaissance vehicles.
6-25. Generally, MP are tasked to observe specific avenues of approach or, more precisely, NAI. The area to observe should be identified in either the reconnaissance and security plan that the platoon leader receives or in the OPORD from higher HQ. If the platoon does not receive an IPB product, the higher OPORD must specifically state where it must focus the screening operation. If the platoon is assigned multiple requirements, the higher HQ must
prioritize them.
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6-26. On order, MP maintain continuous surveillanCe of all the assigned NAIs or enemy
reconnaissance avenues of approach into a particular sector. This is accomplished by setting
up a series of OPs. MP may conduct active mounted patrols to extend their observation
limits or to cover dead space and the area between OPs. Refer to Chapter 4 for more
information about setting up OPs/LPs.
6-27. Once the platoon leader understands what his surveillance requirements are, he task
organizes the platoon and any assigned assets to achieve the most effective surveillance of
the avenue or NAI.
6-28. Unlike a scout platoon, MP focus on providing early warning of enemy
reconnaissance elements rather than gaining and maintaining contact with the enemy's main
body or destroying it. During screen missions, it is important to understand that an MP
platoon by itself does not have enough assets to both acquire and kill an enemy
reconnaissance larger than the engaging element. Generally, other assets will be given the
specific mission of killing these forces. If MP are ordered to engage enemy forces, they do
so by engaging at the maximum effective range of their organic weapons. If available, the
platoon leader also plans for and uses CAS and indirect fire.
6-29. During surveillance the platoon's ability to report is critical. Effective early warning
requires detailed planning for uninterrupted communications. The platoon leader considers
communication distances and significant terrain features to identify potential wireless
communication problems. If problems exist, he requests support from the higher HQ.
COUNTERRE CONNAISSANCE
6-30. MP contribute to the commander's concept of operations by conducting security and
reconnaissance missions designed to detect, disrupt, and impede enemy reconnaissance
elements. Counterreconnaissance is not a distinct mission; rather, it is a combination of
measures taken by friendly forces to reduce the threat's ability to gather information. It
contains both active and passive elements and includes combat action to destroy or repel
enemy reconnaissance units.
6-31. Counterreconnaissance prevents enemy reconnaissance forces from observing the
main body of friendly forces by defeating or blocking the enemy forces. In the execution of
counterreconnaissance, MP operate either offensively or defensively using whatever tactics
best accomplish the mission. The principal techniques used are-

A hasty attack.


An ambush.


Indirect fire support.

6-32. MP must task organize to defeat enemy reconnaissance forces. Enemy reconnaissance capabilities in any given situation must be compared to the MP unit's capabilities to determine if additional maneuver or CS assets are required.
6-33. Conventional reconnaissance elements are usually squad-size or smaller. However, special-purpose reconnaissance forces can consist of mechanized forces up to company size.
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In all counterreconnaissance operations, the goal is to acquire, identify, and kill the enemy
reconnaissance force after it has penetrated the initial screen line. Defeating such forces
usually requires combined-arms forces, but this is dependent on the type, size, and
capabilities of the reconnaissance element.
6-34. MP platoons are not organized or equipped to fight for extended periods or to destroy
enemy armor vehicles. MP employ AT weapons, such as AT-4s, for defensive purposes
(self-protection and breaking contact). However, MP teams are highly skilled at
reconnaissance and surveillance and providing early warning of enemy activity.
6-35. A scout platoon acquires and identifies enemy reconnaissance forces along a screen line, which is a control measure usually named as a phase line, and is an established forward of the main body. MP conduct their counterreconnaissance efforts in a similar manner in the rear area or anywhere sustainment operations are taking place.
6-36. In most cases, the scout platoon cannot be expected to acquire, identify, and defeat enemy reconnaissance elements. As a CS asset, MP can assist a scout platoon by locating the enemy reconnaissance element, freeing the scouts or TCF to perform the killing function of counterreconnaissance on larger mechanized enemy reconnaissance elements. MP activities that contribute to counterreconnaissance include-

Area reconnaissance.


