Army Field Manual 34-10: FM 34-10 Division Intelligence and Electronics Warfare Operations

Army Field Manual 34-10: Division Intelligence and Electronic Warefare Operations. November 1986.

Friday, November 1, 1985
Sunday, January 30, 2005

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*FM 34·10
Washington, DC, 25 November 1986
Table of Contents
Preface iv
Chapter 1. The Intelligence and Electronic Warfare Mission .....•..•••.......•..•.•..... 1-1

Intelligence and Electronic Warfare System ..•••..•.••.•••.••...•••.... 1-1 Electronic Warfare and Counterintelligence Operations ...•...•...............••..•..•...•.....••.•..•.••......... 1-4
Chapter 2. Organizations and Intelligence Resources •..........•..................... " 2-0

Combat Aviation Brigade. . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . • . . . • . . • • • . . . . . . . . . . .. 2-2 Division Artillery •.•.••. , •.••.••••.•••.•..•.•.••.•..•••••••••..•••• , , ., 2-3 Air Defense Artillery Battalion •.....•.........•........................ 2-4 Combat Engineer Battanon ........•...•.....••........•..•.•.......•.. 2-4 Military Police Company .....•....•..........•...•.•..•....•....•.•.•• 2-4 "Division Support Command .', ..•..•. , •...............•..............• 2-5 Signal Battalion ..............•. ; ........•....•.......•.........•.•... 2-5 Military Intelligence Battalion (CEWI) (Heavy Division) ....••..•.............••..••.....•...............•....••. , .. 2-5 Military Intelligence Battalion (Airborne/Air Assault Divisions) ...••....,' , •••....•.•••...••..••..••.........••.. , 2-13 Military Intelligence Battalion (Light Division) .•••.....••..•........... 2-19 Echelons Above Division Military Intelligence Support •....•...••....•'•.•..••..•••••..•..•••..•....•••..•.•....•.. 2-23
Chapter 3. Command and Control . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . • . . • . • . . • . . • . • • • •• 3-0
Planning and Management ..•••.•.•••.•..•........•...••.............• 3-0 Divisi?n C2 Organizations and Facilities ................................ 3-1 MI Battalion C2 Organizations and Facilities •.•••••.•..••••..••...•••..•..•....•...•.•..••••••.•...••. , 3-14 Command and Control Communications .............................. 3-30 Command and Control Differences in the Light, Airborne, and Air Assault Divisions .................................. 3-45
DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: 'Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.'
*This publication supersedes FM 34-10 (HTF), 3 July 1981; FM 34-11, 24July 1981; FM34-12, 30 September 1982; and TC 100-33, 28 September 1979.
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:hapter 4.
:hapter 5.
;hapter 6.
\ppendix A.
Preparation for Combat .................................................... 4·1

Intelligence and Electronic Warfare Planning ........................_.. 4-1
Intelligence and Electronic Warfare Management ....................... .4-7

Combat Operations ........................................................ 5-0

Intelligence and Electronic Warfare SupporJ During Deployment ••.. '" .••.....•..•.............•................. 5-1 Intelligence and Electronic Warfare Support to Combat Operation~ ........•.......•........•......................... 5-1 Intelligence and Electronic Warfare Support to Offensive Operations ... _. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 5-9 Intelligence and Electronic Warfare Support to Defensive Operations .. _•....•..•.•..•...•............•............. 5-16 Intelligence and Electronic Warfare Support to Retrograde Operations .. " ......•................................... 5-25 Intelligence and Electronic Warfare Support to Combined Arms Operations ......................................... 5-26
Combat Service Support ................................................... 6-1

Command and Control _______ ................. _......•................ 6-1
Coordination .....••................•...•.....•.......•............... 6-4
Food Service ..............•............••............................ 6-4
Supply.......•....•........•........................................... 6-5
Maintenance, Repair, and Recovery .........•..............•..•..••.... 6-8
Other Combat Service Support .••..........•......................... 6-11

Training .................................................................. 7-1

Battle Focus .. . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 7-1 ·Training Areas ....•...........•••.....••.•........................... 7-1
Intelligence and Electronic Warfare Report Formats ........................ A-1

Communications Intelligence Advisory Tasking
Message .•••..•.••..•...•.••...•.•....•..•..•.........•.....•.., .•.. A-1
Daily Intelligence Summary ........................................... A-2
Electronic Intelligence Requirement Tasking
Message ...............•...........•..••.•....................•...•... A-3
Electronic Warfare Approval Message ........•.........•........•.•.•.• A~4
Electronic Warfare Employment Message .•..................•.•...•... A-5
Electronic Warfare Mission Summary .................................. A-6
Electronic Warfare Requesting/Tasking Message .••.•..•.......••...... A-8
Intelligence Report .••.•...••..•.•.•................................. A-10
Intelligence Summary ................................................ A-12
Meaconing. Intrusion, Jamming, and Interference
Feeder ...............•............•.••...•.............•.....•••... A-14
NBC-1 Report ....•••...•••............•...••.........~ ..•....•...... A-15
Request for Information ...•..............•.•......................... A-16
Response to Request for Information ..•....•.......•................. A-17

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Signals Intelligence/Electronic Countermeasures Planning/Coodination Message •..•........•.......•..•.•..•..•.. ". A-18 Sensitive Information Summary .........., .... " .... ".,.............. A-19 Situation Report ...•.........•,..•,.,........... '.' ... ,......•........ A-21 Tactical Report .•..•.... ,.•..•• , •.• , .. ,..•.• ; ....•• ,.,', .. ,... , •.. , .• A-23 Intelligence Estimate. , .• ,.. , , " ...• , ... ,.................. , ... ,.... " A-23 Intelligence Annex .......•• , , •.. ,...• ,................ ,.•... ,.•....... A-38 Analysis of the Battlefield Area ....................................... A-41
Appendix B. Published Under Separate Cover
Appendix C. Briefing Techniques ..................................................... c-o

Information Briefing •.......•....•.: .............•..........•..•.•.... C-O
Decision Briefing'...••.•..•..••..•: ..•.......... " .•........•......•.. C-1'
Staff Briefing .........•..•.......•.......•....••.•...•................ C-2
Mission Briefing .....••..•.......•....•...•....•.•.••..•....••.......• C-3
Briefing Pointers ..................................................... C-4

Appendix O. Special Operations and Environments ..................................... 0-1

Intelligence and Electronic Warfare Operations in the Mountains ••...•.•.••.•.......•'...•.....•...........•.•.•..... 0-1 Intelligence and Electror)ic Warfare Operations in the Oesert ................•...••....•.••....•....,..........•..... D-3 Intelligence and Electronic Warfare Operations in the Jungle ..............•....••.•.•............................... 0-5 Intelligence and Electronic Warfare Operations in the Winter .........•...••...............•.........' ................ 0-6 Intelligence and Electronic Warfare Operations on Urbanized Terrain .....•.......••..••....••..•...•....•........... 0-7 Intelligence and Electronic Warfare Operations at NJght .....•~ •.....•..•....•. , •.....•.••.••.•..•..........•.......• : 0-9 Intelligence and Electronic Warfare Operations in a: Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Environment .......••.••..•....•.......................•.......... 0-10
Glossary ..........•...................•...•....................•..•..'" .....•. Glossary-1

References •....•.......•.........•••........•............." . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. References~1

Index Index-1
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Intelligence and electronic warfare (lEW) operations enable the division commander to .ght the air-land battle. Intelligence helps him to see the battlefield and the enemy-and mploy division resources when and where they can achieve decisive results. Counterintelli­ence (CI) protects the division from the enemy multidisciplined intelligence collection threat nd from subversion, sabotage, and terrorism. Electronic warfare (EW) degrades the enemy's apability to control and coordinate combat resources and reduces the effectiveness of enemy ombat power at the critical time and place on the battlefield. Division operations are de­cribed in FM 100-5.
This manual defines doctrine for division IEW operations. It describes how the lEW sys­~m is structured, and how it operates to support division combined arms operations. It ddresses the role of division commanders and staff officers and officers, warrant officers, nd noncommissioned officers (NCOs) in functional lEW positions within the division.
The proponent of this publication is HQ TRADOC. Submit changes to this publication on -A Form 2028 (Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forms) and forward it to ~ommander, US Army Intelligence Center and School, ATl'N: ATSI-TD-PAL, Fort [uachuca, Arizona 85613-7000.
Unless otherwise stated, whenever the masculine gender is used, both men and women are lcluded. .
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The Intelligence and Electronic Warfare Mission
The division commander directs, coordi­nates, and supports subordinate unit opera­tions against enemy first-echelon regiments in support of the division's close operations. Simultaneously, he attacks enemy forces, supporting or sustaining enemy forces engaged in close operations, and interdicts enemy second·echelon and follow-on forces to prevent them from closing on and influencing the close operations. He takes actions necessary to secure his rear and sustain his combat capabilities by conduct· ing rear operations as required. To success· fully conduct all operations of the air-land battle, it is imperative that the lEW system provide accurate information in sufficient time to allow the commander to reach a decision, prepare orders, and execute his . plan. Additionally, EW represents another element of combat power which must be incorporated with fire and maneuver plans. Finally, CI protects the force and its opera­tions by denying the enemy the information
he needs to effectively conduct his operations.
The lEW system produces both intelli­gence and combat information required to support operations. The definition of these terms are as follows:
o Intelligence: the product resulting from the collection, evaluation, analysis, integration, and interpretation of all available information which concerns one or more aspects of foreign nations or of areas of operations and which is
immediately or potentially significant
to military planning and operations.
o Combat Information: unevaluated data, gathered by or provided directly to the tactical commander which, due to its highly perishable nature or the criticality of the situation, cannot be processed into tactical intelligence in time to satisfy the user's tactical intel­ligence requirements.

The lEW system supports the commander "by accomplishing four major tasks: situa­tion development, target development, EW, and CI. These tasks are shown in the fol­lowing illustration.
The first major task is situation develop­ment (sometimes referred to as predictive intelligence). In the situation development process, the intelligence analyst takes information collected from all sources under differing circumstances and concludes the enemy's most probable courses of action. Who, what, when, where, and in what strength are the questions the analyst is trying to answer as he accomplishes the situation development task. To assist the analyst, a method of integrating informa· tion concerning the enemy, weather, and terrain to draw a reasonable conclusion has been developed called intelligence prepara­tion of the battlefield (IPB). IPB procedures are covered in Chapter 4 of FM 34-3.

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rl \
['he second major task is target develop­mt. A significant problem on the air-land ttlefield is selecting targets for attack th either lethal (artillery, air, maneuver) nonlethal (EW or deception) measures. . e target development process is employed provide target locations and to cope with ~ dilemma ofhaving too many targets th too few attack assets. Target develop­mt segregates targets by their potential terms of hindering the enemy's intended lrse of action and assisting the friendly :.lrse. High value targets (HVTs) are 'ectlyrelated to forces or facilities critical the enemy commander and his desired lrse of action. They are not necessarily . :geted for destruction. HVTs are devel­ed by the G2 intelligence staff and are :efed in conjunction with the intelligence :imate as HVT lists associated with each ssibleenemy course of action. HVT lists ~ used by the G3 and fire support element
3E) in developing friendly courses of tion and associated fire support plans d in selecting high payofftargets (HPTs) 1m HVT lists through weaponeering or lapons pairing functions. HPTs, ulti­
mately approved by the commander, are used to focus both the G2's collection effort and the maneuver and attack efforts of the

G3 and fire support coordinator
(FSCOORD). Target development proce­
dures are outlined in detail in FM 34-3.

The third major task is EW, consisting of EW support measures (ESM), electronic countermeasures (ECM), and electronic counter-countermeasures (ECCM). ESM and ECM are sometimes referred to as offensive EW. ESM are actions taken to search for, intercept, locate, and identify sources ofradiated electromagnetic energy (tactical radios, radars, and so forth) for immediate use on the battlefield. ESM pro­duces combat information and can be used with little systematic analysis. ECM are actions taken to prevent or reduce effective use of the electromagnetic spectrum by the enemy. ECM includes both jamming and electronic deception. ECCM are actions taken to retain friendly use ofthe electronic spectrum. Some of these actions are emis­:~
:/ r.~ sion control, operator training, and fre­.......... quency control. Further details on EW can be found in FM 34-40.
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The fourth major task is CI. CI activities are conducted to counter enemy multidisci· plined intelligence collection efforts. CI activities include the identification of the hostile multidisciplined human intelligence (HUMINT), signals intelligence (SIGINT), imagery intelligence (IMINT), and mea· surement and signature intelligence (MASINT) threat; determination offriendly vulnerabilities to that threatj and actions to counter that threat. CI plays an integral role in OPSEC, deception, rear operations, and terrorism counteraction. Further information concerning CI can be found in FMs 34-60 and 34·60A(S).
The four major tasks of the lEW system support the division commander's decision· making process and the execution of the air· land battle. The four tasks are summarized in FM 34·1.
These four tasks provide for the com· mander's informational and operational needs. The situation and target develop­ment tasks provide information un the enemy, weather, and terrain which is used in the intelligence estimate at the beginning. of the decision-making process and con· tinues throughout the battle as the plan is changed based on the situation and esti­mates of the enemy's intent. As targets are selected and neutralized, target develop­ment priorities change. The process is dyna­mic. In the situation and target develop· ment process, information is analyzed to produce the intelligence that satisfies the commander's priority intelligence require· ments (PIR) and combat information requirements (IR) (see the following illustration).


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Operational needs are activities that are art of the battle as it is underway. EW perations support the commander's opera­onal needs. EW is an element of combat ower as is fire and maneuver. CI opera­ons support both the commander's opera­onal and informational needs. CI supports 1e c?m~ander's informational needs by lentifymg and evaluating the threat to the ivision and its operations posed by hostile ltelligence collection, and by subversion lbotage, and terrorism. CI supports the' )mmander's operational needs by counter­19 or preventing hostile intelligence collec­on, subversion, sabotage, and terrorism.
Bringing it all together, a strategy has been developed which allows the friendly commander to act faster than his enemy. That strategy shown in the following illus­tration is called command, control com­munications countermeasures (C3CM). The objective of the C3CM strategy is to inhibit the enemy's command, control, and com­munications (C3) ability while at the same time protecting the friendly C3 capability. IEW support, principally CI and EW. is a significant participant in the C3CM stra­tegy. The four functional elements ofC3CM are: destroy, deceive, disrupt, and defend.
Destroy is just that-destroy the C3 abili­ty of the enemy. That may be accomplished by placing artillery fire on a communica­tions complex or conducting a raid on a

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command post (CP) (see the following illus­tration). The desired result is the same, the enemy's C3 ability has been destroyed.

Disrupt refers to EW, specifically elec­tronic jamming (shown in the following illustration). Jamming degrades the ene­my's communications ability thereby dis­rupting his command and control (C2). It may be applied to secure communication systems to force the enemy to transmit in the clear so that the communications can be exploited for combat information. Jamming also can aid in direction finding (DF) by forcing the enemy to transmit longer, allow­ing time for tipoff and multiple lines of bearing (LOBs) from different locations for position determination.

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Deception contributes to surprise which acts as a powerful combat multiplier. Bat­tlefield deception leads the enemy to make decisions or take actions which are not in their best interest. Electronic deception includes simulative electronic deception (SED), manipulative electronic deception
, (MED), and imitative electronic deception (lED). Greater detail on electronic deception can be found in FM 34-1 and FM 34-40. The deceive component of the C3CM strategy may include electronic deception as part of the overall deception effort. Deception portrays the false, by denial of information to the enemy. Defend protects the real (see the following illustration),



Defend protects friendly C3 and denies the enemy vital information he needs to destroy, disrupt, or deceive. This is accom­plished through O:(SEC programs and through CI activities such as counter­HUMINT, counter-SIGINT, counter-IMINT, and. counter-MASINT. .

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An effective caCM strategy is entirely dependent on accurate and timely intelli­gence support. Situation and target devel­opment support the planning and direction of OCM. EW can be a major contributor in degrading enemy CS, and CI is the corner­stone of deception and denying the enemy a C3CM capability. caCM can now easily be equated with the four military mission areas supported by intelligence (see the fol­lowing illustration).


C3CM is not a new mission area, rather, C3CM activities are accomplished as part of the strategy and tactics of normal military operations.
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The division's organic intelligence assets are pulled together to collect; process, and produce all-source intelligence. This intelli­gence, in addition to normal combat infor­mation reporting, is used to satisfy the commander's informational and opera­tional requirements. Brigades and battal­ions may have lEW assets supporting them, but for the most part, they depend on pro­cessed information from division to support their conduct of deep and rear operations. The division's deep operations prevent second-echelon divisions and regiments from closing with friendly forces in the main battle area (MBA) to achieve mass and influence close operations. In addition to information on second-echelon division locations and intentions, information on regimental locations, strengths, capabili­ties, activities, movement, and intentions are examples of division informational needs. To support close operations, the divi­sion's deep operations focus on enemy second-echelon regiments of the first­echelon divisions and second-echelon or follow-on divisions. lEW supports the com­mander throughout all four dimensions of
the battlefield: width, depth, airspaee (height), and time. The air-land battlefield has distinct geographical areas used as friendly control measures which consider the four dimensions of the battlefield and aid in accomplishing the lEW mission. These areas are the area of operations (AO) and area of interest, and are defined as follows:
o The AO is that portion of an area of
conflict necessary for military opera­
tions. It is assigned to a maneuver
commander by the next higher

o The area of interest is that area. of con­cern to the commander, including the area of operations, areas adjacent thel'eto, and extending into enemy ter­ritory beyond the objectives of eurrent and planned operations. This area also includes areas occupied by enemy forces who could jeopardize the accomplishment ofthe mission.