Zone reconnaissance.


Route reconnaissance.


OP operations.


Physical security and vulnerability risk assessment.


Critical asset security.


OPSEC.


Deception operations.

6-37. Conventional threat reconnaissance elements push far out in front of their combat unit
to gain intelligence on their rear area objective. Unconventional threats such as terrorists,
criminals, or gangs may try to observe installations, deep-water ports, or other facilities to
obtain information. Conventional threat reconnaissance efforts are concentrated on gaining
intelligence on the capability of friendly forces. Unconventional threats try to obtain
information to plan sabotage or criminal activity, or to simply disrupt the efforts of friendly
forces.
6-38. MP leaders plan measures to counter enemy reconnaissance by coordinating with various staff sections and agencies that include-
• MI for information on enemy capabilities, likely rear area targets and objectives, likely enemy reconnaissance avenues of approach, and the commander's critical
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• The PM and criminal investigation division (CID) for HN police information on local gangs, known criminals, and criminal activity.
6-39. To assist commanders with their counterreconnaissance efforts, friendly forces such as MP, CID, engineers, and MI conduct physical security surveys and vulnerability and risk assessments of bases and base clusters, deep-water ports, and air bases. They advise commanders of these facilities on security measures designed to prevent the threat from gaining access to friendly forces and facilities.
6-40. During AS missions, MP conduct security activities around NAI; critical assets, such
as communications nodes; and air bases. MP perform area and zone reconnaissance of all terrain that dominates critical facilities. They concentrate their efforts on locating enemy reconnaissance forces. MP deny the enemy the opportunity to observe friendly forces by reporting their location, maintaining surveillance, and assisting in their destruction if required.
6-41. Enemy reconnaissance forces are not likely to use primary reconnaissance avenues of approach to gather information on friendly forces. MP teams are more likely to come in contact with enemy reconnaissance forces operating on trails, rough terrain, and dead space that allows mounted movement. They use the cover of darkness for their operations. MP. must make maximum use of NVDs and illumination to help detect their movement. They put the devices on key terrain and along avenues of approach to critical bases, and cover the area with crew-served weapons. Enemy reconnaissance teams are most vulnerable during the day. MP concentrate daytime mounted or dismounted operations on locating their base camp or hide positions. Once they are discovered, if ordered to do so, MP can lay ambushes on likely routes to destroy them. Refer to Chapter 4 for more information about ambush patrols.
6-42. Mounted MP patrols use overlapping search techniques to make it difficult for enemy reconnaissance teams to reach their objectives without being exposed. Overlapping searches provide random coverage not easily predictable by simp
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Chapter 7
Internment and Resettlement
I/R consist of those measures necessary to guard, protect, and account for people that are captured, detained, confined or evacuated by US forces. In any military operation involving US forces, accountability and the safe and humane treatment of detainees are essential. US policy demands that all persons who are captured, interned, evacuated, or held by US forces are treated humanely. This policy applies from the moment detainees become the responsibility of US forces and continues until the time they are released or repatriated. (Refer to the Geneva Conventions and AR 190-8, AR 190-14, AR '190-47, FM 3-19.40, and FM 27-10 .)
OVERVIEW
7-1. The task areas that support the UR function are EPW and CI handling, US military prisoner handling, and populace and resource control.
7-2. Captured, detained, and protected persons fall into several different categories that include the following:

Enemy prisoners of war. EPWs are members of an enemy armed force or militia who must be guarded to prevent escape.


Civilian internees. CIs are persons who have committed an offense against or poses a threat to friendly forces and must be guarded to prevent escape, but are kept separate from the EPWs.


Dislocated civilian. DCs are persons that have been removed from their home because of war, disaster, or other reasons. They may be refugees, evacuee, stateless persons, or war victims. DCs are provided sustenance, safety, and humanitarian assistance. They are kept separate from EPWs and CIs. DCs are controlled to prevent interference with military operations and to protect them from combat or to relocate them to safety. DC operations are discussed later in this chapter.


US military prisoner. US military prisoners are members of the US armed forces being confined, awaiting trial, or waiting transportation to a confinement facility outside the AO. They must be guarded to prevent escape and cannot be confined in immediate association with EPWs and CIs, detainees, or other foreign nationals who are not members of the US armed forces. Refer to FM 3-19.40 for more information about field confinement of US military prisoners.

7-3. EPWs are more specifically defined in FM 3-19.40 and the Geneva Convention Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War, August 1949 .
ENEMY PRISONERS OF WAR AND CIVILIAN INTERNEE
7-4. MP receive EPWs and CIs as far forward as possible to prevent maneuvering units from being burdened with large numbers of prisoners. Prisoners are evacuated from the
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battle area as quickly as possible. The capturing unit is responsible for guarding prisoners
until relieved. They field process captives using the Five Ss-and-T method (Table 7-1) .
Table 7-1. Five Ss-and-T Methods
Procedure Description
Search Search each captive for weapons and ammunition, items of intelligence
value, and other inappropriate items.

NOTE: When possible, conduct same gender searches; however, this
may not always be possible due to speed and security considerations.
Therefore, perform mixed gender searches in a respectful manner
using all possible measures to prevent any action that could be .--
interpreted as sexual molestation or assault. The on-site supervisor
must carefully control soldiers doing mixed gender searches to
prevent allegations of sexual misconduct.
Silence Do not allow the captives to speak or let anyone speak to them. Speak
only to captives to give orders.

Segregate Segregate captives by rank, gender, nationally, and status.
Speed Remove the captives from the battlefield as quickly as possible.
Safeguard Safeguard the captives according to the Geneva Convention and US
policy. Provide medical care as needed.

Tag Use DD Form 2745 and include at a minimum the following information:

Date of the capture.


Location of the capture (grid coordinates).


Capturing unit.


Special circumstances of capture (how the EPW was captured, for example, did he resist, did he give up, and so forth).

7-5. The capturing unit is usually responsible for delivering the detainees to the collecting point and the nonwalking sick or wounded detainees , to the nearest medical-aid station for evacuation through medical channels. Medically evacuated EPWs and CIs must be physically segregated from friendly forces. Detainees are normally turned over to MP at the nearest EPW collecting point or holding area. However, MP must be prepared to go forward to accept EPW from capturing units.
7-6. Traditionally, MP operate collecting points in a division AO and holding areas in a corps or EAC AO. However, collecting points and holding areas should be established wherever they are needed. The evacuation chain normally moves from the division forward
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or the central collecting point to corps holding area, then to internment facilities. When circumstances permit, such as taking advantage of available transportation, EPW evacuation may bypass one or more stations and deliver the detainees directly to a corps holding area or an internment facility.
7-7. At collecting points and holding areas, MP work closely with MI determining if captives, their equipment, or their weapons have intelligence value. MI interrogation teams conduct interrogations during field processing. Other MI interrogations teams conduct interrogations once EPW have been evacuated to more permanent facilities.
OPERATE A DIVISION FORWARD COLLECTING POINT
7-8. The number of MP needed to operate a division forward collecting point is based on the number and rate of captives expected and the METT-TC. A division forward collecting point must be mobile and modular and able to set up, expand, and move quickly with little or no notice. The general location of a forward collecting point is given in the brigade OPLAN or OPORD. It often is located near or in the brigade support area (BSA), but should not allow detainees to observe activities in the BSA. The collecting point should be situated close to an MSR. This makes it easier to get supplies, such as water, food, and barrier material from the BSA. Even a moderate number of detainees will put a strain on the equipment and supplies of an MP. company. Minor medical treatment may come from the MP company's combat medical section. However, the company's medical resources are very limited and are primarily used to support medical needs within the company. Units needed to support the division forward collecting point should be specifically tasked in the brigade OPORD. MP leaders operating the division forward collecting point will-

Conduct a reconnaissance before selecting an exact location for the collecting point.