Organizations and Intelligence Resources
Every unit in the division has an implied tission to report information about the :lemy and terrain. Additionally. divisional nits are assigned collection missions based n their primary mission, capabilities, and Ication on the battlefield. While military ltelligence (MI) units are structured spe­.fically to provide lEW support, non-MI nits provide a great deal oftargeting and :her combat information.
Frontline troops and reconnaissance atrols of maneuver brigades collect infor­lation on enemy units which they are in )ntact with. The cavalry squadron of the Jmbat aviation brigade (CAB) also per­)rms ground reconnaissance, while avia­.on elements of the CAB colleCt informa­on on the battlefield as they fly their lissions. Through countermortar and )unterbattery radar which track the trajec­)ry of enemy ClFtillery rounds, division rtillery (DIV ARTY) assets locate enemy rtillery. Division artillery forward bservers also report combat information as ley observe the battlefield.
Air defense units observe and report con­mtrations of enemy aircraft, and air com­Drs in use. Engineer units collect inform a" tion on the terrain and on the terrain effects on the movement of enemy and friendly forces.
In the division's rear area, the military police company and elements of the divi­sion support command (DISCOM) observe and report enemy activity, whether low level sabotage or terrorism, or larger enemy combat elements. The signal battalion re­ports enemy jamming efforts, also contrib­uting to the intelligence data base.
The division's MI battalion performs mul­tidisciplined intelligence collection' throughout the division area. It performs HUMINT collection through interrogation ofcaptured enemy soldiers and through deployment of long-range surveillance teams. Other assets intercept signals from enemy emitters to develop intelligence, and ground surveillance systems search the bat­tlefield for moving targets.
This chapter describes the lEW resources available to support the division with emphasis on the MI battalion (see the fol· lowing illustration). For a detailed review of individual sensors found within all units of the division, see FM 34-80.


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2~m 30~m 4!tm
BRI GADES/BATTALIONS Frontline Troops Reeon Patrols
DIVARTY Visual Observation MTI Radar CM/CB Radar FA Aerial Observers
ADA BATTALION Visual Observation Radar
MI BATTALION 'nterroga1ion' CP LRS Detachment COMINT ELINT Ground Surv. Radar
-Vehicles -Personnel
.. -I
.. ---I
.---I.• ------1


-------"·-1 '
--... ----.. -.... --.... ---.. -... ---.. -I
--_·--...... "'4
.. "I
... -------"!I
Within visual LOS of aSSigned elements
Within Visual LOS of assigned elements
Within visual lOS of assigned elements


----... ------.. ---~ ----•• ---I
---• • ----.. -• • --I
--_· ...... •• .. ---· .. 1 ----I
.. -I
1 Range for planning purposes.· Actual range depends on terrain. weather. enemy deployment. and location of Iriendly sensor 2 Employed under OPCON of MI battalion. 3 Range indetinile: based·on Information obtained through exploitallOn 01 HUMINT sources
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The combat aviation brigade (CAB) pro­ides all aviation support to the division. It .ssists in conducting sustained combat perations throughout the depth ofthe di· ision's AO. The CAB is a maneuver bri­:ade and controls either air or air and ground maneuver forces. It also provides combat support aviation forces to other di­visional units such as the QUICKFIX flight platoon deployed under the operational con­trol (OPCON) of the MI battalion (combat electronic warfare and intelligence (CEWI).
The CAB of the mechanized and armor' divisions is organized as shown in the fol­lowing illustratIon.


DonnnA 01 ~LlLl1
The CAB fmds, fixes, and destroys enemy armored and mechanized forces by observa­tion, fire, and maneuver. As a result ofits ground and air capabilities, the CAB per· forms ground and air reconnaissance, aerial visual surveillance, air assault, and air mobile missions. Additionally, aviation assets assigned to the general support (OS) aviation company provide command, con­trol, liaison, aerial observation, and air­borne communications intercept, DF, and ECM capabilities to divisional units.
The cavalry squadron performs ground
and air reconnaissance, surveillance, and
security or screening missions.

The attack helicopter battalion provides aerial escort, air observation and attack, and suppressive fires to support air assault operations. Air attack missions include those directed against key enemy C3 facili­ties, logistics centers, and enemy forma­tions engaged as part of the division's close operations. Attack helicopters are capable of cross-FLOT, deep operations with coor­dination for the suppression of enemy air defense weapon systems, and joint air attack team (JAAT) operations with close­air support aircraft against critical targets.

The GS aviation company provides OH­58C observation aircraft to the division artillery (DIV ARTY) for use by the field artillery aerial observers (F AAO) in direct­ing indirect fires against enemy targets. Additionally, the GS aviation company provides the QUICKE"1X flight platoon with airborne communications intercept, DF, and ECM aircraft deployed under the . OPCON of the MI battalion.
When CAB units are deployed in GS of
the division, combat information received
from the ground and airborne reconnais­
sance and surveillance missions is intro­. duced into the CAB tactical intelligence system through normal operations and intelligence reporting channels within the CAB. When CAB subordinate units are deployed in support ofother divisional units; combat information and intelligence derived from their operations are reported directly to the supported unit. As the QUICKFIX flight platoon is deployed under the OPCON ofthe MI battalion, operational intelligence reports transmitted from QUICKFIX collection missions are reported directly to the technical control and analy­sis element (TCAE) of the MI battalion for SIGINT analysis and dissemination within the division.
The CAB's extensive ground and airborne surveillance capabilities represent a sub­stantial portion of the division's combat information collection capability. Intelli­gence planning, to include a thorough col­lection plan which includes detailed recon­naissance and surveillance planning, must focus on and identify the critic'al PIR and IR which the CAB may be best capable of satisfying.
DrVARTY is uniquely suited to acquire combat targeting information through fire support coordinating agencies. It acquires targets using­
o Visual observation.

o Moving-target.radars.

o Weapon-locating radars.

DIV ARTY primarily collects targeting information for its own use. Its elements also provide information to maneuver and other units of the division and feed infor­mation into the division lEW system at all echelons from company to the division FSE. Fire support teams (FIST) and field artillery (FA) aerial observers pass target informa­tion via fire support channels to the maneuver unit it supports which, in turn, passes it up through intelligence and fire support channels. Target information devel­oped through intelligence operations that reaches the DIV ARTY tactical operations center (TOC) is fed into the tactical fire direction system (TACFIRE) .
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~he division FSCOORD, G2, and G3 form ,team which plans the division's overall g.eting effort. The all-source production t10n (ASPS) supports targeting through get value analysis (TVA), target devel­nent, and IPB.

'he air defense artillery (ADA) battalion
quipped with air defense target acquisi­
1 radars that allow early warning of
my air activity to the division. The bat­
on also provides information about air
tes into the division AO and enemy air
ivity in the division sector as well as
~istical data about the destruction of
my aircraft.
'he ADA battalion receives information l intelligence from Army intelligence ts, Air Force elements, Army theater and ps ADA units, and subordinate ADA ts. An air defense coordination section n the division ADA battalion acts as son for coordination with the nearest rce of high-to-medium air defense MAD) or Air Force information center. ,s center screens the information for the ision ADA battalion. At the ADA battal­, this information goes into the Manual rt-Range Air Defense Control System ;C8). From there it is transmitted to the Nard area alerting radar (FAAR) that ·ports air defense firing units. When one he F AAR firing units gathers early ming information and statistical data it orts the information to its battery CPo ' ~ battery CP then reports to the sup­ted brigade 82 and the division ADA talion S2 and 83.
he ADA battalion uses the IEW system
xtra~t current terrain and weather )rmation that pertains to friendly and my air and air defense effectiveness. ly also use the system for current enemy .ations and order of battle (OB) data for aning and operational purposes.

The divisional combat engineer battalion conducts reconnaissance missions to sup­port mobility, countermobility, and general engineering tasks. Mobility tasks are hasty and deliberate route, bridge, aerial, and special reconnaissance. The battalion also reconnoiters assault bridge crossing sites and conducts river reconnaissance. The countermobility task is primarily a recon· naissance for obstacle locations. General engineering tasks include construction site reconnaissance, construction surveying, and bridge site reconnaissance.
Combat engineer companies can provide DS to, be attached to, or under OPCON of the maneuver brigades or task forces and in each case, the companies report te;rain information directly to the supported maneuver unit. Combat information is for­warded to the division through intelligence channels. At division, the assistant division engineer (ADE) compiles and forwards the information to the combat engineer battal­ion TOe, other engineers operating in the division area, and the G2. In some cases the information may be passed directly to the battalion TOC iithe communication channel is available.
The military police (MP) company is responsible for order and discipline' the col­le~tion. movement, and control of e~emy pnsoners of war (EPW); and traffic control throughout the division AO. They establish and ensure physical security at the division EPW cage. Information on prisoner behav­ior, rear operational activities and terror­
. ism is collected by military poiice during tactical operations.
The MP company plans rear operations against level I and II enemy forces in coor· dination with the rear area operations cen­te~ (RAOC). Military police are a major con­tnbutor and user ofintelligence concerning the division rear area.
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Division support command (DI8COM) elements operating in the division rear include its main support battalion, material management center (MMC), and tactical aircraft maintenance company (TAMC). These elements make extensive use of road networks within the division rear. They provide valuable information about lines of communication (LOC), guerrilla activity, and weather and terrain conditions. DISCOM elements report information via the normal chain of command back to the DJSCOM S2 over the DISC OM intelligence net.
DI8COM exchanges information and intelligence with other elements operating in the division rear area. The military police exchange info'rmation gained from their traffic control points (TCP) directly with DISCOM 82 in the RAOC. In addition, the DISC OM's intelligence inter-ests are evalu· ated bythe DTOC G2. As the DTOC receives information and intelligence of special interest to the DISCOM, it passes it via operations and intelligence channels to DISCOM. The DIScOM elements in the division rear are critical as they may be the first units to observe and report enemy activity that impaCts significantly on the division's rear operations.
DI8COM also has threelorward suppqrt battalions which operate in'tpe brigade rear areas. These battalions provide information on enemy activity, weather, and terrain within the brigade rear areas. They fre­quently are the first elements to identify level I and II threats to the brigades.
The division signal battalion is responsi­ble for establishing and maintaining com· munications with the division CPs, brigade CPs, and major subordinate elements of the division. Communication is provided to as low as the brigade level of command. The division signal battalion also coordinates with the division G2 on the evaluation of
enemy signal equipment and receiv~3s . meaconing, intrusion, jamming, and inter­
ference (MIJI) reports from subordinate
elements, and after friendly, inadvertent
interference has been ruled out as the
source of interference, forwards them to the
G2 or MI battalion for processing.
Elements of the signal battalion that are collocated with major subordinate head­quarters such as a brigade, report informa· tion of an intelligence nature to the brigade 82 and the'signal battalion 82183. Signal battalion elements report combat informa· tion to the signal battalion 82 or S3.

The MI battalion provides dedicated IEW support to the division. It is organic: to the division and operates under the command and direction of the division commander and his staff. It responds to missions assigned by the G2 and G3.
The MI battalion at, division level is a four-company organization, with the excep­tion of the MI battalion light infantry divi­.sion, which has three companies. The internal structure of the MI battalion varies according to the division type. The MI bat­talion (CEWI) heavy division is organized as shown in the following illustration. Organizations ofthe airborne, air assault, and light infantry divisions' MI battalion, are provided after the discussion of the MI battalion (CEWI) heavy division.

DODDOA 013444



I .!.

~ EW L:..J
~ co
80 I .,.. *
*Assigned to combat aviation brigade. OPCON to MI ba!talion,

The headquarters, headquarters and ser­vice company (HHSC) provides C2 for headquarters elements of the battalion and elements under OPCON of the battalion. It also contains the elements which provide asset management for lEW operations and supplies technical control and analysis for EW operations (see the following illustration).
The company headquarters and service section provides C2 and administrative support for the' company. The command and staff sections provide C2 for assigned and supporting elements, staff planning, and management of assets. Service support elements provide communications, Communications-Electronics (C·E), and mechanica1 maintenance, and food service support to the battalion. The communica­tions platoon provides poth radio teletype­writer (RA IT) and landline record traffic capabilities. The communications center (COMMCEN) section provides a terminal in the division multichannel communications


DODDOA 013445



••J •• ••I


a • 1.
B .i•
.~-I !~ •••

.'. ••

B 6 I";-HO I@]
.'. .I.
system. The C-E and lEW maintenance sec­gration and use of MI assets to support the tion services SIGINT, EW, and other C-E brigade's battles. The IEWSEs are des­equipment. The mechanical maintenance cribed in detail in Chapter 3. platoon provides vehicle maintenance~_tank
Part of the battlefield deception cell oper­and pump, and recovery support for the-bat­ates at the DTOC, supporting the G3. Ittalion. As the battalion task organizes into assists in the plannipg of deception opera­lEW company teams, assets of the lEW .
tions. The balance of this cell is deployed to maintenance section and mechanical main­assist in execution of deception activities.
tenance platoon are organized into teams attached to each company_
The MI battalion sectio~ includes three
lEW support elements (IEWSEs) to support
each brigade. These elements advise the
brigade commander and staff on the inte­
nonnOA n1 ~LlLlR

The collection and jamming (C&J) com­,ny provides SIGINT and EW support to e division. It is organized as shown in the Jowing illustration.
The C&J company provides communica­illS intelligence (CO MINT) collection, low­{el analysis, and communications jam­lng. It also has organic RATT
Collection and Jamming Platoon

The C&J platoon headquarters provides asset management for the platoon's collec­tion, analysis, and jamming teams. It is the focal point for the tasking and reporting associated with platoon operations. It pro­vides the interface between the TCAE and the C&J company as well as teams assigned to the platoon.
8 I









mII1unications and frequency modulated M) radio retransmission. The three C&J atoons may be attached or detached by e MI battalion to task organize the com­Lny to best accomplish the battalion mis­
m. C-E and mechanical maintenance ,sets may be attached from HHSC when e company is deployed.
Transcription and Analysis Team
The transcription and analysis (T&A) team is deployed as part of the C&J platoon headquarters. It performs selective scan­ning and gisting of voice intercepts recorded by collection teams. When neces­sary, extracts or complete translations of voice intercepts may be made. The team performs limited analysis. It reports acquired combat lhformation to the TCAE via the C&J tasking and reporting net (FM­secure), which is monitored by the brigade
DODDOA 013447

IEW8E for combat information. Technical
data is also passed to the MI battalion
Voice Collection Team
The voice collection team intercepts and gists HF and very high frequency (VHF) voice communications. It also has a limited capability to provide LOB information for intercepted transmission. Recordings, gists, and LOB data are sent to the T&A team for further processing and dissemination. The team has both vehicle-mounted and man­pack collection receivers. The vehicle­mounted and manpack systems each pro­vide HF, VHF, or a combination of the two. The team, however, is manned only for con­tinuous operation of the two collection posi­tions within the vehicle-mounted intercept system. The manpack system is deployed for short periods oftime when a surge capa­bility is required or the vehicle-mounted system is moving.
Electronic Countermeasures Teams
ECM teams are capable of jamming HF and VHF communications in support of close and rear operations and to a limited extent, the division's deep operations. They also perform E8M tasks when not tasked for ECM operations. Under extraordinary circumstances, the mission of team opera­tions may be switched from attacking enemy communications to assisting friendly communications by providing voice message traffic with its high-powered transmitter.
The intelligence and surveillance (1&8) company provides the division ground sur­veillance, EPW interrogation, and limited Cl capabilities. The r&8 company is organ­ized as shown below. C-E and mechanical maintenance assets may be attached to the company when it is deployed.


DODDOA 013448

Company Headquarters
Headquarters provides command and ontrol for I&8 company assets and may erve as a company team headquarters .hen so designated.
Operations Support Section
The operations support section provides nterrogation and CI operational teams vhich are tasked to process EPW and coun­er hostile intelligence collection, sabotage, ubversion, and terrorists threats. The CI earns also provide support to the division's )P8EC program as well as advice and lssistance to security managers. The inter­ogation teams serve as the nucleus around vhich the division cage is formed and can lrovide limited prisoner of war interroga­ion (IPW) support at the brigade level. ~orps augmentation is required to simul­aneously sustain division cage operations lnd to provide continued IPW exploitation It the brigade level. The division is heavily lependent on corps and echelons above orps (EAC) MI support for additional CI, ignals security (SIGSEC). and interroga­
ion operations. These assets will normally Ie deployed in GS unless sufficient aug­aentation is received from corps to place cr ,nd interrogation teams in direct support OS) of brigades.
Ground Surveillance Platoon
The ground surveillance platoon is organ­?:ed into three ground surveillance radar GSR) squads, each with four AN/PPS-5 iSR teams. Ground surveillance assets Clay be attached to a brigade and further .ttached to the battalion task force (BTF) ,nd maneuver company teams. aSR assets Clay also be attached to the DrSCOM or ear area elements for rear area surveil­ance, All support for GSR teams is pro­'ided by the unit to which attached, less 'adar-unique maintenance, which is pro­'ided by the MI battalion.

The EW company provides SIGINT IESM
support to the division and subordinate
elements. The company is capable of
COMINT collection and DF. It also has
noncommunications collection and manual
DF capabilities. RATT communications
support is organized within the company.
The EW company is organized as shown in
the following illustration.

The company headquarters provides overall C2 of assigned and attached assets. It may also act as a company team head­quarters when task organized.
The SrGiNT processing platoon is equipped with the ANITSQ-1l4 (TRAILBLAZER) COMINT collection/DF system and three TEAMPACK noncom­munications collection and DF systems. The TRAILBLAZER system consists of two master control stations (MCSs) and three outstations. Variants ofTRAILBLAZER may have five MCSs and no outstations. An analysis section is also organized within the platoon which provides for communications and noncommunications analysis.
Communications DF Teams
The platoon headquarters, with the analy­sis team, collocates with one of the MCSs, which then becomes the primary MCS. The primary MeS interfaces with the other MeSs and outstations via a system internal ultra high frequency (UHF) data link and reports intercepted traffic with DF locations to the MI battalion TCAE via a RATT interface with the primary MCS. The analy­sis section conducts preliminary analysis of intercepted traffic and reports to the TCAE by RATT or FM. It reports combat informa­tion to the TCAE for. exploitation by fire or maneuver elements. The TCAE establishes the collection. DF, and reporting criteria. When the primary MCS reaches its storage capacity, primary control olthe DF base-, line may be transferred to the other MCS, thereby permitting continuous operations.
;1 ;/
: ..-,.,......
DODDOA 013449



r I I

G I •
OS 1-
Noncommunications Intercept Teams
The noncommunications intercept teams are equipped with the ANIMSQ-I03 (TEAMP ACK) system capable of collecting intercept and LOB data from enemy non­communications emitters. The systems must be located well forward near the FLOT due to line of sight (LOS) restrictions. The three teams may be dispersed through­out the division AO or be concentrated in a particular high-threat area according to mission requirements. A fix capability can be obtained if manual tasking of the three TEAMP ACK systems is accomplished via FM radio. N oncommunications intercept operations are concerned primarily with enemy fire direction and target acquisition radars associated with FA and air defense weapons.
The TCAE may'direct the manual coordi­nation of this electronic intelligence (ELINT) system to locate enemy high·value radars. In this operation, the platoon head· quarters coordinates the operation, receiv­ing tasking and technical data from the TCAE and passing it to the intercept teams.
. ,
It consolidates LOB data and forwards it to the TCAE. The TCAE analyzes the data to determine radar locations and reports com­bat information to the collection manage­ment and dissemination (CM&D) section within the G2 DTOC or the appropriate brio gade IEWSE. The TCAE also correlates the data with intercept data from other sources, particularly COMINT, to template the bat· tlefield from the standpoint of enemy elec­tronic order of battle (EOB) parameters.
The SIGINT processing platoon normally supports the entire division as a GS asset. The platoon deploys its systems within bri­gade areas to ensure range and LOS to target emitters. Their operations must be coordinated closely with the brigades in whose AOs they are deployed.
DODDOA 01~4Fin

The formation of long-range surveillance ganizations within the division and corps ructure under the Army ofExcellence .DE) represents the most significant lange in lEW support to forward maneu­ir forces. The long-range surveillance de­chment (LRSD), division, provides collec­m by HUMINT means within the vision's areas of operations and interest r planning purposes to a depth of50 Ian ' ,yond the FLOT. Itobserves and reports .emy dispositions, facilities, activities ld terrain and weather conditions. Sp~cifi­lly, the LRSD-. .
o Conducts long-range collection through surveillance and reconnais­sance operations.

o Determines and reports the location, strength, equipment, disposition organization, and movement of ~nemy forces and determines the location of HPTs, to include nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) weapon delivery

systems; nuclear weapon storage sites'
reserves; C3 facilities; and other key ,
facilities such as airfields and ammu­
nition supply points.
o Conducts damage assessment and
NBC monitoring.

o Emplaces and employs unattended sensors and electronic intelligence and target acquisition and designation equipment.

o Employs photographic and night
image enhancement devices.

o Obtains information on possible drop and landing zones for airborne and airmobile or air assault operations.

o Provides information on terrain and weather conditions.

o Provides an assessment ofindigenous communication facilities for possible future allied use.

The LRSD is organized as shown in the following chart.



•• !




NOTE: The LRSD light organized
with four surveillance teams.
DODDOA 013451
The headquarters includes the LRSD command and operations center. It directs the functions and activities of the LRSD from the operations center which is located at the division main CP and wired for communications into the division tactical operations center (DTOC) G2 section. The base station communication teams provide high frequency (HF) burst communications between the detachment operations center and deployed surveillance teams, and for­ward surveillance team reports by secure communicatiolls immediately to the DTOC support element (DTOCSE) within the G2. The surveillance teams operate indepen­dently obtaining and reporting information about enemy forces, activities, terrain, and weather within their assigned areas of sur-. veillance. For timely receipt of combat information from corps long-range surveil­lance teams deployed beyond the range of surveillance provided. by LRSD teams, the LRSD may be augmented by an additional base station from the corps long-range sur­veillance company (LRSC). Divisions and corps coordinate long-range surveillance plans to ensure complementary surveillance coverage.
The LRSD is organic to the MI battalion, division. The LRSD conducts long-range surveillance missions for the division to supplement the intelligence collection and surveillance provided by the Ml battalion and other lEW sources. Long-range surveil­lance operations significantly enhance the lEW system in providing current intelli­gence to tactical commanders as to threat formations within their respective areas of operations and. interest (for more detail, see FM 7-93).
The QUICKFIX flight platoon, with three QUICKFIX systems, provides aerial COMINT, DF, and jamming support to the division. Deployed under the OPCON of the MI battalion, it is employed by the MI bat­talion as a GS resource to complement ground-based systems capabilities. Close coordination iB maintained with the CAB to ensure maintenance support, flight readi­ness, and pilot training.
In the heavy division CAB, th~ platoon is assigned to the GS aviation company. With this subordination, constant coordination must be effected between the CAB and the MI battalion to ensure operational readi­ness of the SIGINT and EW subsystems and the QUlCKFIX system as a whole. The platoon operates under the OPCON of the MI battalion with tasking and control com­ing from the TCAE. The QUICKFIX flight platoon remains organic to the MI battalion of the air assault division located in the headquarters, headquarters and operations company (HHOC).
. Under either situation, SIGINT and EW
tasking flows from the TCAE to the
QUICKFIX flight platoon headquartors
which then tasks the individual QUICKFIX
systems. However, in-flight tasking from
the TCAE to the aircraft may be accom­
plished when necessary via UHF and FM
secure radio. The QUIGKFIX system
reports collected data directly to the TCAE.
Resulting combat information is reported
by the TCAE to the IEWSE at brigade for
use by fire and maneuver units and to the
G2 or DTOCSE at the DTOC.
A detailed description of the QUICKFIX system, its capabilities, and information on all of the SIGINT and EW systems oithe division is located in Appendix B (classi­fied) published separately.
The MI battalion (airborne division) and MI battalion (air assault division) are organized into four companies. The battal­ions are identical except the MI battalion (airborne) has added Remotely Monitored Battlefield Sensor System (REMBASS) assets. The battalion organization is shown in the following illustration.

DODDOA 013452


the MI battalion provides support to both ) division and its subordinate brigades. e Ml companies may be task organized
o multidisciplined company teams to lvide lEW capabilities to division units a DS or OS basis. The differences :ween the MI battalion (heavy) and the·
battalion (airborne and air assault) are cussed in the following paragraphs. SU detachment operations in the light, borne, and air assault divisions are the ne as described earlier under the heavy 'ision. Within these divisions, however, ,r LRS teams are assigned to the detach· nt rather than six as is the case in the SD ofthe heavy division.
DIVISIONS) ~he HHOC provides command and con­I for elements of the battalion and sup­1:ing units. It also provides elements ich manage lEW operations and perform hnical control and analysis for SIGINT/ 1 operations. It is organized as shown in i following illustration.
The company headquarters provides C2

and administrative support for the com­pany. The battalion headquarters section provides C2 ofbattalion assigned and sup­
porting elements, staffplanning, manage· ment, and coordination of battalion opera­tions including the employment of battalion assets.
The QUICKFIX flight platoon is organic to the MI battalion in the air assault divi­sion, rather than to the CAB as in the heavy, airborne, and iight divisions. Its personnel, equipment, functions, and opera­tions are identical to those of the QUICK­FIX flight platoon in the heavy division.
The imagery analysis section has a two­fold mission:
o To analyze imagery to identify suitable
drop/landing zones for airborne

o To provide limited imagery analysis support for contingency planning and operations. ;,

. ,""\
Additionally, the imagery analysts can exploit hand·held imagery in support of .
DODDOA 013453



*In airborne division only.
**" In air assault division only.
.r. .'. .'. I .1. .I•

E] c:J
OPSEC and for general intelligence purposes.

The C&J company provides SIGINT and ESM collection and ECM support to the di­vision and its subordinate units. The com­pany is organized into three platoons which provide COMINT collection, LOB and ECM support. plus one platoon designed to pro­vide ELINT non communications collection and LOB information.
The heavy jammers (AN/GLQ-3B and ANIMLQ-34) are not assigned to the MI battalion of the airborne and air assault divisions due to the weight of these systems and the nature of airborne/air assault deployments. Heavy VHF jamming teams are assigned to the MI battalion tactical exploitation (TE) ofthe airborne corps to augment airborne and air assault division ECM operations once these units are deployed in the theater of operations.
The C&J companies of the MI battalion airborne/air assault divisions are organized as shown in the following illustration.
Collection and Jamming Platoon
The three C&J platoons differ from those found in the heavy division in that they have only one ECM team and three low­level voice intercept (LL VI) teams per pla­toon. The LL VI teams are separately resourced and manned from the voice col­lection team, and they are capable of oper­ating independently and full time.
The LL VI teams may be deployed near the FLOT to support a battalion task force or retained under the lEW company team's control. They provide combat information to the platoon T&A team for forwarding to the TCAE on the C&J tasking and rHport· ing net (FM). Normally, a C&J platoon will directly support each brigade while the noncommunicationsintercept platoon will be tasked to provide GS to the division. C&J company assets are normally task orga­nized into lEW company teams to satisfy mission.requirements and to support their deployment in brigade support packages.

DODDOA 013454



IC&J co I
I i f
J ! !







.,..~ .~'.

loncommunications Intercept Platoon
The noncommunications intercept platoon 'the C&J company provides collection and DB information on radars and other non­,mmunications emitters_
The noncommunications intercept opera­)ns section directs the coordinated nployment ofthe three noncommunica­ms intercept teams, receiving tasking and chnical data from the TCAE and passing to the intercept teams_ It consolidates :B data and forwards it to the TCAE. The :::AE analyzes the data to determine emit­r locations. The TCAE then reports com­ltinformation to the CM&D seCtion' at the roc and forward maneuver brigades "rough the IEWSE. It also correlates the lta with information from other sources, trticularly COMINT.
Each of three noncommunications inter­)pt teams is equipped with a TEAMPACK rstem, capable of collecting intercept and LOB data against enemy radars. This sys­tem must be located well forward, near the FLOT, to overcome ground-based LOS re­strictions. The three teams may operate independently throughout the division AO, subordinated individually to C&J platoons, or be concentrated in a particular high­threat area according to mission requirements.
The r&8 company provides the division's ground surveillance, interrogation, and CI support. The airborne division's I&8 com­pany also,contains REMBASS assets. The I&S company is organized as shown in the following illustration.
The company headquarters is responsible for providing C2 and administrative support for the unit.
DODDOA 013455


a ••
*" Airborne Division Only.

'&S co
, !.

Support Platoon
The support platoori provides or and interrogation support to the division and its subordinate brigades. CI teams normally deploy as five separate CI teams which support major subordinate commands (MSCs) within the division by countering hostile intelligence collection, sabotage, subversion, and terrorist threats. They pro­vide GS to the division and DS, on a limited . basis, to the brigades. GS and designated DS teams support units that are deployed in the division rea.r, especially DISCOM, in the division's rear operations mission. The interrogation section normally deploys to the division EPW collection point. The MI battalion TOC tasks the IPW section based on collection missions assigned by the CM&D section. The IPW section reports col· lected information directly to the G2 and CM&D section using normal division com· munication systems such as the multichan­nel communications system and general purpose RATT. Elements of the interroga· tion section ma.y be employed in DS of division subordinate units. When employed in DS of the brigade, the 82 tasks and receives reports from the team through operations and intelligence communica· tions channels internal to the brigade.
REMS 1-*



•• I


Ground Surveillance Radar Platoon
The GSR platoon is organized into three GSR squads. They differ from the GSR squads of the heavy division in that each has one AN/PPS-5 and three AN/PPS-15 GSRteams.
The REMBASS assets, presently fonnd only in the MI battalion of the airborne di­vision, provide additional ground surveil­lance capabilities. The GSR platoon includes five 3-man remotely employed sen­sors (REMS) teams who hand emplace and remotely monitor the sensors when adi· vated. These teams may be employed with GSR assets, independently under the con­trol of an lEW company team, or attached to brigades and BTFs. Remotely monitored sensors can be used for surveillance of gen· eral or specific areas, along unit flanks to enhance security, and in a rear area surveil­lance role. The REMBASS is comprised of three components:
o Sensors (magnetic, seismic, 'acoustic, and infrared).

o Radio repeaters.

o Sensor monitoring equipment.

DODDOA 013456

Unattended ground sensors, with inter­)retation by sensor personnel, are capable Iiproviding target classification (person­leI, wheeled, tracked vehicles), location lumber, direction and rate ofmovement, ength ofcolumn, and time ofsensor lctivation.
The service support company provides n.aintenance, food service, and communica­ions support to the battalion. The company 3 .organized as shown in the following llustration_
Company Headquarters Communications Platoon
The communications platoon operates a telecommunications facility at the MI bat­talion TOe and provides a RATT section which terminates communications to the MI battalion's .operati.onal platoons. The radio retransmission section operates three FM voice retransmission stations for battal­ion internal communication nets to extend range when necessary.
Maintenance Platoon

The C-E maintenance platoon consists of the C-E maintenance section and the EW or intercept equipment repair section. It pro­vides unit maintenance support for most battalion C-E and EW intercept systems and intermediate DB maintenance on SIGINT and EW systems.
The company headquarters provides C2 or the company and its assigned and at­ached assets. It also has a food service sec­ion which operates the battalion dining acility.
Mechanical Maintenance Platoon
The mechanical maintenance platoon consists of the platoon headquarters and a mechanical maintenance section. The pla­toon headquarters has a decontamination


? ••• .'.
.'. .I. .1. .I• .1. Y••

DODDOA 013457

specialist and decontamination equipment for battalion use. The mechanical mainte­nance section performs required unit main­tenance on organic vehicles, generators, and air conditioners.

The MI battalion supporting the light di­vision is organized with the same philoso­phy as its parent division. It is light, easy to transport, and relies on additional assets from higher echelons for support during combat operations. The MI battalion, light division, relies on augmentation from corps for ground-based jamming and ELINT sup­port. When the division is employed in a low intensity conflict (LIC) environment, additional CI and IPW augmentation from corps and EAC is required_ The battalion is organized into three companies. Company assets may be task organized into multidis­ciplined company teams to support divi­sional unit or specific missions. The MI bat­talion, light division, is organized as shown in the following illustration.



"flight platoon organic to combat aviation brigade

160-850 0 -94 -2
DonnOA n1~L1.&;A

The HHSC provides C2 for elements of the attalion and supporting units. It contains ;he elements which provide asset manage-­nent for lEW operations and performs ;echnical analysis for SIGINT and EW lctivities. The HHSC is organized as shown n the following illustration.
The battalion command staff elements are all contained in the battalion headquar­ters section. The company headquarters section provides C2 for the elements assigned and attached to the company.
The battlefield deception cell deploys ele­ments to the DTOC, assisting the G3in planning multidisciplined deception . activities.


DODDOA 013459
The TCAE, while reduced in strength from that found in the heavy division, pro­viqes for the same control and analysis of SIGINT and EW operations. The operations section is concerned primarily with control and reporting, while the operations support section provides analysis and technical data base maintenance.
The service support platoon provides both communications and maintenance support to the battalion's elements. The RATT and communications center sections provide record copies of message traffic for internal nets as well as a tenninal for multichannel communications linking the MI battalion with the division's CPs and other divisional units. The C-E and lEW maintenance sec­tion provides maintenance support for elec­tronic equipment found in the battalion. The mechanical maintenance section is organized to provide maintenance on bat­
, talion vehicles and generators. Elements of this platoon are included in company teams as the battalion task organizes.
The collection company contains the SI GINT and EW collection assets of the MI battalion. The company provides voice col­lection, LOB information, and limited analysis, It is organized into three voice col­lection platoons and a communications sec­tion (see the following illustration),

.. ,J
Company Headquarters
The company headquarters exercises C2 over all personnel and equipment assigned or attached to the unit.
Communications Section
This section provides communications support to the company. It has both RA1T and FM voice retransmission capabilities in the communications section. These assets link the voice collection platoons to the TCAE.
Voice Collection Platoon
The three voice collection platoons are similar to the C&J platoons discussed in the

airborne/air assault divisions, except that
they have no ECM team. Their voice collec­,.
tion and LLVI teams operate as described
earlier, tasked by the T&A team based on
COMINT tasking from the TCAE.


The I&S company contains the MI battal­ion's CI, IPW, and ground surveillance assets. It is organized as shown in the fol­lowing illustration.
The company headquarters provides C2 and administrative support for the unit.
• 1. a I I&SCO • J • .!• .~. INTG PL.T . CIPL.T GND SURVL PLT •• •• •• PLT PLT PLT I""-HQ ~ HQ !---. HQ. •• •• • INTG OPS ~ ClOPS GSR :-­. SEC SEC ---SQUADS • L•• DOCUMENT l-I -XPLT ~ CITMS ..., ISEC I• I INTG I-I -TM I l­f­l­

'. .. J .~
DODDOA 013461
Interrogation Platoon
The interrogation platoon is organized to provide TPW and document exploitation support to the division and its subordinate units. The interrogation operations section is responsible for screening and interroga­tion of EPW and detainees at the division's central collection point. They function in GSofthe division. The two interrogation teams can be used at the division's forward collection points or to augment the interro-· gation operations section. When used at the forward collection points, they are employed in DS of the brigades. When in a DS role, the brigade S2 tasks and receives reports from the team through the brigade internal operations and intelligence report· ing network. The document exploitation section is tasked to review enemy docu­ments and provide reports and translations required to support current intelligence operations.
Counterintelligence Platoon
The Cl platoon provides Cl support to the division and subordinate unit. The CJ operations section assists the platoon leader in managing the platoon's CJ teams. Addi­tionally, its personnel augment the CI teams when necessary. The four Cl teams provide support by countering hostile intel­ligence collection, sabotage, subversion, and terrorist threat.
Ground Surveillance Platoon
The GSR platoon differs from other GSR platoons in that it is organized into four GSR squads with three AN/PPS-15 GSR systems each.
The MI battalion organic to a division requires support from corps and EAC MI assets. Primary support received from corps is in the areas of CI, IPW, and SIGINT and EW. EAC provides communications secu­rity (COMSEC) support for all subordinate organizations.
The added MI support is designed to cover gaps in coverage and to extend the division commander's ability to see dl~eper into the enemy's rear area. Division MI assets generally cover the division's AO and portions of the divisions area of inter­est. The division is largely dependent on the corps and higher echelons for intelligence concerning threats within distant portions ofthe division's area of interest.
The Ml brigade at corps provides both DS and GS lEW capabilities to the division. Short-range assets (ground-based SIGINT systems and jammers) must be moved into the division's forward area in order to be effective. These assets are allocated by corps to forward deployed divisions and the annored cavalry regiment (ACR) to weight the intelligence or jamming effort. Corps Cl and interrogation teams can be t;lent to augment the forward divisions, and LRSC operations may be conducted within or beyond the divisions' area of interest under division or corps control. Such augmenta­tion depends on the missions assigned to the corps and the divisions and the priority given to interrogation, CI, and LRSC opera· tions at each of these echelons. The longer· ranged airborne collection systems provide coverage from the corps area spread across the entire corps front. The GUARDRAIL and QUICKLOOK SIGINT and EW sys­tems are good examples of this type of support.
Corps is also the main interface between the national intelligence system and tacti­cal operations. It is a two-way communica­tion path as tactical information is fHd to support the national intelligence effort, and national-level systems provide data needed by the corps and division.
EAC SIGSEC and HF SIGINT and EW assets support theater, corps, and division operations since these organizations have no SIGSEC or HF DF and HF ECM assets. The theater TCAE (formerly called primary control and analysis center (PCAC» for SIGINT and EW operations is also found at EAC in the MI brigade (EAC). The PCAC functions in a manner similar to the TCAEs ofthe corps and divisions by providing technical control and management of MI brigade (EAC) SIGINT resources and inter­facing with national systems for analysis of technical SIGINT data received from such systems.
DODDOA 013462

Command and Control
The division commander places demands :l the lEW system and uses the products of Le system to plan and direct all phases of le air-land battle. His staff employs the ~Wsystem and ensures that it is inte­~ated with division combined arms )erations.
The Ml battalion commander and his aff organize and task the Ml battalion ements discussed in Chapter 2 based upon .ission requirements provided by the G2 :ld 03. This includes initial task organiza­on with assignment of standard tactical .issions (DS, GS, reinforcing, or GS rein­.rcing as described later in this chapter), 19oing management of specific missions Lrough provision oftechnical data, and the :ocess of redirecting and moving assets on Le changing battlefield.
., This chapter will describe the principles Lat guide the MI commander and staffin 'ganizing to meet lEW mission require­ents. It describes command and support lationships and offers.methods of task 'ganizing an MI unit. It also describes the lmmunications that are vital in organiz­g the MI unit for combat and ensuring the :nely flow of information and intelligence hich affects the outcome of the air-land lttle.
The division initiates lEW planning :len it receives a mission from the corps or
sumes a mission on its own initiative.
. -.
lEW requirements for these missions are
forecast and updated during the mission.
The status and capabilities of divisional
lEW resources must be closely monitored to
ensure effective use of these resources.