Locate the collecting point far enough from the fighting to avoid minor shifts in the main battle area (MBA) (normally 5 to 10 kilometers from the MBA).


Notify the BSA TOC and the PM operations section of the selected location. The BSA TOC reports the exact location of the collecting point to the brigade TOC. The brigade TOC notifies subordinate units where the collecting point is located so capturing units with detainees can take them there.


Coordinate with the MI interrogation team if they are to colocate their interrogation site with the division forward collecting point.


Request transportation, additional medical supplies, and other support through the forward support battalion.


Ensure that captives do not remain at the division forward collecting point more than 12 hours before being escorted to the division central collecting point.

7-9. A forward collecting point (Figure 7-1) should not be set up near local inhabitants.
Existing structures like vacant schools, apartments, or warehouses should be used when
possible. This reduces construction requirements and minimizes logistical requirements. If
existing structures are not used, detainees, except officers, can be tasked to help construct
the collecting point. Prisoners may dig or build cover to protect themselves from artillery,
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mortar, or air attack. There is no set design for a forWard collecting point. It can be anything
from a guarded, roped off area to a secured, existing structure. The collecting point is built
to suit the climate, the weather, and the situation. When selecting a collecting point,
consider the following:
The size of the division forward collecting point and the placement of the
internal facilities (the water point. the latrine, and tiendies or covers) will
vary based on the situation.
\.Construction supplies
Concertina
So
Barbed wire
Long and short pickets Staples and anchors Water cans
%.
Fighting position
LEGEND
Triple concertina
Trench or cover
0 Water cans or lyster bag
0 Latrine
Figure 7-1. Division Forward Collecting Point

The security of the detainees. The perimeters of the enclosure must be clearly defined and understood by the detainees.


First aid. Injured or ill detainees require the same treatment that would be given to US casualties.


Food and water. Detainees may have been without food or water for a long time before capture.


Latrine facilities.


Field sanitation. If possible, have detainees wash with soap and water to reduce the likelihood of disease.

• • Shelter and cover.
• Language barriers. Provide interpreters and/or instructional graphic training aids (GTAs) in the EPW native language to compensate for the language differences.
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7-11. Search . Search and inspect every EPW and CI and their possessions. Use males to search male prisoners and females to search female prisoners wherever possible unless, in exceptional situations, an individual of the opposite gender must conduct the search. If this is the case, the search of the opposite sex must be performed in a respectful manner using all possible measures to prevent any action that could be interpreted as sexual molestation or assault. Captives may keep the following items found in a search:

Protective clothing and equipment (such as helmets, protective masks and clothing) for use during evacuation from the combat zone.


Retained property, such as identification cards or tags, personal property having no intelligence value, clothing, mess equipment (except knives and forks), badges of rank and nationality, decorations, religious literature, jewelry, and articles that have sentimental value.


Private rations of the EPW or the CI (in the early stages of captivity)..

7-12. Certain items are confiscated from the EPW or the CI and never returned even if the EPW or the CI is released or repatriated. MP confiscate the following items when searching a captive:

Weapons and ammunition.


Items of intelligence value (maps, orders, and so forth).


Other inappropriate items.