The management and command and con­
trol ofthe LEW system are closely interre­
lated. The responsibilities of management
are split between the various command and
control facilities described in this chapter
(for more detail, see Fe 101-55). The three
levels of management are-':

o Requirements management, which is
the translation of the division com­
mander's guidance and concept of the
operation into intelligence, EW, and CI

o Mission management, which is the
specific planning, direction, and con­
trol of operations required to satisfy
the commander's needs for intelli­
gence, EW, and CI.

o Asset management, which is the plan­
ning, direction, and control ofindivid­
ual collection, EW, and CI resources
necessary to accomplish the lEW

ltequirements and mission management are conducted by the G2 and G3 staff, augmented by the DTOCSE. The headquar­ters of each divisional unit manages the lEW mission asset that the unit is capable of performing. The MI battalion S3 within the Ml battalion TOC manages MI battal­ion element assets for the commander. These levels of management are described in detail in Chapter 4.
DODDOA 013463

The lEW missions described in Chapter 1 and the lEW functions, capabilities, and limitations described in Chapter 2 and Appendix B provide the basis for the prin­ciples of IEW support to both offensive and defensive combat operations. These lEW principles are directly keyed to division and brigade requirements. The principles of lEW support are­
o Knowing the battlefield­multidisciplined reconnaissance, sur­veillance and target acquisition (RSTA) assets to provide essential information about the enemy, terrain, and weather.

o Denying the enemy intelligence-EW and COMSEC resources to protect ca and CI resources to counter the ene­my's multidisciplined intelligence col­lection efforts.

o Disrupting and destroying enemy C31 facilities-communications jamming (COMJAM) resources to disrupt HPT C3 facilities and ESM resources to target fire support systems.

D Maintaining the integrity of lEW operations-task organizing to satisfy aggregate mission requirements and the full integration of lEW to maintain the integrity of the force as a whole.
The division's CPs consist of the facill­ties from which the commander and his staff plan and direct battles on the air·land battlefield. The division commander com­mands his forces from the most advanta­geous place on the battlefield. He is not fixed to any of the division CPs in the exe­cution of his command responsibilities. CPs exist to support the commander in perform­ing the following critical functions:
D Command the force.
D Know the situation.
Make decisions.
D Assign missions.
D Allocate means.
o Direct forces.

o Sustain the force.
D Motivate subordinates.

o See the battlefield.

o Win the battle.

The commander personally controls the battles in which the division is engaged. As the commander, he must clearly establish and communicate his intent. to coordinate forces and synchronize combat power through concentration in time and space at decisive points on the b~ttlefield. Thus, the tenets of air-land battle doctrine: initiative, agility, synchronization, and depth are exercised through the precise execu.tion of command at all levels. Division CPs sup­port the commander in the exercise of his command requirements. The division staff-
D Obtains and provides information.
o Estimates and anticipates the

o Supervises execution.

o Recommends courses of action.
D Prepares plans. and orders.

o Coordinates operations.

CPs accomplish three principal tasks to support the division's overall C2 system. These tasks include-.
o Planning the battle.

D . Conducting the battle.

D Sustaining the ba~le.
The amount of effort dedicated to each of these functions varies by echelon and within each of the division's CPs.
The imperatives each division ep must meet to achieve their purpose are shown in the following illustration.
Ifthe CP does not survive, it fails to accomplish its assigned tasks. CP opera­tions must be continuous 24 hours a day, with a qualified and integrated staff to accomplish their operational functions.
DODDOA 013484



.ch CP staff must plan for future opera­ns by assimilating current information d developing estimates and plans for the :lduct and support of these operations. fective C2 can be exercised only when erational planning and execution support .~ rapid, changing battle. This allows the endly commander to act and the enemy 'ce to react. Effective CP operations allow ~ commander to choose the time and tee to fight and synchronize the use ofall ~ans of combat power to decisively win ~ battle.
fhereare three major CPs used at the rision level: the division's main CP, tacti­l CP, and rear CPo
rhe primary functions of the main CP are
Synchronize the battle.
Conduct deep operations.
Plan future battles.

['he secondary function of the main CP is :::oordinate combat service support (eSS). e main CP staff monitors the close and lr operations to synchronize the divi·
sion's deep, close, and rear operations and recommend reallocation of combat power within the division's AO. The DTOC is the
operational hub of the main CP and is nor­mally supervised by the division's chief of staff. At the DTOC, the division's in-depth planning for and conduct of IEW operatioris

take place, requirements and mission man­agement of lEW activities are performed, and lEW elements throughout the division are tasked.
The main CP staff inc1udes­
o Staff resources of the G2.


o G3.

o FSE.

o Division chemical section.

o Tactical air control party (TACP).

o C·E staffelement.

o Other special staff sections.

The G2, as the intelligence manager, pro­vides perishable combat information and intelligence to support the planned use of fire, maneuver, EW, and other operations to be executed by the division. The DTOCSE and all other principal and special staff .
, .. ,.i·/
elements support the G2 in receiving com­
bat information dealing with enemy,
weather, terrain, and intelligence derived
from all other sources.
The DTOC maintains communications
with the­
o Tacticai CPo

o RearCP.

o Subordinate CPs within the division.

o Corps TOe and corps tactical CPs.

o Adjacent unit CPs.

The Tactical CP
The primary function of the tactical CP is to conduct the division's close operations. Its secondary function is to monitor the di­vision's deep and rear operations for their impact on FLOT operations and to plan future close operations. The tactical CP operates continuously and is of small physi­cal size and electronic signature. It is posi­tioned forward on the battlefield and has great mobility.
The tactical CP staff elements include representatives from the-
D G2.
o G3.
o FSE.
D Engineer.

o CSS/units.

As the orientation of the tactical CP is forward in the MBA with a principal focus on the division's close operations, the tacti­cal CP is a principal user of intelligence produced by the G2 section at the DTOC and combat information reported by friendly units in contact. Planning; accom­plished within the tactical CP, is narrower in scope than that accomplished at the main CPo It has a shorter time line towards its execution-·normally only 24 hours. All staff elements located at the tactical CP contribute to the intelligence process through the input of combat information received from their parent unit, in the case of special staff officers such as the ADA, engineer, and FSE (DIVARTY), or through operations and intelligence reports received at the tactical CP from divisional units at large. So that detailed intelligencecollec­tion operations can be focused on the follow-on 'enemy forces, combat information received and analyzed by the tactical CP G2 assists the division main CP G2 staff determine the identification, disposition, and strength of enemy units in contact. . Operation of the tactical CP is normally the responsibility of either the assistant divi­sion commander or the G3.
The RearCP
The primary functions ofthe rear CP are to sustain the battle and the conduct of divi· sion rear operations. Its secondary func­tions include serving as the back-up or alternate CP for the main CP and planning future rear operations. Rear operations planning includes IPB of the division rear area, terrain management in the division rear area, traffic control, battle manage­ment ofthe rear area, and overall C2 for administrative and logistic support that takes place in the rear. The rear CP consists of the RAOe and support personnel f'tom the division's coordinating and special staff. Support personnel are-
D Personnel who have expertise in gen­
eral intelligence and cr operational

D G1, G3, G4, and adjutant general
personnel. .

D Administrative/logistics operators.
The assistant commander or the DISCOM commander is responsibile for operation of the rear CPo The RAOe includes an operations staff representing the maneuver (operations), intelligence, chemical, and fire support functional areas and designated rear area combat eperations and area damage control officers. n;w sup­port to the division's rear operations is planned concurrently with intelligence operations supporting the division's deep and close operations. IPB of the rear area focuses on the types and degrees of lEW support dedicated to rear operations. cr
DODDOA 013466

)perations designed to provide I&W infor­:nation and security to division rear ele­nents will be planned in detail. The posi­joning ofthe division's EPW interrogation :ollection point will also be integrated into :he rear operations plan for security as well lS intelligence exploitation purposes. Other EW support to include GSR, COMINT, and ~CM will be integrated into the rear opera­ions plan as dedicated support, or on-call n the event of contingencies, based on mis­;ion, enemy,_ terrain, time and troops avail­lble (METI-T) and detailed intelligence )lanning.
The G2, G3, FSCOORD, and the C-E fficer coordinate and direct division lEW perations. They obtain the information equired to answer the commander's equirements concerning both enemy forces nd friendly vulnerabilities. They integrate :CM with maneuver and fire and plan and oordinate OPSEC measures and defensive :W measures to protect the division from nemy intelligence collection operations.
The G2, the senior intelligence officer in ie division, is the division commander's rin~ipal advisor concerning the enemy, ~rrain, and weather. He directs and coor­inates division intelligence, CI, and secu­Lty operations.
o Recommends intelligence requirements.

o Directs intelligence collection and all­source analysis for the production of intelligence.

o Ensures the timely dissemination of intelligence and combat information.

o Plans, directs, and supervises CI operations throughout the division area to counter enemy multidisciplined intelligence collection, espionage, sub­version, and sabotage.

D Directs support to OP8EC.
o Provides the ESM and intelligence necessary to plan and execute EW
o Establishes and enforces division pol­
icy for personnel and document

D Supervises the division special secu­..::. rity officer (8S0). --~
D Ensures that division policies and
procedures are compatible with those
established by the Departments of
Army (DA) and Defense (DOD).

D Provides staff supervision for branches
within the G2 and those sections of the
DTOC8E that support G2 intelligence
and CI responsibilities.

D Recommends and satisfies the com·
mander's PIR and IR.

D Plans and manages the command's
multidiscipline intelligence collection
processing resources. This includes
identifying requirements for RSTA
assets available within and in support
of the division.

o Coordinates with the G3 and assigns
lEW missions to units of the division.

o Recommends and satisfies the divi­
sion's CI requirements.

o Performs situation and target devel­
opment; for example, recommends
targets in support of the division
maneuver, fire support, and EW

D Provides predictions offallout from
enemy employed nuclear and chemical

FM 101-5 and FM 34-1 provide additional information concerning the responsibilities and functions of the division G2.
There is no standard organization for the G2 section. The specific organization is dic­tated by the division mission, nature of the threat and AO, resources, and the desires of the division commander, chief of staff, or G2. Like all other principal division staff elements, the G2 provides manning at all division operational facilities to include the tactical, main, and rear CPs. A type of organization for the division's intelligence staff is shown in the following illustration.
DODDOA 013487

The G2 operations branch, based on G2 guidance, din,cts and coordinates intelli­gence, CI, division SSO, staff weather team, and the engineer terrain team operations. It coordinates the daily operations of the G2 staff within the DTOC, providing intelli­gence to the division commander, the coor­dinating staff, and the special staff. It ensures that intelligence requirements to support current operations are satisfied, to include the dissemination of intelligence and combat information. It coordinates closely with the G3 operations branch and FSE to enSUrEl that intelligence and CI operations are integrated with and support the commander's scheme of maneuver and the fire support targeting effort.
The tactical surveillance officer (TSO), a member of the G2 staff, monitors the CUr­rent and planned deployment ofreconnais­sanee and surveillance (R&S) assets assigned and attached to the division and divisional units. In coordination with the CM&D section, the TSO maintains the cur­rent status of R&S resource availability and plans for their employment to support future operations. The TSO, trained in col­lection management and R&S operations, serves as the principal G2 interface between the CM&D section who executes R&S plan­ning, requesting, and tasking and the plans section of the G3, the air liaison offieer and division aviation, and fire support and target acquisition experts in the FSK
The G2 plans and exercise branch formu· lates and coordinates intelligence and CI plans and requirements for future and con­tingency operations by close coordination with intelligence personnel assigned to the G3 plans branch. The G2 directs the DTOeSE to ensure that IPB and TVA sup­port is provided.
The security branch develops division security policies and assesses the sec:urity status of the command. It coordinatns with the DTOCSE CI analysis section for secu­rity assistance, .
The G2 DTOe and tactical and rear CP elements may be staffed as separate branches or the necessary resources may be drawn from other G2 branches. The G2 element at the tactical CP provides the divi­sion commander and staff with the intelli­gence support required to conduct close operations. The element must be small and
DODDOA 013468

capable of continuous operations. The G2 tactical CP element coordinates closely with the G2 operations branch and DTOCSE at the division main CP to ensure that it is aware ofthe division's current deep and rear operations as well as intelligence plans for future operations.
The division SSO is a G2 asset assigned to the division headquarters, headquarters company (HHC). TheSSO section will con· sist of the SSO, one enlisted clerk, and may be augmented as required. The division SSO­
o Ensures that SCI operations within the division conform to national-level directives and regulations.

o Supervises the establishment of sensi­tive compartmented information facili­ties (SeIFs) in tactical field environments.

o Provides guidance to the G2 regarding the commander's SCI requirements balanced against the parameters and constraints levied by national-level agencies.

o In-place communications architecture
that supports the eJectrical, voice,

radio, and facsimile transmission of
SCI material within the division AO.

The division HHC has organic to it, a DTOCSE which is designed to reinforce the G2 and G3 in the management oflEW operations. The sections ofthe DTOCSE are functionally integrated with the G2 an4 G3 sections. They may also be integrated physi­cally. The individual sections work as extensions of and act in the name of the G2, G3, or commander. The DTOCSE is orga­nized as shown in the following chart.
CM&D Section. The CM&D section, under the staff supervision of the G2, performs mission management for intelligence collec­tion and is the focal point for the rapid dis­semination of combat information and intelligence. Mission management includes collection planning, tasking, and coordina­tion. Collection planning converts PIR and IR into collection missions. Requirements


1-· --.• · · -.





He must be familiar with the­
o Routine garrison duties that are com­mon to SSOs at all echelons of command.

o SIGINT organization of his division and how SIGINT tactical operations and procedures impact on the adminis­tration of SCI.

include those developed by the commander,
G2 and G3, division subordinate units, and
higher and adjacent commands. Require­
ments are also generated from the identifi­cation of gaps in the division intelligence data base as identified by the ASPS of the DTOCSE. The CM&D section receives, analyzes, consolidates, and assigns priori­ties to lEW requirements and ensures that combat information IIDd intelligence are
DODDOA 013469

disseminated to the right user at the right time.
ASPS Section. The ASPS, under the staff supervision of the G2, provides intelligence analysis and production support to the divi­sion. It is staffed to provide continuous, all­source analysis support. It is located within a SCrF in the DTOC. It is a terminus for SCI communications links which it uses for analyst·to·analyst communications with other analytical elements within the divi· sion, corps, and adjacent units. These SCI communication links provide the ASPS access to national intelligence products and· support. The ASPS, supported by the ter­rain and Air Force weather teams, performs IPB. The ASPS uses the IPE data base for situation and target development. The fol­lowing illustration is a list of the support provided by the ASPS.
screens and segregates combat information and intelligence received by the DTOC for its application to targeting require­ments. The FAIO also coordinates cuing of MI collection systems from information developed by artillery target acquisition systems.
The ASPS interfaces with other analyti· cal elements to exchange information and intelligence, to reconcile processing efforts and to resolve discrepancies. Close and can· tinuous interface between intelligence pro­ducers is vital to the intelligence production effort.
Processes in/ormation from all sources-organic and external-to produce intelligence in response 10 the division commander's needs. Develops and maintains the intelligence data base to Include EOB Information. Identifies gaps In the data base and refers them 10 the CM&D section for inclusion in the collection plan. Provides IPS products to the division commander and staff, subordinate units, and other elements thai require them to plan, execute, and support combat operations. Identifies enemy HVTs and, in coordination with the FSE and G3, recommends HPTs to the commander.

Through target development, the ASPS plays a key role in the division targeting effort. Through IPB and TVA, it identifies enemy HVT. It also supportstargeting through target correlation.
The field artillery intelligence officer (FAIO), assigned to the FSE, operates _ within the ASPS in the DTOC. The FAIO helps identify targeting and target devel­opment requirements, evaluates incoming reports to identify pertinent targeting data, and once the target has been developed suf­ficiently by the ASPS, expedites its report­ing to the FSE. He informs the DTOCSE of current tar~eting requirements. The FAIO EWSection. The EW section assists the G3 in carrying out his EW staffresponsibili· ties. It provides mission management for EW operations and recommends the alloca­tion of EW resources. It assists the G3 in integrating EW with combat operations and identifying EW requirements. It converts EW requirements to specific ECM missions and tasks the MI battalion S3 through the CM&D section. The illustration on page 3-8 is a list of the support provided by the EW section.

DODDOA 013470


Monitors the enemy electronic order of battle (EEOB) technical data base which is maintained by the TCAE.
Evaluates the vulnerability of enemy emitters.

Recommends enemy targets for ECM to support planned and ongoing operations.

Identifies asset capabilities, formulates mission tasking, and monitors resulls.

Evaluates the brigade and division schemes of maneuver and recommends the Integration of EW.

Develops and maintains EW target lists and jamming schedules and other planning and coordination mechanisms

to ensure engagement of key electronic targets with ECM systems at critical limes.
Recommends to the G3, priority of effort for jamming after considering the enemy, terrain. scheme of maneuver,
and expected Jamming effectiveness.

Prepares the EW portions of estimates, plans, orders, and requests for ESM in coordination with the G3 EW staff

Coordinates jamming ON-OFF control measures, and In the case of ON-OFF controlled lamming, provides mis­
sion initiation aQd termination orders using existing communications from the DTOC to the MI battalion TOC.
This ON-OFF control is seldom Instantaneous and usually requires planned cues to lime the start and stop of

Assists the G3 in evaluating the effectiveness of EW activities In support of combat operations and recommends

changes in unit task organl:lation to achieve improved efficiency and effectiveness.
Reviews reports and evaluates hostile EW efforts, and in coordination with the C-E officer, recommends appro­
priate ECCM.

Assists In the evaluation of friendly EW operations to determine their effects on friendly C-E activities.

Assists in the preparation of emergency, contingency. and other plans, ensuring that EW capabilities and vulnera­
bilities are adequately conSidered.
Assists in the review of resource status reports (RSRs) for determination of the readiness at Intercept and com­
munications jamming assets assigned and under OPCON of the command. •
Assists In Integrating EW into programs of instruction, lesson plans, training exercises, and scenarios.

CI Analysis Section. The CI analysis sec· tion, under the staff supervision of the G2, provides CI analysis support to OPSEC, rear operations, and deception. The follow­ing illustration is a list of the support pro­vided by the CI analysis section.

Supports the command's OPSEC program by analyzing hoslile Intelligence collection capabilities, and working
with the OPSEC staff element, compares enemy collection capabilities with divisional protJIes to Identify friendly
vulnerabilities and OPSEC measures.

Supports the division's rear operations mission by identifying and recommending actions to neutralize level I and

" threats.
Supports deception planning by recommending deception techniques as an OPSEC measure or In support of tac­
tical deception operations. Its personnel are experts In counler-SIGINT, ·HUMINT, and -IMINT.

DODDOA 013471

OPSEC StaffElement. The OPSEC staff element assists the G3 in fulfilling com­mand OPSEC responsibilities. Working closely with the CI analysis section, it per­forms the OPSEC management functions necessary for the development and imple­
-mentation ofthe command's OPSEC pro­gram. In addition to these management tasks, the following illustration lists the OPSEC staff element's specific duties.
postattack assessments, aerial imagery. reconnaissan~e patrol debriefings, and EPW interrogation and engineer reconnais­sance reports. It correlates and analyzes this data with other terrain data On enemy LOC and facilities. It updates maps using all available environmental and weather data. The team maintains a close interface with its parent battalion at EAC and the corps terrain team for terrain analysis, map
Assists the G3 In developing essential elemenls of friendly Information (EEFI). Prepares Ihe C()mmand's OPSEC plans and annexes. Provides Input to and reviews deception plans and related publications and documents. Prepares and maintains the command OPSEC standing operating procedure (SOP). DeVelops, Implements, and supervises commancl OPSEC training and education programs. Develops OPSEC evaluation requirements and missions and tasks them to the MI battalion through the CM&D section.

Terrain Team.The terrain team is a five-man team from the EAC engineer topographic battalion which deploys and works with the ASPS. Its working relation­ship with the USAF weather team and DTOC ensures rapid integration ofter­rain information with enemy and weather data to produce intelligence. Operating in DS of the division, it is under the staff supervision of the division G2. The team is
-composed of a terrain intelligence techni­cian, two terrain analysts, a cartographic draftsman, and a clerk. The terrain team­
o Provides terrain analysis and main­tains a terrain data base for the divi­sion areas of operation and interest.

o Assists the ASPS in its IPB functions by performing general and detailed terrain analysis and producing terrain factor overlays.

o Provides map evaluation support to the division and coordinates carto-. graphic support through the corps ter­rain team and cartographic company.

. The terrain team gathers terrain data from all-source intelligence reports such as evaluation support, and terrain products
that are beyond its own capability. FM 34-3
provides a detailed description of how the
terrain team supports IPB. .
Weather Team. A weather team from the supporting Air Force Air Weather Service (AWS) unit provides weather support for the division. The team consists ofthe SWO, a forecast element, and weather observing teams. The SWO is a member of the divi­sion special staff, operating under the staff supervision of the G2. The team has a 24­hour capability to observe and forecast weather.
Normally, the team forecasts weather for the division TOC, one airfield/helipad, and the maneuver brigades. It is capable of direct forecasting support to a brigade or airfield for limited periods.
The forecast element provides weather forecasting and climatic support to the divi· sion. It maintains the weather and climatic data base. It normally locates with the ter­rain team at the division main CP and pro­vides climatic and weather products to sup­port IPB. It receives weather data from the

DODDOA 013472

arps weather team, weather observations
rom its forward weather observation
eams, and meteorological data from

The division HHC provides the weather
earn with its tactical equipment and
nsures unit maintenance ofcommon
quipment, such as vehicles, generators,
nd communications gear used by the
feather team. Weather team personnel
perate and perform operator-level mainte­
. . ance on its assigned equipment. The AWS rovides specialized equipment.
The G3 is responsible to the commander
)r operations, plans, and training. He has
taff responsibility for planning all division
perations and directing the OPSEC, decep­
.on, and EW operations of the division. The
:W section of the DTOCSE reinforces the
f3 in the management of division EW
perations. As such, it operates closely with

J.e operations and plans branches of the f2, G3, FSE, and division C~E officer to nSUre that EW is integrated with and sup­arts all division operations. The G3 inte­rates jamming with fire and maneuver, nd electronic deception with other forms of ­eception and OPSEC measures. He coor­inates ECM with the G2 and, in turn, ~ceives the intelligence and ESM needed to lan and execute ECM and ECCM. He )ordinates ECM operations with the C-E fficer to ensure ECM does not adversely [feet division communications or the com­lunications of other units operating in or ear the division AO. Additionally, the G3 )ordinates with the C-E officer regarding CCM aspects of the division's EW perations.
The G3, with the assistance of the
IPSEC·staff element ofthe DTOCSE,
lans and directs OPSEC measures to pro­
lct the command and its operations. He
)ordinates with the G2 for CI support to
IPSEC. He develops OPSEC evaluation
lissions and, assisted by the G2, directs
1e task organization and ad hoc OPSEC
valuation teams that carry them out. He
)ordinates with the G2 to ensure that
vailable CI assets are used effectively to
3.tisfy division CI and OPSEC evaluation

The G3 tasks the MI battalion to carry
out ECM and OPSEC evaluation missions
in coordination with the G2.

o Plans and coordinates EW operations.

o Directs ECM actions needed to support planned and ongoing operations.

o Identifies, in coordination with the G2, ESMrequirements to support ECM and ECCM.

o Coordinates with the C-E officer to establish ECCM to protect friendly C·E operations.

o Prepares the EW annex to operation plans (OPLANs) and operation orders (OPORDs).

o Identifies and recommends EEFI.

o Implements countermeasures to frus­trate the enemy intelligence collection effort.

o Plans and coordinates deception opera­tions to support the commander's scheme of fire and maneuver.

FM 101-5 and FM 34-1 provide detailed descriptions of the responsibilities and functions ofthe division G3.
The FA commander is designated the FSCOORD. At the division level, the DIVARTY commander serves as the FSCOORD. The FSCOORD is responsible for­
o The proper integration and application of all fire support to enhance the scheme ofmaneuver. This is accom­plished through the collective and coordinated use of target acquisition, indirect fire weapons, armed aircraft, and other lethal and nonlethal means in support of battle plans. (see FM 6-20, page 4-9)_

o Planning and coordinating target acquisition, ADA fires, schedules of fires, deception operations by fire sup­port means and the engagement ofsur­face targets by air support, naval gun­fire, chemical and nuclear weapons,

DODDOA 013473

field artillery, and offensive electronic
warfare systems.
Providing information on the status of fire support and FA target acquisition means.
Recommending the FA task
Providing status of FA ammunition on hand;· recommending to the G3 the FA ammunition required supply rate, pro­viding an estimate of the adequacy of the FA ammunition controlled supply rate (CSR), and recommending the CSR for subordinate commands.
0 Recommending the allocation of nuclear and chemical weapons for fire support operations (that is the pre­scribed nuclear load (PNL)/prescribed chemical load (PCL) for FA units, sub­ordinate units, supply points, and depots).
0 Assisting in the preparation of OPLANs and OPORDs by providing information about fire support organi· zations and operations, to include
.:.:. recommending fire support coordina­tion measures, high payoff targets,
and priorities. The FSCOORD also supervises the preparation of the fire support annex and supporting appendixes.

0 Coordinating FA survey within the command and with higher and adja­cent commands.
0 Providing technical assistance to the G2 in the study and evaluation of enemy fire support capabilities and weather/terrain effects on friendly fire support capabilities.
0 Providing technical assistance to the G2 in supporting the battlefield sur­veillance plan.
0 Preparing the fire support portion of the training program and supervising the FA training throughout the command.
Monitoring the maintenance condition of FA equipment and advising the commander and responsible staff per­sonnel on related problems.
Coordinating FA target acquisition within the command and with higher
and adjacent commands.
0 Coordinating nuclear and chemical
fires with the chemical officer.

0 Submitting information and intelli­gence derived from fire support opera­tions to the G2.
0 Organizing and supervising the FSEs, fire support sections, and FISTs with supported units down to and including company and troop.
0 Coordinating efforts to suppress
enemy air defense with tIre support
means, both lethal and nonlethal.

0 Coordinating the counterfire and
interdiction fire effort of the force.

0 Recommending and coordinating use of fire support means from other ser­vices and advising liaison representa­tives from supporting services.
'0 Developing, in coordination with G3, a fire support concept to support the battle.
0 Providing fire support coordination representatives to assist the G3 air as a member of the airspace management element (AME).
The FSE is responsible for planning and coordinating fire support. The FSE staff is provided by the DIV ARTY. The FSE­
0 Advises on all fire support matters.
0 Develops the fire support plan and
coordinates its implementation, to
include nuclear and chemical fires.

0 Maintains a current status of all fire
support means available to the force,
to include FA, air support, naval
gunfire, and offensive EW.

0 Plans and coordinates fire support
suppression of enemy 'air defenses

0 Recommends FA organization for
0 Recommends target priorities (high
payoff targets) for fire support.

The FSE is divided between the division's tactical and main CPs. The tactical CP FSE­
DODDOA 013474

] Is responsible for fire support coordi­nation for the current battle.
] ~onitors current fire support opera­tIOns to ensure that 111"e support is allo­cated properly and assesses the need for additional fire support for imme­diate and near immediate tactical situations.
] Maintains the status of fire support

] Expedites immediate fire support

A.rtillery targeting information obtained ,the tactical CP FSE is provided to the ctieal CP G2 section as combat infonna­
m. The G2 section uses such information confirm other combat information ::eived from units located in the MBA and its overall intelligence assessments that provides to the main CP G2.
The main CP FSE­
] Augments the capabilities of the tacti­cal FSE as required.
] Plans flre support for future

] Responds to requests for future addi­
tional fire support from subordinate

] Develops, in coordination with other
fire support representatives, fire sup­
port plans and disseminates them
through the G3 section.

] Plans SEAD fires for both current and future operations.
] Recommends FA organization for combat, target priorities (HPT), and fire support coordination measures.
The relationship between the G2 G3 and 3COORD and the G2, G3 staff a~d FSE is 1e of mutual support. The G2, G3/S2, S3 ld the FSE closely coordinate situation Id target development. At battalion and igade, this is accomplished through per­nal contact between staff officers. Coor­nation between staff elements at division ld corps requires SOPs to ensure ficiency.
The G2 provides timely intelligence to the,E for targeting purposes and assists the
FSE in determining the best means ofen­gagement to include nonlethal attack options. The G2 section also proVides the high value target list to the FSE and tech­nical considerations that may impact on the development of the high payoff target list. Additionally, the G2 section provide$ enemy intent and probable courses of action and movement for consideration in weapon and radar emplacement, fire planning, and ammunition requests. The G2's analysis of terrain and weather are also reviewed by the FSE for information impacting on weap­on positioning, task organization, and fire planning.
The FSE provides targeting intelligence
collected from direct observation by fire
support teams, observationllasing teams,
aerial artillery observers, and target acqui­
sition radars. Artillery observers provide
damage assessments (when possible) from
which the G2 determines the enemy force's
level ofattrition through fire support
engagements and estimates of the enemy's
strength and capabilities.

The FSE, through information and intel­
ligence received from and given to the G2,
provides for the proper integration and
application of all fire support, lethal and
nonlethal, to enhance the scheme of

CaE Officer
The division C-E officer is responsible to the commander for all aspects of division communications. He is part of the division special staff and commander of the division signal battalion. He exercises overall direc­tion of ECCM-one of the three major EW functions.
ECCM are executed by every element of the combat force that uses or is responsible for the use of electronic emitters. The responsibility for ECCM starts with com­manders and extends to supervisors and operators at all levels_ Techniques for reduc­ing friendly vulnerabilities to enemy radio electronic combat (REC) efforts are directed through the Communications-Electronics Operating Instructions (CEOI), Communications-Electronics Standing Instruction (CESI), SOP, and other instructions.
..' ",,­
DODDOA 01347!)

Normally, the division C-E officer will coordinate all communications matters with the general staff. The functions of the division C-E officer are advisory: coordinat­ing plans and orders, providing staff super­vision and liaison, and supervising training.
The division C-E officer coordinates with and assists the G2 on.....
o COMSEC equipment and procedures and ECCM actions.

o Interpretation of enemy signal documents.

o Evaluation of enemy signal equipment.

o Evaluation of MIJI reports.

o Establishment of multichannel circuits required for tactical SCI communica­tions within the division.

The division C-E officer coordinates with theG30n­
o Overall tactical communications aeti vities.
:~~ 0 SED, MED, and tactical ECCM.
,j 0 Organization and signal equipment of division units.
0 Division personnel training in com­munications activities.
0 Selection of division CP locations based on communications req uirements.
0 Physical security of signal installations.
0 Preparation of C-E annexes to the divi­sion SOP and division OPLAN includ­ing paragraph 5 of the division OPORD. .
o Allocation and assignment ofradio frequencies.

o Development of TABOO and PRO­TECTED frequencies to assist in con­troling the direction of ECM operations.

EW StaffOfficer (ASI 5M)
Various positions in corps, division, and ,subordinate unit intelligence, operations, and C-E staff sections are manned by AS! 5M personnel. These personnel haYe been trained to plan, integrate, and coordinate EW in support of combined arms operations in the context of their normal stafffunc­tions. They assist the commander and prin­cipal staff officers in assessing how friendly and enemy use of electronic systems affect an operation. The 5M-qualified officer coor­dinates EW in support of the unit mission within his staff area ofresponsibility. He helps plan and execute EW training pro­grams, prepares EW estimates and annexes to plans and orders, and provides staff supervision and evaluation ofEW support operations.
The G3, 5M-qualified EWSO­
o Integrates EW planning into tactical
plans and orders.

o Prepares, in coordination with the EW section of the. DTOCSE, the EW esti­mate, the EW annex to command operational plans and orders, and the command SOP.

o Assists in the preparation of requests
for the authority to conduct ECM

o Determines requirements for pre­planned EW support and recommends taskings for EW units and subordinate elements of the command.

o Advises and assists staff officers to develop electronic deception plans and within the G3, acts as the principal advisor on the technical aspects and requirements for electronic deception programs.

o Establishes safety procedures to ensure that active ECM equipment and operations do not endanger personnel or cause the degradation or malfunc­tion of any nuclear weapons (including atomic demolition munitions) or any conventional weapons with internal electronic guidance and fusing. This requires coordination with explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) and other units to determine·critical electronic thresholds to establish safety proce­dures and distances and frequencies to be avoided.