7-13. MP will coordinate with the MI interrogation teams to determine which items that
have been confiscated are of intelligence value. Personal items, such as diaries, letters from
home, and family pictures may be taken by the MI teams for review, but are later returned
to the MP for return to the proper owner.
7-14. Currency will only be confiscated on the order of a commissioned officer ( AR 190­
8) and will be receipted for using DA Form 4137 .
7-15. Impounded articles are items taken from the EPW or the CI during his internment because the articles make escape easier or compromise US security interests. Items normally impounded are cameras, radios, and all currency and negotiable instruments found on the captives. Refer to AR 190-8 and Defense Finance and Accounting Service-Indianapolis (DFAS IN) 37-1 for more information about confiscated and impounded property.
7-16. MP prepare a receipt when taking property from a detainee. The MP leader ensures
that both the EPW or the CI and the receiving MP sign the receipt (such as DA Form
4137 ). MP consider bundling a detainee's property or placing it in bags to keep each
detainee's property intact and separate. They turn in cleared, confiscated property as far
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forward as possible. MP maintain a strict chain of custody for all items taken from the EPW or the CI. They ensure that a receipt is obtained for any items you release to any other MP or agency. The escorting MP signs for and transports any remaining property that was taken from the EPW or the CI.
7-17. Tag . Each EPW or CI is tagged by the capturing troops using DD Form 2745 as a way of accounting for them. MP check each tag at collecting points and holding areas for-

The date and time of the capture.


The capturing unit.


The place of the capture (grid coordinates).


The circumstances of the capture (how the EPW was captured).

7-18. The remaining information on the tag will be included as it becomes available. DD Form 2745 is a perforated, three-part form which has an individual serial number. It is constructed of durable waterproof, tear-resistant material with reinforced eyeholes at the top of Parts A and C. The capturing unit attaches Part A to the captive with wire, string, or another type of durable material. They maintain Part B in their records and attach Part C to the confiscated property so that the owner may be identified later.
7-19. MP at division collecting points will ensure that DD Form 2745 has been placed on
any captive arriving at the collecting point without it. MP may have to direct the capturing
units to complete the capture tag before accepting prisoners into the CP. They ensure that
the following is done:

The tag is filled out with the minimum information listed above (also listed on the back of Part C of the form).


A statement is on the tag if the captive arrived without a tag.


The captive is instructed not to remove or alter the tag.


The capture tag's serial number and the captive's name are annotated on a locally developed manifest.

7-20. MP receive detainees from capturing troops using DD Form 2708 or a similar document. They ensure that the receipt includes the following:

The capturing unit.


The time and date the detainee was received.


The identification of the detainee. (Use the number on the capture tag when the detainee's name, service number, grade, or date of birth is unknown.)


The name, service number, grade, unit, and signature of the MP who accepts custody of the detainee.

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• A statement in the remarks section about the general physical condition of the detainee. For example, received without wounds, illness, or injury or wounded in upper left arm.
7-21. Report . The number of captives at each collecting point is immediately reported
through MP channels. This aids in the transportation and security planning process.
7-22. Evacuate . Captives are humanely evacuated from the combat zone through appropriate channels as quickly as possible. MP do not delay evacuation to obtain name, rank, service number, or date of birth. When MP evacuate captives, they give them clear,
brief instructions in their own language when possible. Military necessity may require 'a delay in evacuation beyond a reasonable period. When this occurs, MP leaders ensure that there is an adequate supply of food; potable water; and appropriate clothing, shelter, and medical attention available.
7-23. MP ensure that EPWs or CIs are not be exposed to unnecessary danger and are protected while awaiting evacuation.
7-24. Medical personnel determine if captives with serious wounds or sickness should be kept in the combat zone. Sometimes prompt evacuation would be more dangerous to their survival than retention in the combat zone.
7-25. Segregate . The senior officer or noncommissioned officer in charge (NCOIC) having responsibility for custody of the EPWs or CIs will designate how and at what level to segregate them to ensure their security, health, and welfare. EPWs and CIs are segregated into the following categories:

Officers, noncommissioned officers (NCOs), enlisted, male, and female.

¦
Deserters and those that gave up without a fight may be further segregated for their protection.

¦
Nationality, ideologies, and recognized ethnic groups are used for further segregation.


CIs and/or refugees are physically separated from the EPWs and CIs.


US military prisoners are physically separated from EPWs, CIs, retained persons (RP), other detainees (OD), and refugees.