DODDOA 013476

Assists in the exercise of command ON-OFF control ofjamming operations_
Prepares for the G3, and in coordina­tion with the C-E staff officer, TABOO and PROTECTED frequencies to assist in the control of ECM operations.
Receives and evallJ,ates all reports of enemy jamming or suspected enemy jamming.
he. G2 5M-qualified EWSO-
Assists the EW section, DTOCSE, and the G3 staff element to prepare EW estimates and· annexes to plans and orders for pending and ongoing operations.
Coordinates with the intelligence col· lection ma'nager to ensure that infor­mation needed to support EW is included in the collection plan.
Prepares the GUARDED frequencies list to protect intelligence sources for the GZ.
he C-E staff 5M-qualified EWSO­
Prepares the signal and ECCM portion of the training program and provides staff supervision over signal and ECCM training for the command,
Provides input for the preparation of
EW estimates, plans, and annexes.
Advises on the electromagnetic radia­
tion environments in the command.
Determines local TABOO and PRO­TECTED frequencies in coordination with the G3 EW staff officer.
Coordinates measures to reduce elec­
tromagnetic radiation interference.
Coordinates MIJI reports with the EW section for possible immediate countermeasures.
Advises on the technical C-E aspects of electronic systems and devices.
Implements SIGSEC policy and
'he FSE 5M-qualified officer coordinates exchanging targeting information ned from division EWoperations.
The division airspace management ele­ment (DAME) 5M-qualified officer coordi­nates airborne EW missions with the FSE and the air defense staff officer to preclude interference with planned operations of these activities.
The MI battalion responds to the guid­

ance of the division commander and the G2
or G3 regarding lEW support to division
elements and to mission tasking from the
CM&D sections.
The MI battalion establishes a TOe from
which the deployed assets of the MI battal­
ion are controlled and a battalion trains to
ensure that logistical support is provided to
all battalion assets. These facilities are
normally located close to each other (3 tb 5
kilometers) and connected by land line and
FM voice communications.
METT·T and the need for radio LOS with
the DTOe and the battalion's forward
deployed lEW company teams determine
the location of the MI battalion TOC in the
division area. It may be located forward in , the division rear area or in a brigade's AO.
The MI battalion trains are positioned to
maximize coordination with the MI battal­
ion TOC, to provide access to major supply
routes and brigade and division CSS cen­
ters, and to maximize the use ofshelter and
maintenance support facilities in towns and
built-up areas. The battalion normally
deploys company teams and assigns them
standard tactical missions. This ensures
that MI assets are organized and positioned
to meet the division's needs. These com­
pany teams are under the C2 of the MI bat­
talion commander exercised by the MI bat­
talion TOC/S3 who coordinates closely
with the unit in whose area they are
deployed. The following paragraphs de­
scribe how the MI battalion trains, TOC,
and lEW company teams are configured
and operate.
The MI battalion trains are the focal point for administrative and logistical sup­port in the battalion. The MI battalion
DODDOA 013477

.. ';i
trains use existing buildings when possible and often locate in built-up areas. This reduces setup and teardown time for main­tenance activities, improves access to major roads, and reduces power generation require­ments as commercial sources may be used. The trains consist ofthe MI battalion XO, 81,84, their staffs, and the maintenance and support elements of the Ml battalion's
HH8C. .
The MI battalion trains support the MI officers. The XO serves as the deputy
battalion commander and makes
command decisions in the absence of
the commander. He assumes command
of the battalion when the commander
is incapacitated or when directed by
the battalion commander.
o 81. The 81 is responsible for personnel management and administration. A list of his responsibilities is shown in the following illustration.
Maintenance of unit strength. Physical security.
Management of personnel and manpower. Headquarters management.
Supervision of health services. Casualty reporting.

battalion and its deployed assets by per­forming the following functions:
o Monitoring the battalion's personnel status and coordinating for the provi­sion anddistribution of replacements.

o Monitoring the status of all classes of supply in the battalion and ensuring that resupply is accomplished.

o Providing vehicular and communica­tions maintenance and food service to all elements of the MI battalion TOe

and trains. .

o Providing vehicular, command, and lEW systems maintenance support to the deployed lEW company teams when their requirements exceed the capability or their assigned or at­tached service support elements.

The overall responsibilities of the XO and staff sections are as follows:
o XO. The XO supervises the staff and coordinates administrative and logisti­cal support fortha battalion. Nor­mally, the commander delegates the authority that the XO needs to direct the staff. While each staff officer has direct access to the commander, the XO is in.formed ofmatters that are addressed through direct coordination between the commander and staff
o 84. The 84 has staff responsibility for . the logistical support within the battal-. ion. He ensures the availability of supplies and services to all organic and supporting MI elements deployed throughout the division area and per­forms staff supervision of maintenance operations. The 84 coordinates with supported unit S4s for CSS of MI units operating in forward areas. .
The MI battalion 84 acts as the net control station for the battalion's administration and logistics net, which connects the trains with the forward deployed service support ele­ments with the lEW company team. The MI battalion trains staff elements communicate with the MI battalion TOC via landline telephone and FM radio and are subscribers in the divi­sion's general purpose RA'IT net as the MI battalion positions that RAIT system in the trains. Communications net diagrams are provided later in this chapter.
The TOe is the 0 center for the MI bat­
talion. Under the direction of the battalion
commander or battalion 83, it performs
asset management'of organic, attached,
DODDOA 013478

supporting intelligence and EW re­rces. It provides the MI battalion com­~der with the centralized management ~ssary to ensure rapid, efficient response lission requirements.
MI TOC Composition
he TOC is composed of the MI battalion
83. their staffs, and the TCAE. The C-E '£ officer is also located in the TOC. The )onsibilities of these sections are as )ws:
S2. The 82 is the principal intelligence
staff officer within the battalion and
serves as the security manager, over­
seeing the establishment of personnel
security procedures within the battal­ion. He is responsible for the estab­lishment of emergency destruction and evacuation procedures within the TOC to ensure the security of its SCI hold­ings. He ensures that battalion SCI management, handling, production, and dissemination are consistent with national-level regulations and local
assessing cr and IPW mission priori­
ties as received from the CM&D sec­
tion and recommends to the S3 those
specific tasks required by cr and 1PW
elements in GS of the division to
satisfy these missions.
o 83. The 83, as the battalion operations officer, has staff responsibility for operations, plans, and training in the battalion. He has staff responsibility for asset management for MI battalion resources, to include supporting or reinforcing MI assets and supervising battalion TOe operations.
The 83 section supports the S3 in the management of MI assets. It reviews missions received from the division CM&D section, develops specific tasks, and identifies the assets that can best accomplish these tasks. It prepares and transmits tasking instructionsless 8IGINT and EW taskings which are prepared by the TCAE. Responsibili­ties of the 83 section are shown in the following illustration.

Iinlalning continuous coordination with the CM&D secllon.
,eping abreast of the current battlefield situati!)n.
,veloping plans for the employment 01 assets based on projected division and brigade operatlons.
maging HUMINT. CI, ground surveillance, and SIGSEC (when attached from EAC) assets.
tablishing SIGINT and EW priorities for assel tasking by the TCAE.
,eplng the CM&D section advised of the current capablltties and operational status of battalion assets.
rmulating and transmitting asset tasking, Instructions, and messages.
Iintalning the current status of assets through operational status reports received from battalion elements.
mitoring lask accomplishment and adjusting tasking when required.
lintaining necessary management records and logs.

procedures established by the division S80. The 82 may be appointed as an alternate S80. When deployed for combat, the 82 enters and monitors the division operations and intelligence (0&1) net and maintains a current' intelligence 8ITMAP or overlay within the battalion Toe reflecting the cur­rent enemy situation as analyzed from reports monitored from the division's 0&1 net. The 82 also assists the 83 in
o TCAE. The TCAE manages 8IGINT and EW assets for the commander and 83 by providing technical control and tasking according to established 8IGINT and EW priorities directed by the 83. It recommends to the 83 the task organization and technical employment of 8IGINT and EW assets~ Other responsibilities of the TCAE are shown in the following illustration.
DODDOA 013479

Correlates signal Intercept dala to satisfy the dIvisIon's SIGINT needs.
Processes flrst-Ievellnterprelatlons, transcriptions, and analysis of Intercepted transmissions.
Provides SIGINT-produced reporls to the G2/DTOCSE lor further analysis and Integration with information trom

other sourcell.

Provides technical, control 01 SIGINT/EW systems.

Controls and diliseminates SCI within the guidelines outlined by nalionallevel regulations and local procedures
established by the divIsion SSO.

The TCAE is organized as shown in the following chart.
The TCAE headquarters supervises and coordinates TeAK operations in response to mission guidance from the MI battalion commander and 83. It works directly for the MI battalion 83.
The operations section assists the TCAE headquarters in directing SIGINT and EW operations within the battalion. The section tasks, controls, and coordinates C&J assets. It also directs and coordinates the efforts of the analysis team to ensure that signal intercept data is fully exploited. BasE!d on missions assigned by the 83 section, the


DODDOA 013480

~AE operations section develops and ues specific tasking for battalion SIGINT d EW assets. It recommends the task ranization of assets to satisfy division !uirements and to provide support to the gades and other subordinate units of the 'ision. It coordinates all SIGINT and EW ;ivities within the division to prevent necessary duplication, to attain selected [undancy, cuing, and mutual support; d to facilitate the technical hand off of !my elements as they move between sub­!inate unit's area of interest. Because of tasking, coordinating, and controlling
. ponsibilities, the section must be fully 'are of all SIGINT and EW activities ;hin the divisional area. To ensure that s information is available, the section eives, sorts, catalogs, and distributes all ssages, data, and reports received at the :AE. This includes technical information
Battalion resources.
Corps, EAC, and national systems.
Adjacent MI units.

Phe operations section develops and lintains the technical data bases needed ~xecute SIGINT and EW missions. It )vides technical control data to all battal­l and supporting SIGINT and EW assets, d as required, exchanges this data with ler echelons.
~he operations section processes signal ercept data received from battalion lets and data provided by adjacent units d the corps TeAE. It focuses the process­reffort on developing intelligence to isfy division needs and to add to the 1INT and EW technical data base. It )rdinates the effort of the three analysis ,ms (cryptanalysis, ELINT analysis, traf­analysis) by combining, correlating, and alyzing their products to develop a com­,te picture of enemy signal activity within : division area. When available, it also :ludes information and intelligence from jacent divisions, corps, EAC, national encies, and other services. Specific pra­Ising functions include-
Receiving, cataloging, and integrating all tactical reports (TACREPs),
SIGINT hard copy, tactical ELINT (TACELINT), DF, and other technical reports pertaining to the division area.
o Correlating emitter locations to deter­mine enemy force deployments.

o Correlating the SIGINT-derived OB with the data produced by the ASPS associating enemy emitters with spe­cific enemy units.

o Responding tv requests for technical support from SIGINT and EW ele­ments of the battalion with data devel­oped through integrated analysis.

o Formatting and releasing T ACREP and other reports.

o Analyzing integrated data and produc­ing necessary reports.

o Forwarding information and intelli­gence to the DTOCSE for further dis­semination and correlation with other information and intelligence.

o Forwarding SIGINT and EW asset status reports to the CM&D section.

The traffic analysis team processes enemy communications traffic to produce SIGINT and to develop a SIGINT and EW technical data base. It compiles the enemy C-E EOB from its own analysis and reports produced by other SIGINT and EW units. The team­
o Maintains historical data on enemy
communications, including net

o Examines intercepted traffic for
exploitable information.

o Develops enemy net diagrams t6
develop subordination within threat

o Isolates individual transmitters..­

o Correlates DF results to locate

o Exploits captured enemy CEOI.

The cryptanalysis team exploits enemy low-level operation and numerical codes and ciphers to produce intelligence and to add to the SIGINT and EW technical data base. The team-

o Maintains data on known enemy
cipher and code systems, including
jargon and brevity codes.

o Receives copies of all enciphered

o Performs cryptologic diagnostic tests to determine code sytems in use.

D Assists in deciphering intercepted

The ELINT analysis team processes non­communications signal intercepts for SIGINT information to construct the non­communications portion of the EOB and to add to the SIGINT and EW technical data base. Primary functions include-
D Maintaining technical and OB infor­mation on noncommunications emitters.
D Comparing and correlating intercept recordings with technical and collat­eral information to identify emitters by type and function.
The C·E staff officer supervises communi­cations operations within the battalion. He is the principal advisor to the battalion commander and staff on all communica· tions matters. He plans, coordinates, and supervises C-E training and recommends employment of battalion C-E assets. The C-E officer manages the battalion's COMSEC and ECCM programs.
In the MI battalion TOC, he monitors the status of communications in the battalion and plans for changing requirements as MI facilities and assets move on the battlefield.
MI BattalionTOe Functions
The MI battalion TOe is the division's focal point for the employment and control of MI battalion assets. Its functions are­
o Overall C2.

o C2 of MI battalion assets.

o Control of subordinate company

o Control of corps MI assets attached or under the OPCON ofthe division MI battalion.

o Provision of SIGINT and EW tasking to both GS and DS assets (through the TCAE).

D Provision of asset management and tasking for subordinate CI and IPW elements when deployed in GS of the division.
The MI battalion TOC exercises control over the subordinate elements of the battal­ion. It interfaces directly with lEW com­pany teams and forward deployed elements the QUICKFIX flight platoon (under the ' OPCON of the MI battalion), and corps MI elements attached or under OPCON of the divisional MI battalion. It directs and tasks subordinate assets according to missions assigned by the G2 and G3. It task orga­nizes MI battalion assigned and attached resources to accomplish lEW missions.
Planning and task organizing lEW assets ensures the most effective mix and employment of these assets to accomplish assigned missions and support the division commander's concept of the operation. The Ml battalion TOe plans and task organizes battalion resources according to the follow­ing principles of employment:
o Integrated support. lEW support. is provided to each echelon and inte­grated with combined arms operations. This support may be responding directly to that echelon, or may be indirect as a unit receives the product or information collected by assets in GS.

o Centralized control/decentralized exe­cution. Assets are positioned, allocated missions, and in the case of SIGINT and EW assets, provided supporting technical data by the MI battalion TOC. They execute these missions and rapidly report combat information_ Control is centralized in order to pro­vide the most effective support. Decen­tralized execution allows maximum flexibility in the execution of assigned tasks by subordinate elements.

o Direct dissemination to user. In any employment profile, a direct dissemi­nation capability is established so that time-sensitive information may be provided by the collector to the user with minimum delay. Communications channels will be established to ensure all targets which meet the support unit

DODDOA 013482

commander's attack priorities and target location error (TLE) req uire­m.ents are transmited immediately to maneuver and FSEs at the appropriate echelon.
o Not in reserve. While lEW assets may be echeloned to provide support in· depth, they are not placed in reserve. They are always placed where they can contribute most effectively to intel­ligen,ce collection and EW in support of the forces. Close coordination with other divisional and nondivisional elements is vital to effective lEW oper­ations. These include the DTOCSE, operational MI assets, and other TCAEs.
The continuous flow ofinformation
etween the TOe and the DTOC forms
le basis for all battalion operations.
hrough communications with the
ITOC the Mlbattalion TOC-­
o Receives mission tasking based on the IEW needs of the division commander.

o Reports combat information and inrel­ligence from intelligence and EW sources. Non-SIGINT and EW assets report mission results directly to the CM&D section using existing division communication systems when in GS of the division, for example, CI, IPW, or directly to the supported unit when DS or attached.

o Reports the operational status and disposition of MI personnel and equipment.

o Coordinates tasking and priorities.

o Reports accomplishment of assigned missions.

o Receives all-source intelligence pro· ducts, to include OB information pro­duced by the ASPS.

The MI battalion TOC communicates 'ith battalion elements to-
O Task assets. Tasking includes techni­cal, background, and associated information necessary to accomplish the task.
o Receive combat information and intel­ligence from SlGlNT and EW collec­tion elements for exploitation and
further reporting.
o Receive operational status reports. Deployed SIGINT and EW assets report their status directly to the TCAE. Other DS or attached assets report through brigade IEWSE, while non-SlGINT and -EW.GS assets (such as CI and IPW) report directly to the TOC.

o Coordinate, as required.

The TCAE is the focal point for the exchange of SIGINT and EW information in the division area. To ensure that infor­mation is available when and where needed, the TCAE must interface with­
o The corps TCAE.

o Adjacent division TCAEs.

o Adjacent allied EW units.

The TCAE relies on the corps TCAE for SIGINT and technical data base support. Corps provides technical data development by corps assets and by national systems. In turn, the division TCAE provides SIGINT technical data developed by division assets to the corps TCAE.
The TCAE also coordinates EW opera· tions and exchanges data with adjacent divisions. In some cases this may be with an allied division. Regardless of nation­ality, effective coordination is vital concern­ing ECM operations near a common boundary.
The TCAE performs technical tasking of all SIGINT and EW assets in the division, regardless of the standard tactical mission given lEW company teams. If a company team with EW assets is in DS of a brigade, the IEWSE at that brigade will act as the interface between the brigade and the MI battalion TOC. The IEWSE will relay bri­gade mission tasking to the MI battalion TOC, where the TCAE will add technical data and task the EW element through the company team headquarters.
Upon receipt of mission tasking from the CM&D section at the DTOC, the S3 evalu­ates the mission and assesses mission requirements with the assistance of the TCAE chief (for SIGINT and EW missions) or the 82 (for CI or interrogation missions).
DODDOA 013483

This assessment includes consideration of ongoing missions, availability of technical data, relative priorities, and the status of assets. For SIGINT and EW missions, the 83 then tasks the TCAE chief to perform the necessary planning and asset tasking. For Cl and interrogation missions, the 83 section performs asset tasking with the assistance of the 82 staff. The communica­tions nets used for this tasking and for reporting are described later in this chapter. The MI battalion TOe configuration, with the communications used to accomplish the tasking and reporting described above, is shown in the following illustration.
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

M577 2112 T
S2 S3



2 1/2 T 2 112 T 2 1/2 T
NETS: (11)
(1) Dlv cmd net (FM)
(2) Diy 011 net (FM)
(3) MI bn cmd net (FM)
(4) MI bn opS nel (FM)

CM&D tasking/reporting net (FM) (12)

C&J tasking/reporting nel1 (FM)

C'&J tasking/reporting net 2 (FM)

C&J lasklng/reportlng net 3 (FM)

SIGINT tasking/reporting net (FM)

QUICKFIX fit pit tasking/reporting net

C&J tasking/reporting net 1 (RATT)


C&J tasking/reporting net 2 (RATT)

C&J tasking/reporting net 3 (RATT)

SIGINT tasking/reporting net (RATT)

Corps SIGINT/EW net (RATT)~

Diy general purpose net (RATT)··

• Equipment and operators provided by MI brigade at corps .
• -Equipment and operators provided by division signal battalion. May bEi located at MI battalion trains tel facili­tate administration and logistical traffic. Operates at collateral SECRET level.
... In Mr battalions equipped with the TCAC-D system, two TCAC-O configured 5-ton vans will augment the four 2-1/2 ton vans (TCAE CA TM, TCAE EA TM, TCAE TA TM, and TCAE OPS SEC).

DODDOA 013484

The TCAE exercises technical control of e three C&J platoons, the SIGINT pro­ssing platoon, and the CEWI (QUICK­'X) flight platoon which is under OPCON the MI battalion. Based on the tasking of e S3, the TCAE adds technical data garding frequencies, call signs, schedules, ld equipment parameters to the mission, ld tasks the appropriate platoon.
The MI battalion commander, through e S3, maintains tactical control of all bat· lion elements that are not attached to di­sional units. Through close coordination lth the division G3, brigade 83, IEWSE at igades, and lEW company team com­anders, he exercises tactical control by ordinating and directing the movement of :W assets on the battlefield, DS and GS, to eet current and projected mission quirements. The S3 is the battalion com· ander's senior resource manager. While :; lEW elements coordinate movement of :sets with their supported brigade via the :WSE, they must also coordinate such ovements with the MI battalion S3, who lOWS the current status ofthe division's )erations and lEW requirements and Jerational constraints on technical sys­ms performance. The S3 section closely onitors the teardown, movement, and tup of assets via communications with
.e company team headquarters so as to ways be aware ofthe availability of lsets to meet short-notice requirements. :le TCAE supports the 83's execution of .cHcal control by recommending suitable tes· for SIGINT and EW systems based on chnical factors.
When the tactical situation requires ovement ofthe MI battalion TOe, the splacement ofthis e 2 facility is accorn· ished in two stages, starting with the lployment of a jump TOC. Part of the staff .the TOe moves to the selected new loca­m, while the remainder continue to con· 01 the operations of the battalion from the :isting facility.
When the first section arrives at the new !ation and initiates operations, the second Olge of the displacement occurs. The jump )C assumes control of the battalion's sets, and the staff at the main facility scontinues operations and shifts to the .'w TOC location. Risk is accepted in the
splitting of the battalion TOe but minim­ized through prior planning and rehearsal during training of jump TOC operations.
The jump TOe must include-
D Necessary personnel to provide for the tactical control of battalion IEW ele­ments while the primary TOe is moving.
o Essential communications to operate internal command nets, operations nets, and technical nets, (for example EW nets) and continue essential com· munications on external nets in which the battalion must maintain communi­cations (division command, CM&D tasking an.d reporting J:?et).

o Essential 8IGINT analysis capabili­ties for MI battalion collection capabilities.·

o Support and security personnel to sus· tain jump TOe operations during the teardown, movement, and re-esta}}. Hehment of the battalion's main TOC elements. The primary TOC maintains control of battalion elements until the jump TOe is in position and reports its preparedness to assume total control of the battalion's operations. Transfer of control is formally announced on all internal battalion communication net· works to avoid confusion and ensure continuity of operations.

With the large number of communication modes and means available within the bat­
.talion, care is taken to replicate mission essential networks when organizing the jump TOC. Where redundancy is present in the mode of communications during full TOe operations (FM, RA'IT, multichannel), the jump TOe is normally provided with one of these modes. For example, the coor· dination and exchange of technical SIGINTlEW information between the TCAE at corps and division is accom· plished over HF RATI and multichannel circuits. The jump TOe would normally be configured to include the corps MI brigade's HF RATT team providing TCAE·to·TCAE coordination, leaving the multichannel terminal and communications center at the main TOe for continued use during the dis· placment of the jump TOC.
When redundant modes ofcommunica·
nonnOA n1 ~LlA&:;

(3)~5/4T .









• Monitors only with R442 (AUX RCVR) .
•• Consolidated on one frequency,

tions do not exist, duplication of means between the main and jump TOCs must be configured. FM voice nets will be used at both TOGs as a means of control on inter· nal and external networks. By using call sign expanders, confusion is avoided in the identification of main and jump TOC ele· ments on the same voice networks. When duplicate nets cannot be configured due to the limited number of FM radio terminals, the commander or S3 may require that select elements double up on designated
nets. This may entail placing C&J platoons
1,2, and 3 on a single FM tasking and reporting net with the TCAE during the period of the jump TOC operations rather than three distinct nets normally used. Risk is minimized by rehearsal and planning, but a degree of risk does exist in continuity of operations when the use of a jump TOC is required by the battlefield situation. A type jump TOC for the MI battalion, heavy division, may be configured as shown below.
DODDOA 013486
The elements comprising the jump TOe mnaliy include the S3, select members of e S2 and S3 staff, the battalion e-E offi­rs, a carefully selected element ofthe ~AE, and minimal support personnel· quired to assist in the establishment of ejump TOe and maintain its security. Le jump TOe will normally include the ,'s 5/4-ton vehicle, communication and ,alyst shelters from the TCAE, and may elude one M-577 command track carrier. the jump TOC is expected to operate for
extended period oftime, an M-577 is eluded to take advantage ofits communi· tion and space capabilities. The con­lUed integrity of the battalion's main )C operation will normally dictate the ntinued use ofbattalion C&J and GINT platoon RATT networks and multi­annel communications at the main TOe ~ation. When the battalion S3 acts as the :e of the jump TOe, his designated sistant 83 will remain as the OIC of the
ain TOC. . Reconnaissance and selection of the jump )C location is accomplished by the S3 and e battalion e-E officer to ensure that erational communication requirements
socia ted with jump TOe operations are lly considered. Risks assumed with the jump include-J No duplication ofthe division 0&1 net
or MI battalion command net at the
jump TOe. Potential delays in SIGINT reporting or tasking ofC&J platoons while all platoons are subscriber on a single FM net.
1 No redundancy in means or modes of

J No redundancy on voice communica­tion for control, coordination, and reporting within the Ml battalion.
While these risks are present, they clearly tweigh the alternative oftaking the Ml ,ttalion TOC entirely out ofoperation dur­g a single move.
lEW COMPANY TEAMS \.S the assets ofthe MI battalion are task ~anized, lEW company teams are created. lese contain the mix of assets selected by e Ml battalion commander and his S3 to dorm a specific mission. When sufficient sets are operating in the same area, and
to enhance MI battalion internal command
and control of operational 'elements, a com­
pany team will be created to command
them. These company teams may be in DS
of a maneuver brigade or in GS ofthe divi­
sion. The designation of standard tactical
missions ofDS. GS, and so forth will be
determined by the battalion commander in
coordination with the desires ofthe division
commander and recommendations ofthe
G2 and G3. The means ofstating standard
tactical missions for lEW elements is
through annex A ofthe division or brigade
OPORD as well as the MI battalion
OPORD. No standard mix for a company
team exists, as they are structured to meet
the needs of a specific situation and based
on the factors ofMEIT-T. Examples ofthe
company teams will follow later in this

Company commanders assigned to the MI battalion respond directly to the battal­ion commander on all C2 matters. They respond to the battalion staff on matters within the staffs functional Rreas and delegated authority. They are responsible for the performance oftheir companies and exercise command authority over all organic and attached company elements, They ensure that company operating ele­ments are fully trained, equipped, and maintained to perform assigned missions. Commanders select the site for their com­pany CP and supervise the deployment of their elements. They inspect company ele­ments, correct deficiencies, and solve pro­blems that prevent the accomplishment of the unit'" mission or significantly reduce its effectiveness. They coordinate with appro­priate battalion staff elements for required support. Asset tasking for their subordinate elements orginates with the MI battalion TOC and its TCAE.
Company Team Missions
During lEW operations, MI assets are assigned standardtactical missions. Standard missions describe the lEW sup­port responsiblities for an MI unit. They also establish an MI unit's relationship to a supported force or another MI unit. Stan­dard tactical missions do not affect the organizational structure or the command relationship that results from that struc­
ture. The four standard tactical missions are­
DODDOA 013487

o GS.

o Reinforcing.

o GS reinforcing.

An MI element in DS of a specific unit will respond to the requirements of the sup· ported unit as first priority and then the priorities of the parent unit. The supported unit will identify its requirements through liaison elements, which will route them to the MI element for execution. As well as their first priority to respond to the requirements of the specified unit, DS ele­ments have asecond priority to respond to the needs of the force as a whole. A unit in DS has no command relationship with the supported unit, and remains under the 0 2 of its MI chain of command. The centralized technical management ofSIGINT opera­tions will be maintained by the MI battal­ion regardless of standard tactical missions assigned.
An MI element in GS will provide support to the force as a whole and not to any par­ticular subordinate unit. It responds to the
requirements of the force commander, as
tasked by the MI battalion TOe.
The lEW capabilities of MI units are extended by MI units reinforcing other MI units. Reinforcing MI units remain under the command of the MI commander assign­ing the reinforcing mission, while OPCON is retained by the MI unit being reinforced. The reinforcing mission permits increased support to specific maneuver units without giving up complete control of MI assets to the supported elements.
An MI element assigned a GS reinforcing mission is required to respond first to the lEW requirements of the forces as a whole and then to reinforce the activities of another specified MI element as a second priority. The GS reinforcing mission gives the force commander the flexibility needed to meet the changing tactical situation.
There are inherent responsibilities within each of the four standard missions. The fol­lowing matrix illustrates these responsibilities.

Standard tactical missions are not corn­land relationships. They clearly define the riorities of support, but in all cases C2 is ercised through the MI chain. A c~mpany ~am may be assigned any of the four ;andard tactical missions. The assets and lissions assigned to company teams will e determined by the MI battalion com­lander. He will make these determinations ased on the division concept of operation nd the guidance of the division com­lander, G2, and GS.
MI Battalion lEW Company Team CP
The lEW company team CP is where the )mpany team commander commands and lctical1y controls the unit's assets. It con­lsts of the company commander, first ser-, ear:t, company supply section, and the 3rVlce support element attached to the )mpany from HHSC during task organiza­on. T?e CP will also include the platoon peratIons center of the C&J platoon; which I made up of that platoon's headquarters 3ction and its T&A team_
From this CP, the location and status of le lEW company team's assets are moni­)red and controlled, C&J assets are tasked
. '
leir reports processed, efforts of CI Or
lterrogation assets (when attached to the

H:W company team) are directed and
laintenance resources are dispatched to
laximize asset availability.

Communications in the company team :P include nets dedicated to each ofthe ilnctional areas: MI battalion command nd operations nets, battalion administra­lve and logistics net, and the technical :&J tasking and reporting net. Information ; passed to the IEWSE at the brigade TOC' H team asset locations are coordinated ' hrough the IEWSE with the brigade S3' asking is received from the MI battalio~ 'OC and directed to specific assets for exe­utian; and maintenance or administrative ,eeds are coordinated. A deployed lEW CP, the IEWSE in a brigade
'OC, and part of the MI battalion TOC nth their communications links are shown n the following illustration.
Intelligence and Electronic
Warfare Support Element

An IEWSE is provided by the MI battal­ion S3 section to each of the three maneuver brigades. This element is vital to effective .~ MI support to the brigade. When an lEW ," " company team is deployed into a brigade AO, the IEWSE is attached to the company team. It assists the team commander in coordinating MI operations and support while in the brigade AO. It advises the bri­gade commander and staff on the integra­tion and use of MI assets to support the bri­gade's battles. The IEWSE is dependent on the brigade for logistical support. It is responsive to requirements levied by both the supported brigade and the supporting lEW company team. The IEWSE­
o Establishes liaison between the MI
battalion, lEW company team, and the
brigade commander and staff.

o Advises the brigade S2 and 83 on the
capabilities, limitations, and employ­
ment of supporting MI assets.

o Assists the brigade 82 and 83 in plan­
ning the use of supporting MI assets
and in preparing taskings.

o Coordinates with the company team
commander to ensure rapid response to

o Ensures rapid dissemination of col­
lected combat information from MI
elements, as directed by the brigade

o Coordinates with the MI battalion
TOC on all matters concerning MI
support to the brigade.

o Monitors the SIGINT and EW tasking
and reporting net for assets within the
brigade sector. . .

o Maintains communications with the
MI battalion TOe on the MI battalion
operations net.

o Ensures that deployed MI elements are
advised of friendly force maneuvers
that will affect their security.

'. ,..........;.

DODDOA 01 ~4Rq

DODDOA 013490
] Coordinates with the brigade staffto ensure availability of operational sites within the brigade sector and neces­sary support for MI team movement or routes within the brigade AO.
] Requests additional ~J.I support when required.
Company Team Examples
One example ofan lEW company team follows: SITUA TION: The guidance of the division
commander is to provide direct lEW support tothe maneuver brigades. The following organizational chart is a typical structure of a DS company team.

DODDOA 01 ~4q1
As this company team is in DS, the first priority of IEWSE assets is to lEW requirements of the brigade that it supports. Its second priority is to overall divisional requirements. The MI battalion TOe will manage brigade and division priorities and provide direct tasking to SIGINT and EW assets placed in DS of a force. The e&J pla­toon receives technical tasking from the TCAE. The IEWSE coordinates brigade SIGINT and EW requirements with the MI battalion TOe while non-SIGINT assets are tasked directly by the IEWSE or brigade. The IEWSE receives combat information directly from the assets of the company team. The maintenance assets that are task organized and attached to the company team would include communication, vehicu­lar, and lEW systems maintenance pe'rson­nel as all types of assets are attached to this lEW company team. In addition to its own assets, a DS company team is responsible for providing and coordinating administra­tive and logistical support to any GS lEW elements operating in the brigade area .. If there are no DS lEW company teams, GS assets operating in the brigade areas receive administrative and logistical sup­port from their parent company team and from brigade support elements based on prior coordination.
A second example of an lEW company team follows:
SITUATION: There is a single major. avenue of approach into the division area. The division commander wants to consoli­date most lEW assets to focus on that avenue of approach. A GS company team for this situation might be as shown in the following organizational chart.
f I I


I I "

sve SPT




DODDOA 013492
As this company team is in G8, its priori­ies are the lEW requirements ofthe divi-. ion. Its tasking comes from the MI battal­m TOe with technical tasking for the IGINT processing platoon and C&J pIa­)ons tasked from the TCAE. Combat lformation from company assets will be aported to the brigade IEW8E by the MI attalion TOC/TCAE. Assets of this com­any team may be deployed in more than ne brigade area. The company team head­uarters is responsible for administrative nd logistical support to company assets. .ogistical support from brigade CS8 ele­lents will be provided, based on prior lanning between the MI battalion 84 and :Ie brigade staff.
The air-land battlefield is dynamic, !thal, and places demands on tactical )mmunications systems not experienced in 1e past. Communications systems must be 3.pable of delivering the information to the )mmander that he requires for decision taking quickly and in a form that facili­ltes the decision-making process. Division )mmanders must be able to turn their ecision cycle inside that ofthe enemy_ :apid, reliable, and secure communications re the means by which this can be ccomplished.
Rapid and secure communications pro­ide a means for tasking and coordinating EW resources and for receiving intelli­ence, combat information, and targeting ata from these assets. It also provides a leans for divisions to receive information nd to disseminate intelligence, combat lforrnation, and targeting data to their ubordinate maneuver units and FSEs.
The following paragraphs describe the ommunications systems that support divi­ion lEW operations. It describes division EW communication requirements and the omplementary intelligence and EW nets of he division.
The communications system supporting ivision IEW operations is primarily com­'osed of multichannel, HF R:ATT, and VHF FM nets. Wire is used as a backup system for FM radio, and messengers are used for bulky items and large quantities of mes­sages. Retransmission stations extend the range ofFM radio communications. Intelli­gence nets are established at each level of command throughout the division.'
Divisions rely on multiple means of com­munications. Multichannel, wire, and other
.systems are integrated to complement each other. This provides maximum flexibility, reliability, redundancy, and responsiveness to commanders' lEW and operational needs.
The division signal battalion installs and operates three area signal nodes in the heavy division and two area signal nodes in the light division, providing multichannel communications between all division CPs and those ofM8Cs and most separate bat­talions. This multichannel system, operated on a common-user, dial-up basis, provides for secure voice, facsimile, and COMMCEN traffic within the division, and between the division, adjacent units, and the corps' major CPs. Multichannel also provides the circuit for communications between many of these CPs using the maneuver control system's tactical computer system (TC8), and tactical computer terminals (TCT) fielded under the site information genera­tion and materiel accountability (SIGMA) program. Multichannel communications serve the lEW system within the division as the primary means of reporting and dis­seminating from the brigade main.CP and higher. Encrypted at the SECRET lev~l, multichannel communications are further encrypted by crypto systems within the COMMCEN (ANITSC-58) for record copy SCI traffic between the division SSO, the MI battation TOe, and SSO sections within adjacent divisions and the corps. The two illustrations that follow show the heavy division's three nodes and the light divi­sion's two nodes multichannel communica­tions systems. These systems provide reli­able, redundant, secure communications for C2, operations, and intelligence and admin­istrative logistical traffic within the division.