7-26. MP do not use coercion of any kind to obtain any information from the captives. This includes basic information, such as name, rank, service number, and date of birth, which they are required to provide under the Geneva Conventions. Coercion or inhumane treatment of any EPW, CI, RP is prohibited and is not justified by the stress of combat or with deep provocation. Inhumane treatment is a serious violation of international law and the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ).
7-27. MP must not speak to captives except to give orders or directions. Captives must not
be allowed to talk to or signal each other. This prevents them from plotting ways to counter
security and plan escapes. Uncooperative captives may require a gag in certain tactical
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situations. However, gags should be used for only as long as needed and should not harm
the individual.
7-28. Safeguard . In order to safeguard captives according to the Geneva Convention and
US policy, MP must-

Provide first aid and medical treatment for any wounded or sick captive. The wounded and sick will be evacuated separately through medical channels using the same assets as those used to medically evacuate US and allied forces.


Ensure that the detaining power provides their captives with food and water. These supplies must be the same as to that of US and allied forces.


Provide firm and humane treatment.

7-29. Protecting detainees from attack, preventing their escape, and quickly removing them from the battle area further safeguards them. Detainees should not remain at the division forward collecting point more than 12 hours, if possible. MP from the division central collecting point move forward to escort detainees back to the central collecting points. When detainees are field processed and ready for evacuation, the MP at the division forward collecting point will-

Report detainee status to the BSA TOC and through MP channels to the PM.


Request transport, rations, and water for the detainees from the forward support battalion supply officer (US Army) (S4).


Ensure that the receipts for the detainees are ready for signing by the escort guards.


Ensure that items taken from detainees for security or intelligence reasons are signed over to the guards taking the detainees to the rear. Ensure that each item is tagged to identify the owner.

ESTABLISH AND MAINTAIN A DIVISION CENTRAL COLLECTING POINT
7-30. MP in GS are responsible for establishing and maintaining the division central collecting point. They collect detainees from the forward collecting points, then process and secure them until corps MP come forward to evacuate them to the rear. Detainees should be transferred to the corps holding area or directly to an internment facility within 24 hours, if possible. One or more GS MP platoons operate the division central collecting point. The MP platoons are augmented by the division band and/or by the corps MP. Augmentation is based on the number and rate of captives, expected.
Band Augmentation
7-31. When necessary, members of the division, corps, or EAC band augment MP for EPW
operations. They guard detainees, operate dismount points, and provide perimeter security.
When band members are tasked to augment MP for EPW operations they are OPCON to the
MP company for the duration of the mission and released at the earliest opportunity to
return to their primary mission.
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Division Central Collecting Point
7-32. A central collecting point (Figure 7-2) is larger than a forward collecting point, but the
considerations for setting up and operating the collecting points are generally the same. The
general location of the central collecting point is given in the division OPORD or OPLAN.
It is located near the division support area (DSA), preferably close to an MSR. This makes
it easier to obtain supplies, transportation, and additional medical support from the DSA.
Non-MP units should be specifically tasked in the coordinating instructions of the division
OPORD to provide the support needed for the division central collecting point. MP
establishing the collecting point should—
MP use existing structures when possible to reduce construction requirements. The size and configurational the compounds and the placement of internal facilities field processing sites, and the MIs screening site will vary based on the situation.
Not to scale Tent, water. latrine, and trench cr cover
IFin each
I
compound.
Iconstruction supplies
-General-pur­pose medium tent*
-Concertina ° - Barbed wire
-Long and short pickets
-Staples and anchors
-Water cans To the receiving and
LEGEND
processing area NOTE:
(MD Triple concertina '20 EPWs per
CD Fighting position general-purpose
medium tent0 Waterpcint authorized
0 Latrine
Figure 7-2. Division Central Collecting Point

Coordinate with the unit responsible for the area.


Conduct a reconnaissance before picking the exact location for the collecting point.


Notify the PM and the operations cell of the division rear CP (through MP channels) of the collecting point location.


Coordinate with MI for the location of their screening site.


Use existing structures when possible.

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