DODDOA 01349~

DODDOA 013494

x x



DODDOA 013495

The HF RATT serves as the primary backup means of communications in the division. RATT provides a rapid method of transmitting lengthy and technical infor­mation at the collateral level. HF RATT requires greater power, more maintenance, and higher quality circuits than simpler means of communications such as wire or FM radio. Some SIGINT and EW elements located in the brigade AOs may have RATT capability; however, this capability is used for communications with the MI battalion TOe and TCAK There are no direct RATT links to the brigade from lEW elements operating within the brigade AO.
Radio Nets
Secure VHF FM and UHF communica­tion means are used for C2 purposes and to interface most of the lEW elements. These communications-especially the data systems-are,fast and can handle large amounts of traffic. They need a minimum of personnel and space for equipment and can be remoted or operated while on the move. They can also be integrated into compatible wire systems providing a radio wire inte­grated system. Retransmission of these secure communications increases their range for enhanced C2. Limitations include a high susceptibility to jamming or inter­ception and interference from atmospheric, terrain, man-made sources, and constraints on placement within tactical scrFs if not protected by security equipment. Ifsecurity equipment is not used, FM radio is the least desired means of communications. Critical command, control, communications, and intelligence (C3I) faciliti~ can be imme­diately identified by enemy SIGINT units and targeted by both lethal and nonlethal attack systems.
Wire communications (telephone) is a backup system' for FM radio. It is one of the most dependable means of communication and is more secure from unauthorized radio interception than radio if the line is guarded from point to point. It is not vulnerable to enemy electromagnetic dis­ruption or DF, although wire can he tapped (with or without a physical connection) if
the wire is not covered or guarded. Wire is
generally used to interconnect closely
located activities, to integrate radio with
wire, or to tap into existing commercial

One of the major disadvantages of wire is that it cannot be used under mobile condi­tions. It also requires more time, personnel, and equipment to install and maintain than radio. Even when it is lai~ properly, signal integrity diminishes over long distances. When it is not laid properly, it may be dam­aged by tracked and wheeled vehicles or be susceptible to wiretaps. It is also susceptible to sabotage by low·level agents and infiltrators,
Division's normally use wire for internal communications within their CF and assembly areas. MI and other units use wire to remote active COMJAM systems and other emitters from their actual locations for survival purposes when the situation permits.
Messengers Messengers provide a secure means of delivery for bulky items and large quanti­ties of message traffic. The use of mes­sengers is limited only by the availability of trained personnel, transportation, the tacti­cal situation, and the security clearance of the courier. Using messengers eliminates the 'electromagnetic signature and provides a means of communicating if electrical means are destroyed or their use is inadvis­able. Although messenger service is very flexible, it is slower than electrical trans­mission. Weather, 'terrain, and operational considerations also impact on the type and frequency of messenger service. Within the division, messengers are used regularly between CPs, trains, higher head­quarters, and subordinate elements. How­ever, depending upon the nature of the material and the combat situation, special messenger service may be performed. by lEW company team personnel or estab­lished by the supported battalion or bri­gade. MI and other units do not hav!! suffi­cient assets to establish a regular messenger service. Specific instances when this may be required is the evacuation of captured enemy documents for immediate exploitation at higher headquarters. Mes­senger operations are described in FM 24-1.
DODDOA 013496

Retransmission Stations
Iished through two division FM nets and one HF net-RATT: the command net, .j:
The division signal battalion provides operations and intelligence (0&1) net, and~adio retransmission stations within the general purpose RATT net. The division­
iivision AOs to extend the range of FM ~adio communications. These retransmis­o Command net (FM) (see the following .ion stations overcome radio LOS and illustration) is used by the division :ange constraints. commander and G3 for tactical infor­
mation control, coordination, and
reporting of tactical information: The
DIVISION lEW COMMUNICATIONS Ml battalion TOC monitors this net
continuously to receive command task­

Division Nets
ings, direction, and information.
The division VHF FM communications .inks to the subordinate elements are estab-o 0&[ net (FM) provides the division

DODDOA 013497

with a means of receiving and dissemi· nating 0&1 information. The division G2 uses this net to receive information and intelligence developed by the brio gades and to receive requirements and requests for additional lEW support. The MI battalion 82 is a subscriber on the division 0&1 net; he reports infor­mation to and receives intelligence from the division G2 and other sta­tions on this network relative to the conduct of current intelligence opera­tions. It is.also used by the eM&D sec­tion to disseminate intelligence pro­ducts and to receive reports ofcollected information from divisional elements.
The MI battalion TOe uses this net to monitor reported information and to receive intelligence disseminated from the DTOC and tactical CPo The divi­sion 0&1 net is shown in the following illustration.

DODDOA 013498



*When in DS to the brigade. ~~When under brigade control. *:Jt..j(: Other stations as required.
General purpose HF net (RATT) pro­vides backup communications for the dissemination of intelligence and com­
bat information within the division. The DTOe station, installed and oper­ated by the division signal battalion, is used by the G2/CM&D section to dis­seminate intelligence and combat information to all subscriber stations. The MI battalion TOe station, also installed and operated by the division signal battalion, is used to monitor traffic on the net, report combat infor­mation and intelligence collected by MI assets, and transmit and receive
administrative and logistical reports.
This net is operated at the collateral
SECRET level only.
Brigade Nets
The brigade intelligence net (FM) (see the following illustration) provides a combat information, intelligence, communications, coordination, tasking, and dissemination link from the brigade S2 to subordinate combat, combat support, and supporting MI elements. When GSR/remotely employed sensors (REMS) teams are retained under brigade control, they too may operate in the brigade net; however, the teams normally
nonnOA n1 ~Ll.aa
are tasked by the BTF S2s and operate in their subordinate unit nets. Reports gener­ated by these GSRIREMS teams are trans­mitted directly to their controlling unit CPo
CM&D Net (FM)
The CM&D tasking and reporting net (see the following illustration) is the primary channel for passing mission tasking to the MI battalion TOC and for the reporting of analyzed SIGINT. This NET is established at the SCI level. All mission tasking is passed from CM&D to the MI battalion S3 section. The TCAE monitors the net and is prepared to execute SIGINT and EW mis· sions on order from, and with guidance from, the S3. The TCAE uses this net to report its SIGINT product to CM&D at the SCI level when COMMCEN record traffic is not rapid enough.
Weather net (RATT)
The division is a subscriber in the corps

corps SSO net. The MI brigade at corps provides the equipment and personnel for the operation of this net within thB division which provides SCI RA'IT communications between the division SSO and corps as a backup to the normal SSO COMMCEN multichannel circuit. .
Corps CM&D Net (RATT)
An SCI net connects the CM&D section at the DTOC with its counterpart at corps. This net is used to request assistance from corps for collection requirements that are beyond the range of division sensors and to receive intelligence summaries and other reports from corps. The equipment and operators for the operation of this Ilet are provided by the MI brigade at corps.
There are three types of communications used in the MI battalion: multichannel, RATT, and radio (FM).

weather net. The staffweather officer uses this RA'IT net to receive current data for weather forecasts. This data is incorporated into the IPB process. Equipment and opera­tors for this HF RATT net are assigned to the division HHC.
Special Security Officer Net (RATT)
The division is also a subscriber in the
The division's MI battalion employs mul­tichannel communications for C2, coordina· tion, and reporting purposes. In support of the C2 function, multichannel-based voice, facsimile, and TCT traffic between the MI battalion TOC, IEWSE sections at brigade CPs, the G2 or G3, and DTOC allow for
DODDOA 013500

Dordination of mission tasking, clarifica­.on ofpriorities for MI battalion opera­.ons, and the tactical control and coordina· ~on needed by the MI battalion commander nd S3 in planning for subsequent MI bat­:ilion operations or the displacement of EW company teams within the division nd brigade AOs. It is, in a sense, an open, eHable communications circuit allowing ccess to any subscribing station for C2 and oordination purpOSes. The MI battalion ses multichannel-based COMMCEN traf­ic as the principal means of communica­ions for the receipt of tasking from the )TOC and reporting to the DTOC G2 the esults ofSIGINT collection. The :OMMCEN (AN ITSC-58) at the MI battal­
ion TOC uses internal encryption systems to encipher the information provided in SIGINT reporting at the SCI level. Similar
traffic is transmitted between the MI battal­ion TOC/TCAE and the corps MI brigade TOCITCAE for technical coordination in support ofSIGINT operations. Within the MI battalion TOe, multichannel circuits are used for voice and facsimile communi· cations with necessary stations within the division. Multichannel access is extended to the MI battalion's logistical trains via rout­ing through the battalion switchboard by wire. Once this routing capability is estab­lished, coordination of administrative and logistical information with division and brigade counterparts is provided for the MI

battalion's Sl and 84 sections.
In the MI battalion, RA'IT is used for record traffic communications to SIGINT and EW assets. These nets pass formatted tasking messages and reports of intercepted information. RATT systems of the MI battalion deploy to the battalion TOe and well forward with each ofthe three C&J and the SIGINT processing pIa· toons. RATT nets established internal to the MI battalion operate on a full duplex basis.
Radio (FM)
FM voice communications are critical to C2 within the MI battalion. They link the battalion TOC with lEW company teams and to the lEW assets on the battlefield. FM nets in the MI battalion also connect the IEWSE at the brigades to the MI battalion to ensure it receives the lEW requirements of the brigades in a timely manner.
Command or Operations Net (FM). The MI battaliOI1 command or operations net is used by the MI battalion commander for C2 and coordination purposes. Stations found within this net are as shown of page 3·38.
Operations Net (FM). The MI battalion operations net (FM) (see the following illus· tration) is the principal operations net
. in.ternal to the MI battalion used for asset tasking, coordination, and tactical control of deployed lEW elements.

This net is used far asset tasking of lEW company teams and GS CI and interrogation teams. Reporting by CI and interrogation teams to the DTOC is accomplished lIsing division common-user communications (for example. multichannel and general purpose RATT systems).
DODDOA 013502
tministative and Logistics Net. The I battalion administrative and logistics ,t (see the following illustration) is used to ordinate combat service support require­ents internal to the MI battalion. Its imary subscribers are the maintenance of the battalion's HHSC and service pport platoons or elements found in each the operating companies ofthe MI lttalion.
The service support platoons or elements of the MI battalion's operational companies will deploy with their parent company headquarters task reorganized as an lEW company team. Collocated with the com­pany team headquarters section, the service support platoon or element provides the communications with the MI battalion trains for the company team commander.

• assets attached to C&J Co
.. assets attached to EW Co ..* assets attached to I&S Co
C&J Tasking and Reporting Nets (FM and RATT). The MI battalion C&J tasking and reporting nets 1, 2, and 3 (FM) (see the following illustration) are used for SIGINT and EW tasking and reporting and for pass­ing technical data to the deployed C&J pla­toons. Due to the distances between sta­tions, a retransmission capability may be required for effective FM communications. The IEWSE at the brigade CP monitors the C&J tasking and reporting net for elements in the brigade sector to provide rapid report­ing of combat information and intelligence derived from 8IGINT to the brigade 82.
In addition, C&J tasking·and reporting nets (RATT) connect the TCAE to eaeh C&J platoon for record traffic_ Each C&J pla­toon terminates a TCAE net control station (NCS) HF RATT net. A separate full duplex net exists for each C&J platoon.
Upon receipt of missions from the 'I'CAE via the FM or RATT tasking and reporting nets, the T&A team will task subordinate teams of the platoon via the C&J platoon's internal tasking and reporting net. Each of the three C&J platoons operates such a net (see illustration on page 3·42).



...... 2

1.· REXMSN deployed as required.
2. IEWSE monitors C&J tasking/reporting net with auxiliary re:.eiver of ANIVRC-47/89.
.,,; .
DODDOA 013504
.,,' :~

rGINT Tasking and Reporting Nets lowing illustration) connect the TCAE to ~TT and FM). SIGINT tasking and the SIGINT processing platoon analysis porting nets (RATT and FM) (see the f01-section for record traffic and operational

All elements shown at diagram c~nter are collocated.

Secondary AN/TSQ-114 MeS is collocated with an adjacent C&J platoon HO/CP for GRC-122 backup RATT communications with the TCAE when mission and terrain requirements permit. Secondary MCS assumes NCS role to control DF operations upon displacem?nt of primary MCS or loss of GRC-122 RATT communications to primary MCS.

AN/MSQ-l03 team pack outstations receive manual OF instructions from SIGINT processing platoon and analysis team on internal FM net.

:~ '~.
_ ". r
DODDOA 013505
taskings and reporting. The primary net, RATT, is wired to the primary MCSofthe TRAILBLAZER system to permit auto­matic transmission of DF reports from the computer of the primary MCS to the TCAE. The FM net is used only when the HF RATT network is inoperable or when a backlog of operational traffic exists.
UHF data links connect the TRAILBLAZER MCS to the outstations. A data link will also connect the noncommun­ications intercept teams when upgraded equipment is fielded.
QUICKFIXFlight Platoon Tasking and ReportingNet. The flight platoon operations section is tasked by the TCAE for QUICKFIX missions. Mission tasking and technical data to support this tasking is provided to the platoon operations center over the QUICKFIX flight platoon tasking and reporting net (see following illustra­tion) prior to mission execution to allow maximum operational time by SIGINT and EW operations while aloft_ SIGINT and EW operators within the QUICKFIX aircraft provide immediate tactical reporting to only those priority collection tasks stated in the tasking message using on-board UHF and VHF communications systems netted with the TCAE. For data collected of a general information and intelligence nature, reports are normally provided at the conclusion of the QUICKFIX mission to allow maximum time for collection operations. As a general rule, when QUICKFIX SIGINT and EW operators are communicating reports while aloft they must cease collection operations.
Retransmission Stations. Communica­tion between deployed teams, platoon head­quarters, company team headquarters, bri­gade IEWSE, and the MI battalion TOC are vital to maintain continuous support to the division and brigades. Because of thl~ dis­tance and terrain features between ele­ments, retransmission of communications may be necessary. Three VHF FM retrans­mission stations are provided within the MI

DODDOA 013506
.ttalion so that battalion elements can mmunicate at extended ranges or avoid 'rain obstructions. The battalion com­mder must decide where this capability 11 best serve the needs of the battalion.
fhe MI battalion uses wire to communi­te between elements internal to the ~AE, between elements located at the bat­:ion TOe, and between the battalion Toe d trains. The battalion wire system also ;erfaces with the division's multichannel stem providing access to other units thin the division multichannel system. le MI battalion's main switchboard is !ated at the MI battalion TOC. The
COMMCEN, AN/MSC-31, is positioned and manned by the MI battalion's communica­tions platoon to serve as the battalion's main integrating eOMMCEN. It provides access from the internal SB22 switchboard to the division main switchboard through the d.ivision multichannel system by way of its interface with the ANITRC-145 (V) radio terminaL The wire system in the following diagram depicts the wire lines laid to and from the battalion's main switchboard con­necting sections and elements ofthe battal­ion. The headquarters section of the HH8C· provides an 8B22 switchboard for use at the battalion trains locations. This switch­board, positioned within the trains opera­tions center established by the 84 and XC, is connected by wire or cable to the MI bat-


SP,'\RE BN $2'
I&S co HQ' TCAE'
Unless deployed

Located at the battalion TOe

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talion main switchboard at the TOC or to the nearest unit switchboard. It provides access to the division multichannel system to permit communications between the bat­talion trains and other CSS organizations and staff within the division. The TCAE employs an SB22 switchboard for telephone communications int~mal to the TCAE.
Corps SIGINT and EW Net (RATT)
The TCAE at the MI battalion TOC is a subscriber in the corps SIGINT and EW net. This SCI net allows for the exchange of technical data between the division TCAE, corps TCAE, and the TCAEs of adjacent divisions. The MI brigade provides the equipment and operators for this net.

Command and control oflEW elements in the light, airborne, and air assault divisions is similar to that described in the heavy division, with the same facilities, CPs, and staff responsibilities. The different employment of these divisions and their reliance on corps and its MI brigade for lEW support to overcome a lack of some LEW capabilities will, however, often create significantly different 0 2 needs and com· munication requirements.
In a LIC, these divisions may operate with the brigades fighting three separate battles in different locations. lEW company teams may be required to operate in DS of these brigades instead of as to the division.
.If distances between brigades were great, the lEW company teams would need to operate independently without technical data and control from the MI battalion TOe. Under such situations, the role ofthe MI battalion TOC would alter, and if neces­sary, its TCAE would augment the T&A teams in each C&J or voice collection pla­toon for technical control of SIGINT and EWassets.
The airborne and air assault divisions may be employed with one brigade securing landing or drop zones for later insertion of the other brigades. In such cases, an aug­mented DS lEW company team would deploy with the first brigade, with special provisions for support by all available divi­sion lEW elements (that is, QUICKFIX) and corps lEW assets such as·side-Iooking airborne radar (SLAR), GUARDRAIL, and QUICKLOOK. Most of the corps lEW effort may be dedicated to a single maneuver bri­gade, with one lEW company team being the focal point for the coordination of this support. As the battle progresses and more maneuver and lEW eJements are deployed to the battle area, periodic realignment of the standard tactical missions initially assigned to IEW assets and the communi­cations supporting these assets may be required. The MI battalion commander and 83 must constantly monitor the status of assets, division operations, and lEW requirements and shift assets and adjust asset tasking to best meet the division's needs.
Ifthe division consolidates into a single, sustained operation in a LIC environment or builds to a full division force in an air­borne or air assault operation, the employ· ment of, and C2 procedures for, lEW ele­ments will become more closely aligned with standard deployment concepts· asso­ciated with the heavy division.
The light division lacks a ground-based jamming capability, but has a much greater HUMINT capability than the heavy divi­sion. A type lEW company team in a light division which may be placed in DS of a brigade could be organized as shown in the following illustration .
lEW company teams in the airborne and air assault divisions are similar to those in the heavy division, lacking only heavy ground-based jammers. In sustaiped ground operations, all of these divisions rely on augmentation from the corps MI brigade for ELINT, DF, and ECM support. lEW assets from the TEB of the MI brigade may be at­tached as part of the lEW company team.

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•• .'.

-=-.J L..:.....I






1 X GRC-122
1 X VRC-49
Task organized maintenance team from HHSC. Includes special maintenance augmentation to maintain unique attached equipment.

May Include augmentees 1rom TCAE if operating separately.

May include additional special comm when required (ARC-164. GUARD~AIL CTT. and so forth).

·46 ".-
Preparation for Combat
Division JEW operations are dynamic. They change as the battle progresses. The division commander, through his require­ments, places demands on the system to start the LEW process. He uses the products of the system to plan and direct all phases of the air·land battle. He provides guidance to the staff to support bis concept of the operation for the employment of the lEW system and to ensure it is integrated with division combined arms operations. Together, the division commander and the lEW staff accomplish the estimating, deci­sion making, planning, and ordering pro­cess which puts the system in motion, focusing on critical requirements and keep­ing it aligned with priorities.
This chapter describes how the lEW sys­tem operates and how lEW operations are planned, directed, and coordinated.

The division commander initiates lEW planning when he receives a mission from the corps or he assumes a mission on his . own initiative. The G2 might recommend an operation to exploit a tactical opportu­nity detected through intelligence. Initially the commander and staff exchange avail­able information that will affect the accom­plishment of the mission.
The G2 provides information and intelli­gence about the current enemy situation and the AO. The G2 and G3 provide infor­mation about the current status and capa­bilities of divisional units, including the MI battalion.
The commander analyzes the mission to identify assigned and implied tasks, the corps commander's concept of the opera­tion, and the constraints that the corps commander has placed on the operation. Constraints might include such things as time, radio silence, and in some cases, the use of ECM. Based on this analysis, the commander restates the division mission­clearly and concisely-clarifying the overall purpose of the operation and the specific tasks to be accomplished. The restated mis­sion becomes the basis for estimates, plans, and orders.
The commander provides initial planning guidance to the staff with the restated mis­sion. Using this planning guidance the staff prepares or revises their estimates. It provides a common start point for staff planning. The commander continues to provide planning guidance throughout an operation. The nature and frequency of planning guidance will vary with the mis­sion, situation, planning time available, and length of time the commander and staff have worked together. Planning guidance will often include-
D Specific courses of action to consider.
o Critical information and intelligence

o Special IPB considerations.

o ECM targets and objectives.

o OPSEC considerations.

o Deception opportunities.

When time permits, the division staff usually develops formal estimates for each operation. These estimates are dynamic; the staff continuously changes them during the

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